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Full text of "Biographical and historical record of Vermillion County, Indiana : containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States from Washington to Cleveland, with accompanying biographies of each; a condensed history of the state of Indiana; portraits and biographies of some of the prominent men of the state; engravings of prominent citizens in Vermillion county, with personal histories of many of the leading families, and a concise history of the county and its villages"

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Gc  977.201  V59b 

Biographical,  and  historical. 
RECORD  OF  Vermillion 
Co.,  IND. 


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VEEMILLKM  COUITY.  mPIAIA 


CoxT.viNiNG  Portraits  of  all  the  Presidents  of  the  United  States  from  Washington  to 
Cleveland,  with  accompanying  Biographies  of  bach;  A  Condensed  History  of  the 
State  of  Indiana;  Portraits  and  Biographies  of  some  of  the  Prominent 
Men   of   the   State:     Engravings    of    Prominent    Citizens     in 
Vermillion  County,  with   Personal  Histories  of  many 
OF  THE  Leading  Families,  and  a  Concise  His- 
tory OF    the    County    and    its 
Cities  and    Villages. 


THE  LEWIS  PUBLISHING  COMPANY' 


113  Adams  Street,  Chicago 


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PRESIDENTS  OF  THE  UMTED 

STATES. 

George  Wasliington 

9 

John  Adams 

14 

Thomas  Jefferson 

20 

James  Madison 

2() 

James  Monroe 

^:ri 

John  Quincy  Adams 

:;8 

Andrew  Jackson 

4'i 

Martin  Van  Buren 

ry^ 

William  Henry  Harrison 

r,(i 

John  Tyler 

uu 

James  K.  Polk 

Gl 

Zachary  Taylor 

G8 

Millard  Fillmore 

78 

Franklin  Pierce 

72 

James  Buchanan 

80 

Abraham  Lifleoln  

84 

Andrew  Johnson 

m 

Ulysses  S.  Grant 

90 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes U>2 

James  A.  Garfield W-i 

Chester  A.  Arthur 11:1 

Grover  Clereland 117 

HISTORY  OF  IM)1AXA. 

Former  Occupants 120 

Pre-Historic  Uacos 12:! 

Exploration  by  the  Whites    . .  .12."> 

National  Policies 120 

Expeditions  of  Colonel  George 

Pv.  Clark 127 

Government  ol  the  Northwest.. 129 
Expeditions    of   St.   Clair    and 

Wayne 132 

Organization  of  Indiana  Terri- 
tory    133 

Governor  Harrison  and  the  In- 
dians  134 

Civil  Matters 130 


General    Review 

Ornani/ati<in  of  the  State 

Imliana  in  the  Mexican  War  .. 

Iiuliana  in  the  War  for  tlie 
Union ^ 

Financial   

Internal  Improvements 

Geology 

Agricultural 

Eduraticmal  

Benevolent  and  Penal  Institu- 
tions      


PROMINEJiT     MEN    OF 
INDIANA. 


Oliver  P.  Morton 
Thomas  A.  llendric 
Schuyler   Colfax... 
James  D.  Williams. 
Robert  Dale  Owen. 


^^--f-> 


"^ 


History  of  Vermillion  County,^- 


BIOGRAPHICAL    SKETCHES. 


Anderson,  N.  C. 
Anderson,  P.  Z 
Andrews,  John. 
Asbury,  James . 
Aye,  H.  H...  . 
Aye,  Henry. . .". 


Bales,  Caleb  . . . 
Bales,  Caleb  . . .  . 
Bales,  Robert  . . 

Bales,  W.  F 

Bales,  William.. 
Beauchamp,  J.  ^ 

Beck,  A.  J 

Beckman,  L.  H 
Bell,    D.  W 


Bell,  T.  W 

Bell,  W.  M 

Benefiel,  W.  H.... 

Bertolet,  J.  R 

Betson,  A.  J 

Betson,  Hamilton . 

Bilsland,  J.  E 

Bilsland,  John 

Bishop,   F.  M 

Bishop,  L.  O 

Blair,  James 

Bogart,  J.  H 

Bogart,  W.   C 

Bowman,  Moses  .  . 

Bremer,  W.  P 

Brindlev,   Eli 

Brindley,  .)i>hu    ... 

Burns,    Jusepli 

Burnside,  J.  11. .  .  . 


4(!.") 

Cade,  Henry 

...498 

.-)l(i 

Cady,  II,   S 

....4119 

;!(ii 

Camiiliell   .] .  (i 

...   340 

407 

Caniii.rk,  J    F 

....374 

:M7 

earmark,  W  ,  P 

....410 

410 

Carter,  M.  11 

....323 

:i24 

Carither.s  Jonathan 

....482 

2:« 

Casebeer,  Hezekiah 

....514 

.512 

Casebeer,J.W 

. .   .  :J7 1 

320 

Gates,  W.H 

....401 

518 

Clark,  John 

....390 

400 

Clover,   J.  A 

. .  .  37.5 

410 

Coffin,   S.  W 

. . .  .:i88 

.118 

Coil,  Lewis 

...4.53 

:V2:i 

Collett,  John   

....311 

:li(7 

Collett,  John 

....441 

.-.10 

Collett,  Josephus 

....4-17 

.■■■.-■■■-■-■^■-■-■-■-■-■^■-■-■-■-■-■■■■'■■■■^■-■'-■■'^ 


CoUett,  Joseplius 450 

Collelt,  S.  S  309 

Collett,  S.  S  877 

Couley,  H.  H 347 

Conley,  Jeiemiali 488 

Combes,  F.  C 439 

Codk,  W.  C 459 

Orabb,  Ct.  A 362 

Craig,  R.  A 406 

Curtis,  Philo 513 

Ciisliman,  Tliomaa 321 

D. 

Dallas,  Hugh 354 

Davis,  C.  S 459 

Davis,  F.  M 332 

Davis,  Robert 501 

Davis,  S.B 267 

Downing,  Decatur 319 

Diingan,  B.  F 277 

Dunlap,  J.   R 495 

Duzan,  James 453 


Eaton,  H.C 

Eclwanls,  G.  W 

515 

398 

4G2 

Elder,  J.  A 

Ellis,  J.  E 

333 

413 

Finney,  D.  TV 340 

Flaugher,  E.  A 363 

Fleshraan,  Amos 395 

Foland,  J.  A 516 

FoncaDon,Tilgliman 473 

Ford,  John 402 

Formau,  Amos 465 

Fortner,W.  P 498 

Fox,  J.  L 491 


Gessie,  R.  J 336 

Gibson,  O.  15 452 

Goft;  Philander 388 

Goodwin,  L.  L 402 

Goodwin,  W.  A 407 

Gouty,  David 438 

(irimes,  H.  L 417 

Grimes,  John 485 

Groves,  W.  C 455 


H. 


Hall,  S.J 475 

Hall,  W.  1 433 

Hamilton,  W.  iM 449 

Harkness,  Philo 412 

Harlan,  Eldridge 323 

llarlin,   John 406 

Harrison,  Benjamin 318 

Harrison,  ('.  B 389 

Harris  n,  Robert 477 

Harrison,  T.  II   363 

Haworth,  G.  F 499 


Haworth,  J.  P 422 

Hedges,  C.  C 511 

Hedges,  Noah 385 

Helt,  Daniel 414 

Helt,  Hiram 510 

Helt,  Michael 390 

Henderson,  John     340 

Henderson,  Josiali 493 

Hendricks,  W.  J 505 

Herbert,  W.  J 397 

HighfiU,  John 3!i!) 

Hill,  Judge  A 51:. 

Hollingsworlh,  Simeon I^H 

Hoobler,  John . 

Hood,  T.  S 496 

Hood,  W.   B 5i)8 

Hood,  W.   H 451 

Hopkins,  A.  R 485 

Hopkins,  G.  R 436 

Hosford,  M.  G 346 

Hosford.  Philo 3.53 

Hosford,  W.  N 410 

Houchin,  Jesse    373 

Houchin,  J.  S 517 

Hughes,  Ehud 492 

Hughes,  William 433 

Hunt,  Harvey 478 

I. 

lies,  Jacob 333 

lies,  J.  B 339 

J. 

Jackson,  G.  AV 451 

Jackson,  J.  C 35 1 

Jacobs,  Nathan 4!57 

James,  Edmund 507 

James,  H.  B 407 

James,  H.  H 466 

James,  S.  R 411 

James,  W.  A 373 

James,  Z.  D 361 

Jarvis,  J.  W 497 

Jenkins,  J.  M 494 

Jones,  Wiley 455 

Jones,  William 519 

K. 

Kearns,  J.  S 413 

Kerns,  A.  H 519 

Kerns,  W.  F 404 

Keyes,  C.  F 430 

Keyes,  O.  M 480 

Kibby,  Thomas 358 

Kiuderman,  Alexander 332 

Knowles,  C.  B 343 

Knowles,  J.  E  348 

L. 

Lacey,  E.  A 344 

Lamb,  Elias 386 

Lamb,  I.  R 403 

Langston,  J.  F 380 

Leilon,  N.  T 383 

Lewis,  Joshua 351 

Lewis,  J.  C 396 


Lewis,  J.  J 377 

Lindsey,  John 379 

Linn,  J.  H :i,'5 

Little,  R.  P :;7s 

Lusadder,  Homer .."■ : 

Lynn,  J.  C 4-'>^ 

M. 

Mack,  A.  L  409 

Mack,   Krastus 503 

-Malnue,  .Mrs.  Sarah 383 

-Malone.S.W 499 

jMarlin,  Aaron 417 

Matthews,  Claude 489 

McBelh,   David 370 

McFall,  W.   D 466 

McKnight,  L.  A 437 

McNeill,  6.  H 317 

McNeill,  John 316 

McNeill,  J.  R 314 

Merriman,  P.  M 413 

Metzger,  Rezin 339 

Miller,  Jacob 425 

Mitchell,  T.J 462 

Mitchell, T.J 477 

Mock,  G.  L 403 

Moflatt,  R.  D 518 

Moore,  Joseph 481 

Morehead,  J.  A 428 

Morey,  W.  L 351 

Morgan,  B.  H 444 

Myers,  T.  B 514 

N. 

Nebeker,  Henry 474 

Nebeker,  Seymour 48:1 

Newlin,  A.  R 34.". 

Nichols,  J.  M 157 

Nichols,  T.  J 4(11 

Nichols,  William 3.-)il 

Nixon,  R.  H 381 

Nolan,  Madison 431 

Norris,   John 'iurt 

O. 

Osborn,  James 498 

Osmou,  J.  B  479 

P. 

Parrett,  J.  W 356 

Pearman,   Adam 510 

Peer,  John  383 

Peer,  J.  L 486 

Peer,  Robert 503 

Peters,  J.  C 470 

Peters,  J.  L 475 

Pinson,  A.  J .507 

Pinson,T.  P .504 

Ponton,  J.  T 359 

Ponton,  O.  P.  M 355 

Porter,  W.  L 343 

Porter,  W.  W 380 

Potts,  C.  P 314 

Pritchard,  Elias  313 


R. 

Skidmore,  John 

509 

Walter,  Frederick 

...334 

Skidmore,  Josiah 

378 

Walthall,  T.E 

..505 

Ranger,  D.  A 

469 

Skidmore,  T.J 

387 

Walthall,  W.B 

..443 

Redman,  J.  W 

489 

Skidmore,  William 

376 

Ward.C.  W.... 

..338 

Reed,  D.  A 

873 

Skidmore,  W.  U 

399 

Washburn,  J.  Q 

..341 

Reed,  L.  H 

5^0 

Slaer,  William 

374 

Watkins,  H.  T 

..424 

Reeder,  J.W 

403 

Smith,  David 

461 

Watson,  G.  L 

..454 

Reynolds,  G.  H 

Rbeuby,  William 

Rhoads,  M.  G 

SUO 

415 

327 

Smith,  James 

Smith,  J.  M 

Smith,  J.  L 

437 

427 

254 

Watson  G.  W 

407 

503 

Wells,  George 

..488 

Rice,  Isaac 

474 

Sparks,  E.  G 

439 

Wells,  Horace 

..485 

Rice,W.  Y 

460 

Sparks,  G.  B 

454 

Whipple,  L.R 

..342 

Richardson,  John 

488 

Spotswood,  E.  T 

467 

Whitcomb,A.  L 

..470 

Ricliardson,  J.  B 

381 

Sprouls,  Andrew 

479 

Whitcomb,  John 

457 

Riley,  F.  M 

364 

Staats,  J.  H.'. 

512 

White,  J.  A 

..509 

Roberts,  James 

359 

Stab),  J.  U 

481 

White,  R.M 

.  .387 

Rodgers,  Elisha 

Rogers,  J.  O 

497 

Stokes,  R.  B 

328 

Whited,  J.  W 

327 

Strain,  D.  E 

422 

Whitted,  Enoch  

..400 

333 

Stullz,  G.  W 

Sturn,  Henry 

424 

349 

Wilson,  J.  H 

Wood,  William 

..463 
.408 

Rufker,  R.  M 

487 

Rudy,  M.J 

Runyan,  Daniel  

325 

350 

Stutler,  J  C 

401 

Wright,  F.M 

Wright,  L.   a 

403 

Swinehart,  R.  H 

372 

..506 

Rush,  Fred 

338 

Switzer,  Wesley 

434 

Wright,  John 

..315 

Rush,  James 

314 

Wright,  Milton 

..484 

Russell,  William 

501 

391 

456 

T. 

480 

Wright,  William 

392 

8. 

Z. 

Zeruer,  Adam 

Samuels,  S.  H 

Thompson,  Thomas  

Tillotson,  D.  G 

Tillotson,  G.  B 

375 

476 

478 

470 

Sanders,  J.  A 

335 

517 

Tipton,  Captain 

511 

Saxton,  G.  W 

Todd,  S.N 

464 

GENERAL  HISTORY. 

Scott,  L.  S 

418 

U. 

Scott,  M.W 

333 

Introductory 

..133 

Sears,  Daniel 

Sears,  R.B 

436 

352 

Underwood,  Jacob 

411 

Aboriginal 

Governmental 

..188 
..200 

V. 

483 

389 

Shepard,  Lewis 

Clinton  Township 

..230 

Shew,  Eli 

431 

Vansickle,  Edgar 

506 

Helt  Township 

Vermillion  Township 

..242 

Shew,  Henry 

491 

..257 

Shew,  Leonard 

430 

W. 

Eugene  Township 

27S 

Shute,  Daniel 

339 

Highland  Township 

Perrysville 

..288 

Shute,  Ephraim 

440 

Wade,  A.  H 

337 

..292 

Skidmore,  G.  F 

423 

Walker,  C.P 

418 

Pioneers 

.302 

^tm^naiwe. 


Adams,  John. .. .- 15 

Adams,  John  Quincy 39 

Arthur,  Chester  A 112 

Buchanan,  James 81 

Cleveland,  Giover .116 

Colfax,  Schuyler 168 

Collett,  John   310 

Davis,  S.  B 266 

Fillmore,  Millard 73 

Garfield,  James  A 108 

Grant,  Ulysses  S 97 

Harrison,"Willlam  Henry .57 


Hayes,  Rutherford  B 103 

Hendricks,  Thomas  A  164 

Jackson,  Andrew 46 

Jefferson,  Thomas 21 

Johnson,  Andrew 92 

Kinderman,  Alexander 332 

Lincoln,  Abraham 85 

Madison,  James 27 

Monroe,  James 33 

Morgan,  B.  H 445 

Morton,  Oliver  P 160 

Owen,  Robert  Dale.: 176 


Pierce,  Franklin 77 

Polk,  James  K 65 

Riley,  F.  M 306 

Riley,  Mrs.  M.  M 367 

Taylor,  Zachary 69 

Tyler,  John 61 

Van  Buren,  Martin ,53 

Washington,  George 8 

Walker,  Charles  P 419 

Whitcomb,  A.  L 471 

Williams,  James  D 172 

Wright,  William 393 


^iPSlDENTS  * 


^/^y^^^/C^.^^^C^^-^'^ 


EORGE  WASHING- 
TON, the  "  Father  of 
his  Country"  and  its 
first  President,  1789- 
'97,  was  born  Febru- 
ary 22,  1732,  in  Wasii- 
ington  Parish,  West- 
moreland Count  y,  Virginia. 
His  father,  Augustine  Wash- 
ington, first  married  Jane  But- 
ler, who  bore  him  four  chil- 
dren, and  March  6,  1730,  he 
married  Mary  Ball.  Of  six 
children  by  his  second  mar- 
riage, George  was  the  eldest, 
the  others  being  Betty,  Samuel,  John,  Au- 
gustine, Charles  and  Mildred,  of  whom  the 
youngest  died  in  infancy.  Little  is  known 
of  the  early  years  of  Washington,  beyond 
the  fact  that  the  house  in  which  he  was 
born  was  burned  during  his  early  child- 
hood, and  that  his  father  thereupon  moved 
to  another  farm,  inherited  from  his  paternal 
ancestors,  situated  in  Stafford  County,  on 
the  north  bank  of  the  Rappahannock,  where 
he  acted  as  agent  of  the  Principio  Iron 
Works  in  the  immediate  vicinity,  and  died 
there  in  1743. 

From  earliest  childhood  George  devel- 
oped a  noble  character.  He  had  a  vigorous 
constitution,  a  fine  form,  and  great  bodily 
Strength.    His  education  was  somewhat  de- 


fective, being  confined  to  the  elementary 
branches  taught  him  by  his  mother  and  at 
a  neighboring  school.  He  developed,  how- 
ever, a  fondness  for  mathematics,  and  en- 
joyed in  that  branch  the  instructions  of  a 
private  teacher.  On  leaving  school  he  re- 
sided for  some  time  at  Mount  Vernon  with 
his  half  brother,  Lawrence,  who  acted  as 
his  guardian,  and  who  had  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  his  neighbor  at  Belvoir  on  the  Poto- 
mac, the  wealthy  William  Fairfax,  for  some 
time  president  of  the  executive  council  of 
the  colony.  Both  Fairfax  and  his  son-in-law, 
Lawrence  Washington,  had  served  with  dis- 
tinction in  1740  as  officers  of  an  American 
battalion  at  the  siege  of  Carthagena,  and 
were  friends  and  correspondents  of  Admiral 
Vernon,  for  whom  the  latter's  residence  on 
the  Potomac  has  been  named.  George's 
inclinations  were  for  a  similar  career,  and  a 
midshipman's  warrant  was  procured  for 
him,  probably  through  the  influence  of  the 
Admiral ;  but  through  the  opposition  of  his 
mother  the  project  was  abandoned.  The 
family  connection  with  the  Fairfaxes,  how- 
ever, opened  another  career  for  the  young 
man,  who,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  was  ap- 
pointed surveyor  to  the  immense  estates  of 
the  eccentric  Lord  Fairfax,  who  was  then 
on  a  visit  at  Belvoir,  and  who  shortly  after- 
ward established  his  baronial  residence  at 
Green  way  Court,  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley. 


PRESIDENTS     OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


Three  years  were  passed  by  )'Oung  Wash- 
ington in  a  rough  frontier  life,  gaining  ex- 
perience which  afterward  proved  very  es- 
sential to  him. 

In  1751,  when  the  Virginia  militia  were 
put  under  training  wiih  a  view  to  active 
service  against  France,  Washington,  though 
only  nineteen  years  of  age,  was  appointed 
Adjutant  with  the  rank  of  Major.  In  Sep- 
tember of  that  year  the  failing  health  of 
Lawrence  Washington  rendered  it  neces- 
sary for  him  to  seek  a  warmer  climate,  and 
George  accompanied  him  in  a  vo3-age  to 
Barbadoes.  They  returned  earl3'  in  1752, 
and  Lawrence  shortly  afterward  died,  leav- 
ing his  large  property  to  an  infant  daughter. 
In  his  will  George  was  named  one  of  the 
executors  and  as  eventual  heir  to  Mount 
Vernon,  and  by  the  death  of  the  infant  niece 
soon  succeeded  to  that  estate. 

On  the  arrival  of  Robert  Dinwiddle  as 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Virginia  in  1752 
the  militia  was  reorganized,  and  the  prov- 
ince divided  into  four  districts.  Washing- 
ton was  commissioned  by  Dinwiddle  Adju- 
tant-General of  the  Northern  District  in 
1753,  and  in  November  of  that  year  a  most 
important  as  well  as  hazardous  mission  was 
assigned  him.  This  was  to  proceed  to  the 
Canadian  posts  recently  established  on 
French  Creek,  near  Lake  Erie,  to  demand 
in  the  name  of  the  King  of  England  the 
withdrawal  of  the  French  from  a  territory 
claimed  by  Virginia.  This  enterprise  had 
been  declined  by  more  than  one  officer, 
since  it  involved  a  journey  through  an  ex- 
tensive and  almost  unexplored  wilderness 
in  the  occupancy  of  savage  Indian  tribes, 
either  hostile  to  the  English,  or  of  doubtful 
attachment.  Major  Washington,  however, 
accepted  the  commission  with  alacrit)' ;  and, 
accompanied  by  Captain  Gist,  he  reached 
Fort  Le  Boeuf  on  French  Creek,  delivered 
his  dispatches  and  received  reply,  which,  of 
course,  was  a  polite  refusal  to  surrender  the 
posts.     This  reply  was  of  such  a  character 


as  to  induce  the  Assembly  of  Virginia  td 
authorize  the  executive  to  raise  a  regiment 
of  300  men  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining 
the  asserted  rights  of  the  British  crown 
over  the  territory  claimed.  As  Washing- 
ton declined  to  be  a  candidate  for  that  post, 
the  command  of  this  regiment  was  given  t(j 
Colonel  Joshua  Fr\',  and  Major  Washing- 
ton, at  his  own  request,  was  commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel.  On  the  march  to  Oiiio, 
news  was  received  that  a  party  previously 
sent  to  build  a  fort  at  the  confluence  of  the 
Monongahela  with  the  Ohio  had  been 
driven  back  bv  a  considerable  French  force, 
which  had  completed  the  work  there  be- 
gun, and  named  it  Fort  Duquesne,  in  honcM- 
of  the  Marquis  Duquesne,  then  Governor 
of  Canada.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the 
great  "  French  and  Indian  war,"  which  ccmi- 
tinued  seven  years.  On  the  death  of  Colonel 
Fry,  Washington  succeeded  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  regiment,  and  so  well  did  he 
fulfill  his  trust  that  the  Virginia  Assembly 
commissioned  him  as  Commander-in-Chief 
of  all  the  forces  raised  in  the  colony. 

A  cessation  of  all  Indian  hostility  on  the 
frontier  having  followed  the  expulsion  of 
the  French  from  the  Ohio,  the  object  of 
Washington  was  accomplished  and  he  re- 
signed his  commission  as  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  Virginia  forces.  He  then  pro- 
ceeded to  Williamsburg  to  take  his  seat  in 
the  General  Assembly,  of  which  he  had 
been  elected  a  member. 

January  17,  1759,  Washington  married 
Mrs.  Martha  (Dandridge)  Custis,  a  young 
and  beautiful  widow  of  great  wealth,  and  de- 
voted himself  for  the  ensuing  fifteen  years 
to  the  quiet  pursuits  of  agriculture,  inter- 
rupted only  by  his  annual  attendance  in 
winter  upon  the  Colonial  Legislature  at 
Williamsburg,  until  summoned  by  his 
country  to  enter  upon  that  other  arena  in 
which  his  fame  was  to  become  world  wide. 

It  is  unnecessary  here  to  trace  the  details 
of  the  struggle  upon  the  question  of  local 


self-government,  which,  after  ten  years,  cu! 
minated  by  act  of  Parliament  of  the  port  of 
Boston.  It  was  at  the  instance  of  Virginia 
that  a  congress  of  all  the  colonies  was  called 
to  meet  at  Philadelphia  September  5,  1774, 
to  secure  their  common  liberties — if  possible 
by  peaceful  means.  To  this  Congress 
Colonel  Washington  was  sent  as  a  dele- 
gate. On  dissolving  in  October,  it  recom- 
mended the  colonies  to  send  deputies  to 
another  Congress  the  following  spring.  In 
ihe  meantime  several  of  the  colonies  felt 
impelled  to  raise  local  forces  to  repel  in- 
sults and  aggressions  on  the  part  of  British 
troops,  so  that  on  the  assembling  of  the  next 
Congress,  May  10,  1775,  the  war  prepara- 
tions of  the  mother  country  were  unmis- 
takable. The  battles  of  Concord  and  Lex- 
ington had  been  fought.  Among  the  earliest 
acts,  therefore,  of  the  Congress  was  the 
selection  of-  a  commander-in-chief  of  the 
colonial  forces.  This  office  was  unani- 
mously conferred  upon  Washington,  still  a 
member  of  the  Congress.  He  accepted  it 
on  June  19,  but  on  the  express  condition  he 
should  receive  no  salary. 

He  immediately  repaired  to  the  vicinity 
of  Boston,  against  which  point  the  British 
ministry  had  concentrated  their  forces.  As 
early  as  April  General  Gage  had  3,000 
troops  in  and  around  this  proscribed  city. 
During  the  fall  and  winter  the  British  policy 
clearly  indicated  a  purpose  to  divide  pub- 
lic sentiment  and  to  build  up  a  British  party 
in  the  colonies.  Those  who  sided  with  the 
ministr)'  were  stigmatized  by  the  patriots 
as  "  Tories,"  while  the  patriots  took  to  them- 
selves the  name  of  "  Whigs." 

As  early  as  1776  the  leading  men  had 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  there  was  no 
hope  except  in  separation  and  indepen- 
dence. In  May  of  that  year  Washington 
wrote  from  the  head  of  the  army  in  New 
York :  "  A  reconciliation  with  Great  Brit- 
ain is  impossible When  I  took 

command  of  the  army,  I  abhorred  the  idea 


of  independence  ;  but  I  am  now  fully  satis- 
fied that  nothing  else  will  save  us." 

It  is  not  the  object  of  this  sketch  to  trace 
the  military  acts  of  the  patriot  hero,  to 
whose  hands  the  fortunes  and  liberties  of 
the  United  States  were  confided  during  the 
seven  years'  bloody  struggle  that  ensued 
until  the  treaty  of  1783,  in  which  England 
acknowledged  the  independence  of  each  of 
the  thirteen  States,  and  negotiated  with 
them,  jointly,  as  separate  sovereignties.  The 
merits  of  Washington  as  a  military  chief- 
tain have  been  considerably  discussed,  espe- 
cially by  writers  in  his  own  country..  Dur- 
ing the  war  he  was  most  bitterly  assailed 
for  incompetency,  and  great  efforts  were 
made  to  displace  him  ;  but  he  never  for  a 
moment  lost  the  confidence  of  either  the 
Congress  or  the  people.  December  4,  1783, 
the  great  commander  took  leave  of  his  offi- 
cers in  most  affectionate  and  patriotic  terms, 
and  went  to  Annapolis,  Maryland,  where 
the  Congress  of  the  States  was  in  session, 
and  to  that  body,  when  peace  and  order 
prevailed  everywhere,  resigned  his  com- 
mission and  retired  to  Mount  Vernon. 

It  was  in  1788  that  Washington  was  called 
to  the  chief  magistracy  of  the  nation.  He 
received  every  electoral  vote  cast  in  all  the 
colleges  of  the  States  voting  for  the  office 
of  President.  The  4th  of  March,  1789,  was 
the  time  appointed  for  the  Government  of 
the  United  States  to  begin  its  operations, 
but  several  weeks  elapsed  before  quorums 
of  both  the  newly  constituted  houses  of  the 
Congress  were  assembled.  The  city  of  New 
York  was  the  place  where  the  Congress 
then  met.  April  16  Washington  left  his 
home  to  enter  upon  the  discharge  of  his 
new  duties.  He  set  out  with  a  purpose  of 
traveling  privately,  and  without  attracting 
any  public  attention  ;  but  this  was  impossi- 
ble. Everywhere  on  his  way  he  was  met 
with  thronging  crowds,  eager  to  see  the 
man  whom  they  regarded  as  the  chief  de- 
fender of   their   liberties,  and   everywhere 


II 


le  was  hailed  with  those  public  manifesta- 
tions of  jov.  legard  and  love  which  spring 
spontaneously  from  the  hearts  of  an  affec- 
tionate and  grateful  people.  His  reception 
in  New  York  was  marked  by  a  grandeur 
and  an  enthusiasm  never  before  witnessed 
in  that  metropolis.  The  inauguration  took 
jilace  April  30,  in  the  presence  of  an  immense 
multitude  which  had  assembled  to  witness 
the  new  and  imposing  ceremony.  The  oath 
of  office  was  administered  by  Robert  R. 
Livingston.  Chancellor  of  the  State.  When 
liiis  sacred  pledge  was  given,  he  retired 
with  the  other  officials  into  the  Senate 
chamber,  where  he  delivered  his  inaugural 
address  to  both  houses  of  the  newly  con- 
stituted Congress  in  joint  assembly. 

In  the  manifold  details  o[  his  civil  ad- 
ministration, Washington  proved  himself 
equal  to  the  requirements  ot  his  position. 
The  greater  portion  of  the  first  session  of 
the  first  Congress  was  occupied  in  passing 
tlie  necessary  statutes  for  putting  the  new 
organization  into  complete  operation.  In 
the  discussions  brought  up  in  the  course  of 
this  legislation  the  nature  and  character  of 
the  new  svstem  came  under  general  review. 
On  no  one  of  them  did  any  decided  antago- 
nism of  opinion  arise.  All  held  it  to  be  a 
limited  government,  clothed  only  with  spe- 
cific powers  conferred  by  delegation  from 
the  States.  There  was  no  change  in  the 
name  of  the  legislative  department ;  it  still 
remained  "the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  of  America."  There  was  no  change 
in  the  original  flag  of  the  country,  and  none 
in  the  seal,  which  still  remains  with  the 
Grecian  escutcheon  borne  by  the  eagle, 
with  other  emblems,  under  the  great  and 
expressive  motto,  "  E  P/iiribiis  Unitiii." 

The  first  division  of  parties  arose  upon 
the  manner  of  construing  the  powers  dele- 
gated, and  they  were  first  styled  "strict 
constructionists"  and  "  latitudinarian  con- 
structionists." The  former  were  for  con- 
ing the  action  of  the  Government  strictly 


within  its  specific  and  limited  sphere,  while 
the  others  were  for  enlarging  its  powers  by 
inference  and  implication.  Hamilton  and 
Jefferson,  both  members  of  the  first  cabinet 
were  regarded  as  the  chief  leaders,  respecl 
ively,  of  these  rising  antagonistic  parties 
which  have  existed,  under  different  names, 
from  that  day  to  this.  Washington  was  re 
garded  as  holding  a  neutral  position  between 
them,  though,  by  mature  deliberation,  he 
vetoed  the  first  apportionment  bill,  in  1790, 
passed  by  the  party  headed  by  Hamilton, 
which  was  based  upon  a  principle  construct- 
ively leading  to  centralization  or  consoli- 
dation. This  was  the  first  exercise  of  the 
veto  power  under  the  present  Constitution. 
It  created  considerable  excitement  at  the 
time.  Another  bill  was  soon  passed  in  pur- 
suance of  Mr.  Jefferson's  views,  which  has 
been  adhered  to  in  principle  in  every  a])- 
portionment  act  passed  since. 

At  the  second  session  of  the  new  Con- 
gress, Washington  announced  the  gratify- 
ing fact  of  "  the  accession  of  North  Caro- 
lina" to  the  Constitution  of  17S7,  and  June 
I  of  the  same  year  he  announced  by  special 
message  the  like  "  accession  of  the  State  of 
Rhode  Island,"  with  his  congratulations  on 
the  happy  event  v/hich  "  united  under  the 
general  Governinent"  all  the  States  which 
were  originally  confederated. 

In  1792,  at  the  second  Presidential  elec- 
tion, Washington  was  desirous  to  retire ; 
but  he  vielded  to  the  general  wish  of  the 
country,  and  was  again  chosen  President 
by  the  unaniinous  vote  of  ever)'  electoral 
college.  At  the  third  election,  1796,  he  was 
again  most  urgently  entreated  to  consent  to 
remain  in  the  executive  chair.  This  he 
positively  refused.  In  September,  before 
the  election,  he  gave  to  his  countrymen  his 
memorable  Farewell  Address,  which  in  lan- 
guage, sentiment  and  patriotism  was  a  fit 
and  crowning  glory  of  his  illustrious  life. 
After  March  4,  1797,  he  again  retired  to 
Mount  Vernon  for  peace,  quiet  and  repose. 


aEORGE     WA  SHIXG  TON. 


'"(i\ 


His  administration  for  the  two  terms  had 
been  successful  be3-ond  the  expectation  and 
hopes  of  even  the  most  sanguine  of  his 
friends.  The  finances  of  the  country  were 
no  longer  in  an  embarrassed  condition,  the 
I-'ublic  credit  was  fully  restored,  Hfe  was 
tjiven  to  every  department  of  industry,  the 
workings  of  the  new  system  in  allowing 
Congress  to  raise  revenue  from  duties  on 
imports  proved  to  be  not  only  harmonious 
in  its  federal  action,  but  astonishing  in  its 
results  upon  the  commerce  and  trade  of  all 
the  States.  The  exports  from  the  Union 
increased  from  $19,000,000  to  over  §56,000,- 
000  per  annum,  while  the  imports  increased 
in  about  the  same  proportion.  Three  new 
members  had  been  added  to  the  Union.  The 
progress  of  the  States  in  their  new  career 
under  their  new  organization  thus  far  was 
exceedingly  encouraging,  not  only  to  the 
friends  of  Ijbertv  within  their  own  limits, 
but  to  their  S3'mpathizing  allies  in  all  climes 
and  countries. 

Of  the  call  again  made  on  this  illustrious 


chief  to  quit  his  repose  at  Mount  Vernon 
and  take  command  of  all  the  United  States 
forces,  with  the  rank  of  Lieutenant-General, 
when  war  was  threatened  with  France  in 
1798,  nothing  need  here  be  stated,  except  to 
note  the  fact  as  an  unmistakable  testimo- 
nial of  the  high  regard  in  which  he  was  still 
held  by  his  countrymen,  of  all  shades  of  po- 
litical opinion.  He  patriotically  accepted 
this  trust,  but  a  treaty  of  peace  put  a  stop 
to  all  action  under  it.  He  again  retired  to 
Mount  Vernon,  where,  after  a  short  and 
severe  illness,  he  died  December  14,  1799, 
in  the  sixt)'-eighth  year  of  his  age.  The 
whole  countr)'  was  filled  with  gloom  by  this 
sad  intelligence.  Men  of  all  parties  in  poli- 
tics and  creeds  in  religion,  in  every  State 
in  the  Union,  united  with  Congress  in  "  pay- 
ing honor  to  the  man,  first  in  war,  first  in 
peace,  and  first  in  the  hearts  of  his  country- 
men." 

His  remains  were  deposited  in  a  family 
vault  on  the  banks  of  the  Potomac  at  Mount 
Vernon,  where  they  still  lie  entombed. 


'^m^ 


PRESIDENTS    OP-    TUB    VNlTEt)    STATES. 


i! 


OHN  ADAMS,  the  second 
President  of  the  United 
States,  1797  to  1801,  was 
born  in  the  present  town 
of  Ouinc}-,  then  a  portion 
of  Braintree,  Massachu- 
setts, October  30,  1735.  His 
father  was  a  farmer  of  mod- 
erate means,  a  worthy  and 
industrious  man.  He  was 
a  deacon  in  the  church,  and 
was  very  desirous  of  giving 
his  son  a  collegiate  educa- 
tion, hoping  that  he  would 
become  a  minister  of  the 
_  3spel.  But,  as  up  to  this 
time,  the  age  of  fourteen,  he  had  been  only 
a  play-boy  in  the  fields  and  forests,  he  had 
no  taste  for  books,  he  chose  farming.  On 
being  set  to  work,  however,  by  his  father 
out  in  the  field,  the  very  first  day  con- 
verted the  boy  into  a  lover  of  books. 

Accordingly,  at  the  age  of  si.xteen  he 
entered  Harvard  College,  and  graduated  in 
1755,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  highly  esteemed 
for  integrity,  energy  and  ability.  Thus, 
having  no  capital  but  his  education,  he 
started  out  into  the  stormy  world  at  a  time 
of  great  political  excitement,  as  France  and 
England  were  then  engaged  in  their  great 
seven-years  struggle  for  the  mastery  over 
the   New   World.     The  fire  of  patriotism 


seized  young  Adams,  and  for  a  time  he 
studied  over  the  question  whether  he 
should  take  to  the  law,  to  politics  or  ihe 
army.  He  wrote  a  remarkable  letter  to  a 
friend,  making  prophecies  concerning  the 
future  greatness  of  this  country  which  have 
since  been  more  than  fulfilled.  For  two 
years  he  taught  school  and  studied  law, 
wasting  no  odd  moments,  and  at  the  early 
age  of  twenty-two  years  he  opened  a  law 
ofifice  in  his  native  town.  His  inherited 
powers  of  mind  and  vmtiring  devotion  to 
his  profession  caused  him  to  rise  rapidly 
in  public  esteem. 

In  October,  1764,  Mr.  Adams  married 
Miss  Abigail  Smith,  daughter  of  a  clergy- 
man at  Weymouth  and  a  lad}^  of  rare  per- 
sonal and  intellectual  endowments,  who 
afterward  contributed  much  to  her  hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon  the  oppression  of  the  British  in 
America  reached  its  climax.  The  Boston 
merchants  employed  an  attorney  by  the 
name  of  James  Otis  to  argue  the  legality  of 
oppressive  tax  law  before  the  Superior 
Court.  Adams  heard  the  argument,  and 
afterward  wrote  to  a  friend  concerning  the 
ability  displayed,  as  follows :  "  Otis  was  a 
flame  of  fire.  With  a  promptitude  of 
classical  allusion,  a  depth  of  research,  a 
rapid  summary  of  historical  events  and 
dates,  a  profusion  of  legal  authorities  and  a 


J(r^iJd(i^m 


yOHN    ADAMS. 


prophetic  glance  into  futurity,  he  hurried 
away  all  before  him.  American  hidepcndcnce 
was  then  and  there  born.  Every  man  of  an 
immensely  crowded  audience  appeared  to 
me  to  go  away,  as  I  did,  ready  to  take  up 
arms." 

Soon  Mr.  Adams  wrote  an  essay  to  be 
read  before  the  literary  club  of  his  town, 
upon  the  state  of  affairs,  which  was  so  able 
as  to  attract  public  attention.  It  was  pub- 
lished in  American  journals,  republished 
in  England,  and  was  pronounced  by  the 
friends  of  the  colonists  there  as  "  one  of  the 
very  best  productions  ever  seen  from  North 
America." 

The  memiorable  Stamp  Act  was  now 
issued,  and  Adams  entered  with  all  the 
ardor  of  his  soul  into  political  life  in  order 
to  resist  it.  He  drew  up  a  series  of  reso- 
lutions remonstrating  against  the  act,  which 
were  adopted  at  a  public  meeting  of  the 
citizens  of  Braintrec,  and  which  were  sub- 
sequently adopted,  word  for  word,  by  more 
than  forty  towns  in  the  State.  Popular 
commotion  prevented  the  landing  of  the 
Stamp  Act  papers,  and  the  English  author- 
ities then  closed  the  courts.  The  town  of 
Boston  therefore  appointed  Jeremy  Grid- 
ley,  James  Otis  and  John  Adams  to  argue  a 
petition  before  the  Governor  and  council 
for  the  re-opening  of  the  courts;  and  while 
the  two  first  mentioned  attorneys  based 
their  argument  upon  the  distress  caused  to 
the  people  by  the  measure,  Adams  boldly 
claimed  that  the  Stamp  Act  was  a  violation 
both  of  the  English  Constitution  and  the 
charter  of  the  Provinces.  It  is  said  that 
this  was  the  first  direct  denial  of  the  un- 
limited right  of  Parliament  over  the  colo- 
nies. Soon  after  this  the  Stamp  Act  was 
repealed. 

Directly  Mr.  Adams  was  employed  to 
defend  Ansell  Nickerson,  who  had  killed  an 
Englishman  in  the  act  of  impressing  him 
(Nickerson)  into  the  King's  service,  and  his 
client  was  acquitted,  the  court  thus  estab- 


lishing the  principle  that  the  infamous 
royal  prerogative  of  impressment  could 
have  no  existence  in  the  colonial  code. 
But  in  1770  Messrs.  Adams  and  Josiah 
Quincy  defended  a  party  of  British  soldiers 
who  had  been  arrested  for  murder  when 
they  had  been  only  obeying  Governmental 
orders ;  and  when  reproached  for  thus  ap- 
parently deserting  the  cause  of  popular 
libert\%  Mr.  Adams  replied  that  he  would  a 
thousandfold  rather  live  under  the  domina- 
tion of  the  worst  of  England's  kings  than 
under  that  of  a  lawless  mob.  Next,  after 
serving  a  term  as  a  member  of  the  Colonial 
Legislature  from  Boston,  Mr.  Adams,  find- 
ing his  health  affected  by  too  gixat  labor, 
letired  to  his  native  home  at  Braintree. 

The  year  1774  soon  arrived,  with  its  fa- 
mous Boston  "  Tea  Party,"  the  first  open 
act  of  rebellion.  Adams  was  sent  to  the 
Congress  at  Philadelphia ;  and  when  the 
Attorney-General  announced  that  Great 
Britain  had  "  determined  on  her  system, 
and  that  her  power  to  execute  it  was  irre- 
sistible," Adams  replied  :  "  I  know  that 
Great  Britain  has  determined  on  her  sys- 
tem, and  that  very  determination  deter- 
mines me  on  mine.  You  know  that  I  have 
been  constant  in  my  opposition  to  her 
measures.  The  die  is  now  cast.  I  have 
passed  the  Rubicon.  Sink  or  swim,  live  or 
die,  with  my  country,  is  my  unalterable 
determination."  The  rumor  beginning  to 
prevail  at  Philadelphia  that  the  Congress 
had  independence  in  view,  Adams  foresaw 
that  it  was  too  soon  to  declare  it  openl}'. 
He  advised  every  one  to  remain  quiet  in 
that  respect;  and  as  soon  as  it  became  ap- 
parent that  he  himself  was  for  independ- 
ence, he  was  advised  to  hide  himself,  which 
he  did. 

The  next  year  the  great  Revolutionary 
war  opened  in  earnest,  and  Mrs.  Adams, 
residing  near  Boston,  kept  her  husband  ad- 
vised by  letter  of  all  the  events  transpiring 
in  her  vicinity.     The  battle  of  Bunker  Hill 


t 


I  L^^^ 


came  on.  Congress  had  to  do  something 
immediately.  The  first  thing  was  to 
choose  a  commander-in-chief  for  the — we 
can't  say  "  army  " — the  fighting  men  of  the 
colonies.  The  New  England  delegation 
was  almost  unanimous  in  favor  of  appoint- 
ing General  Ward,  then  at  the  head  of  the 
Massachusetts  forces,  but  Mr.  Adams  urged 
the  appointment  of  George  Washington, 
then  almost  unknown  outside  of  his  own 
State.  He  was  appointed  without  oppo- 
sition. Mr.  Adams  offered  the  resolution, 
which  was  adopted,  annulling  all  the  ro)'al 
authority  in  the  colonies.  Having  thus 
prepared  the  way,  a  few  weeks  later,  viz., 
June  7,  1776,  Richard  Henry  Lee,  of  Vir- 
ginia, who  a  few  months  before  had  declared 
that  the  British  Government  would  aban- 
don its  oppressive  measures,  now  offered 
the  memorable  resolution,  seconded  by 
Adams,  "tliat  these  United  States  are,  and 
of  right  ought  to  be,  free  and  independent." 
Jefferson,  Adams,  Franklin,  Sherman  and 
Livingston  were  then  appointed  a  commit- 
tee to  draught  a  declaration  of  independ- 
ence. Mr.  Jefferson  desired  Mr.  Adams 
to  draw  up  Ihe  bold  document,  but  the 
latter  persuaded  Mr.  Jefferson  to  perform 
that  responsible  task.  The  Declaration 
drawn  up,  Mr.  Adams  became  its  foremost 
defender  on  the  floor  of  Congress.  It  was 
signed  by  all  the  fifty-five  members  present, 
and  the  next  day  ^Ir.  Adams  wrote  to  his 
wife  how  great  a  deed  was  done,  and  how 
proud  he  was  of  it.  Mr.  Adams  continued 
to  be  the  leading  man  of  Congress,  and 
the  leading  advocate  of  American  inde- 
pendence. Above  all  other  Americans, 
he  was  considered  by  every  one  the  prin- 
cipal shining  mark  for  British  vengeance. 
Thus  circumstanced,  he  was  appointed  to 
the  most  dangerous  task  of  crossing  the 
ocean  in  winter,  exposed  to  capture  by  the 
British,  who  knew  of  his  mission,  which 
was  to  visit  Paris  and  solicit  the  co-opera- 
tion  of  the  French.     Besides,  to  take  him- 


self away  from  the  country  of  which  he 
was  the  most  prominent  defender,  at  that 
critical  time,  was  an  act  of  the  greatest  self- 
sacrifice.  Sure  enough,  while  crossing  th  • 
sea,  he  had  two  very  narrow  escapes  from 
capture ;  and  the  transit  was  otherwise  :■ 
stormy  and  eventful  one.  During  th 
summer  of  1779  he  returned  home,  but  u;.^ 
immediately  dispatched  back  to  France,  ti. 
be  in  readiness  there  to  negotiate  terms  ol 
peace  and  commerce  with  Great  Britain  as 
soon  as  the  latter  power  was  ready  for  sucb. 
business.  But  as  Dr.  Franklin  was  more 
popular  than  heat  the  court  of  France,  Mr. 
Adams  repaired  to  Holland,  where  he  was 
far  more  successful  as  a  diplomatist. 

The  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United 
States  and  England  was  finally  signed  at 
Paris,  January  21,  1783;  and  the  re-action 
from  so  great  excitement  as  Mr.  Adams  had 
so  long  been  experiencing  threw  him  into 
a  dangerous  fever.  Before  he  fully  re- 
covered he  was  in  London,  whence  he  was 
dispatched  again  to  Amsterdam  to  negoti- 
ate another  loan.  Compliance  with  this 
order  undermined  his  physical  constitution 
for  life. 

In  17S5  Mr.  Adams  was  appointed  envoy 
to  the  court  of  St.  James,  to  meet  face  to 
face  the  very  king  who  had  regarded  him 
as  an  arch  traitor!  Accordingly  he  re- 
paired thither,  where  he  did  actually  meet 
and  converse  with  George  III.!  After  a 
residence  there  for  about  three  years,  he 
obtained  permission  to  return  to  America. 
While  in  London  he  wrote  and  published 
an  able  work,  in  three  volumes,  entitled  : 
"  A  Defense  of  the  American  Constitution." 

The  Articles  of  Confederation  proving 
inefficient,  as  Adams  had  prophesied,  a 
carefully  draughted  Constitution  was 
adopted  in  1789,  when  George  Washington 
was  elected  President  of  the  new  nation, 
and  Adams  Vice-President.  Congress  met 
for  a  time  in  New  York,  but  was  removed 
to  Philadelphia  for  ten  years,  until  suitable 


^ 


JOHN    ADAMS. 


buildings  should  be  erected  at  the  new 
capital  in  the  District  of  Columbia.  Mr. 
Adams  then  moved  his  family  to  Phila- 
delphia. Toward  the  close  of  his  term  of 
office  the  French  Revolution  culminated, 
when  Adams  and  Washington  rather 
sympathized  with  England,  and  Jefferson 
with  France.  The  Presidential  election  of 
1796  resulted  in  giving  Mr.  Adams  the  first 
place  by  a  small  majority,  and  !Mr.  Jeffer- 
son the  second  place. 

Mr.  Adams's  administration  was  consci- 
entious, patriotic  and  able.  The  period 
was  a  turbulent  one,  and  even  an  archangel 
could  not  have  reconciled  the  hostile  par- 
ties. Partisanism  with  reference  to  Eng- 
land and  France  was  bitter,  and  for  four 
years  Mr.  Adams  struggled  through  almost 
a  constant  tempest  of  assaults.  In  fact,  he 
was  not  truly  a  popular  man,  and  his  cha- 
grin at  not  receiving  a  re-election  was  so 
great  that  he  xiid  not  even  remain  at  Phila- 
delphia to  witness  the  inauguration  of  Mr. 
Jefferson,  his  successor.  The  friendly 
intimacy  between  these  two  men  was 
interrupted  for  about  thirteen  years  of  their 
life.  Adams  finally  made  the  first  advances 
toward  a  restoration  of  their  mutual  friend- 
ship, which  were  gratefully  accepted  by 
Jefferson. 

Mr.  Adams  was  glad  of  his  opportunity 
to  retire  to  private  lite,  where  he  could  rest 
his  mind  and  enjo)'  the  comforts  of  home. 
By  a  thousand  bitter  experiences  he  found 
the  path  of  public  duty  a  thorny  one.  For 
twenty-six  years  his  service  of  the  public 
was  as  arduous,  self-sacrificing  and  devoted 
as  ever  fell  to  the  lot  of  man.  In  one  im- 
portant sense  he  was  as  much  the  "  Father 
of  his  Country "  as  was  Washington  in 
another  sense.  During  these  long  years  of 
anxiety  and  toil,  in  which  he  was  laying, 
broad    and    deep,   the    foundations   of   the 


greatest  nation  the  sun  ever  shone  upon,  he 
received  from  his  impoverished  country  a 
meager  support.  The  only  privilege  he 
carried  with  him  into  his  retirement  was 
that  of  franking  his  letters. 

Although  taking  no  active  part  in  public 
affairs,  both  himself  and  his  son,  John 
Quincy,  nobly  supported  the  policy  of  Mr. 
Jefferson  in  resisting  the  encroachments  of 
England,  who  persisted  in  searching 
American  ships  on  the  high  seas  and 
dragging  from  them  any  sailors  that  might 
be  designated  by  any  pert  lieutenant  as 
Bi-itish  subjects.  Even  for  this  noble  sup- 
port Mr.  Adams  was  maligned  by  thou- 
sands of  bitter  enemies  !  On  this  occasion, 
for  the  first  time  since  his  retirement,  he 
broke  silence  and  drew  up  a  ver}^  able 
paper,  exposing  the  atrocity  of  the  British 
pretensions. 

Mr.  Adams  outlived  nearly  all  hisfamil3^ 
Though  his  physical  frame  began  to  give 
way  many  years  before  his  death,  his  mental 
powers  retained  their  strength  and  vigor  to 
the  last.  In  his  ninetieth  year  he  was 
gladdened  by  the  popular  elevation  of  his 
son  to  the  Presidential  office,  the  highest  in 
the  gift  of  the  people.  A  few  months  more 
passed  away  and  the  4th  of  July,  1826, 
arrived.  The  people,  unaware  of  the  near 
approach  of  the  end  of  two  great  lives — 
that  of  Adams  and  Jefferson — were  making 
unusual  preparations  for  a  national  holiday. 
Mr.  Adams  lay  upon  his  couch,  listening  to 
the  ringing  of  bells,  the  waftures  of  martial 
music  and  the  roar  of  cannon,  with  silent 
emotion.  Only  four  days  before,  he  had 
given  for  a  public  toast,  "  Independence 
forever."  About  two  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon he  said,  "And  Jefferson  still  survives." 
But  he  was  mistaken  by  an  hour  or  so ; 
and  in  a  few  minutes  he  had  breathed  his 
last. 


m 


PRESIDENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


}m^ 


fHOMAS  JEFFER- 
son,  the  third  Presi- 
dent of  the  United 
States,  i8oi-'9,  was 
born  April  2,  1743, 
the  eldest  child  of 
his  parents,  Peter 
and  Jane  (Randolph)  Jef- 
ferson, near  Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle  County, 
Virginia,  upon  the  slopes 
ofthe  Blue  Ridge.  When 
he -was  fourteen  years  of 
age,  his  father  died,  leav- 
ing a  widow  and  eight 
children.  She  was  a  beau- 
tiful and  accomplished 
lady,  a  good  letter-writer,  with  a  fund  of 
humor,  and  an  admirable  housekeeper.  His 
parents  belonged  to  the  Church  of  England, 
and  are  said  to  be  of  Welch  origin.  But 
little  is  known  of  them,  however. 

Thomas  was  naturally  of  a  serious  turn 
of  mind,  apt  to  learn,  and  a  favorite  at 
school,  his  choice  studies  being  mathemat- 
ics and  the  classics.  At  the  age  of  seven- 
teen he  entered  William  and  Mary  College, 
in  an  advanced  class,  and  lived  in  rather  an 
expensive  style,  consequently  being  much 
caressed  by  gay  society.  That  he  was  not 
ruined,  is  proof  of  his  stamina  of  character. 
But  during  his  second  year  he  discarded 


society,  his  horses  and  even  his  favorite 
violin,  and  devoted  thenceforward  fifteen 
hours  a  day  to  hard  study,  becoming  ex- 
traordinarily proficient  in  Latin  and  Greek 
authors. 

On  leaving  college,  before  he  was  twenty- 
one,  he  commenced  the  study  of  law,  and 
pursued  it  diHgently  until  he  was  well 
qualified  for  practice,  upon  which  he 
entered  in  1767.  By  this  time  he  was  also 
versed  in  French,  Spanish,  Italian  and  An- 
glo-Saxon, and  in  the  criticism  of  the  fine 
arts.  Being  very  polite  and  polished  in  his 
manners,  he  won  the  friendship  of  all  whom 
he  met.  Though  able  with  his  pen,  he  was 
not  fluent  in  public  speech. 

In  1769  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the 
Virginia  Legislature,  and  was  the  largest 
slave-holding  member  of  that  bod3^  He 
introduced  a  bill  empowering  slave-holders 
to  manumit  their  slaves,  but  it  was  rejected 
by  an  overwhelming  vote. 

In  1770  Mr.  Jefferson  met  with  a  great 
loss ;  his  house  at  Shadwell  was  burned, 
and  his  valuable  library  of  2,000  volumes 
was  consumed.  But  he  was  wealthy 
enough  to  replace  the  most  of  it,  as  from 
his  5,000  acres  tilled  by  slaves  and  his 
practice  at  the  bar  his  income  amounted  to 
about  $5,000  a  year. 

In  1772  he  married  Mrs.  Martha  Skelton, 
a    beautiful,    wealthy    and     accomplished 


Vyt^l^ 


^ 


THOMAS     JEFFERSON. 


young  widow,  who  owned  40,000  acres  of 
land  and  130  slaves;  yet  he  labored  assidu- 
ously for  the  abolition  of  slavery.  For  his 
new  home  he  selected  a  majestic  rise  of 
land  upon  his  large  estate  at  Shadwell, 
called  Monticello,  whereon  he  erected  a 
mansion  of  modest  yet  elegant  architecture. 
Here  he  lived  in  luxury,  indulging  his  taste 
in  magnificent,  high-blooded  liorses. 

At  this  period  the  British  Government 
gradually  became  more  insolent  and  op- 
pressive toward  the  American  colonies, 
and  Mr.  Jefferson  was  ever  one  of  the  most 
foremost  to  resist  its  encroachments.  From 
time  to  time  he  drew  up  resolutions  of  re- 
monsti-ance,  which  were  finally  adopted, 
thus  proving  his  ability  as  a  statesman  and 
as  a  leader.  By  the  year  1774  he  became 
quite  busy,  both  with  voice  and  pen,  in  de- 
fending the  right  of  the  colonies  to  defend 
themselves.  His  pamphlet  entitled  :  "  A 
Summary  Vifew  of  the  Rights  of  British 
America,"  attracted  much  attention  in  Eng- 
land. The  following  year  he,  in  company 
with  George  Washington,  served  as  an  ex- 
ecutive committee  in  measures  to  defend 
by  arms  the  State  of  Virginia.  As  a  Mem- 
ber of  the  Congress,  he  was  not  a  speech- 
maker,  yet  in  conversation  and  upon 
committees  he  was  so  frank  and  decisive 
that  he  always  made  a  favorable  impression. 
But  as  late  as  the  autumn  of  1775  he  re- 
mained in  hopes  of  reconciliation  with  the 
parent  country. 

At  length,  however,  the  hour  arrived  for 
draughting  the  "  Declaration  of  Indepen- 
dence," and  this  responsible  task  was  de- 
volved upon  Jefferson.  Franklin,  and 
Adams  suggested  a  few  verbal  corrections 
before  it  was  submitted  to  Congress,  which 
was  June  28,  1776,  only  six  days  before  it 
was  adopted.  During  the  three  days  of 
the  fiery  ordeal  of  criticism  through  which 
it  passed  in  Congress,  Mr.  Jefferson  opened 
not  his  lips.  John  Adams  was  the  main 
champion  of  the  Declaration  on  the  floor 


of  Congress.  The  signing  of  this  document 
was  one  of  the  most  solemn  and  momentous 
occasions  ever  attended  to  by  man.  Prayer 
and  silence  reigned  throughout  the  hall, 
and  each  signer  realized  that  if  American 
independence  was  not  finally  sustained  by- 
arms  he  was  doomed  to  the  scaffold. 

After  the  colonies  became  independent 
States,  Jefferson  resigned  for  a  time  his  seat 
in  Congress  in  order  to  aid  in  organizing 
the  government  of  Virginia,  of  which  State 
he  was  chosen  Governor  in  1779,  when  he 
was  thirty-six  years  of  age.  At  this  time 
the  British  had  possession  of  Georgia  and 
were  invading  South  Carolina,  and  at  one 
time  a  British  officer,  Tarleton,  sent  a 
secret  expedition  to  Monticello  to  capture 
the  Governor.  Five  minutes  after  Mr. 
Jefferson  escaped  with  his  family,  his  man- 
sion was  in  possession  of  the  enemy  !  The 
British  troops  also  destroyed  his  valuable 
plantation  on  the  James  River.  "  Had  they 
carried  off  the  slaves,"  said  Jefferson,  with 
characteristic  magnanimity,  "  to  give  them 
freedom,  they  would  have  done  right." 

The  3-ear  1781  was  a  gloomy  one  for  the 
Virginia  Governor.  While  confined  to  his 
secluded  home  in  the  forest  by  a  sick  and 
dying  wife,  a  party  arose  against  him 
throughout  the  State,  severely  criticising 
his  course  as  Governor.  Being  very  sensi- 
tive to  reproach,  this  touched  him  to  the 
quick,  and  the  heap  of  troubles  then  sur- 
rounding him  nearly  crushed  him.  He  re- 
solved, in  despair,  to  retire  from  public  life 
for  the  rest  of  his  days.  For  weeks  Mr. 
Jefferson  sat  lovingly,  but  with  a  crushed 
heart,  at  the  bedside  of  his  sick  wife,  during 
which  time  unfeeling  letters  were  sent  to 
him,  accusing  him  of  weakness  and  unfaith- 
fulness to  duty.  All  this,  after  he  had  lost 
so  much  property  and  at  the  same  time 
done  so  much  for  his  country !  After  her 
death  he  actually  fainted  away,  and  re- 
mained so  long  insensible  that  it  was  feared 
he  never  would  recover!    Several  weeks 


PRESTDEyrS    OF    THE     U.VITED    STATES. 


passed  before  he  could  fully  recover  his 
equilibrium.  He  was  never  married  a 
second  time. 

In  the  spring  of  17S2  the  people  of  Eng- 
land compelled  their  king  to  make  to  the 
Americans  overtures  of  peace,  and  in  No- 
vember following,  Mr.  Jefferson  was  reap- 
pointed by  Congress,  unanimously  and 
without  a  single  adverse  remark,  minister 
plenipotentiary  to  negotiate  a  treaty. 

In  March,  1784,  Mr.  Jefferson  was  ap- 
pointed on  a  committee  to  draught  a  plan 
for  the  government  of  the  Northwestern 
Territory.  His  slavery-prohibition  clause 
in  that  plan  was  stricken  out  by  the  pro- 
slavery  majority  of  the  committee;  but  amid 
all  the  controversies  and  wrangles  of  poli- 
ticians, he  made  it  a  rule  never  to  contra- 
dict anybody  or  engage  in  any  discussion 
as  a  debater. 

In  company  with  Mr.  Adams  and  Dr. 
Franklin,  Mr.  Jefferson  was  appointed  in 
May,  1784,  to  act  as  minister  plenipotentiary 
in  the  negotiation  of  treaties  of  commerce 
with  foreign  nations.  Accordingly,  he  went 
to  Paris  and  satisfactorily  accomplished  his 
mission.  The  suavity  and  high  bearing  of 
his  manner  made  all  the  French  his  friends; 
and  even  Mrs.  Adams  at  one  time  u^rote 
to  her  sister  that  he  was  "  the  chosen 
of  the  earth."  But  all  the  honors  that 
he  received,  both  at  home  and  abroad, 
seemed  to  make  no  change  in  the  simplicit}' 
of  his  republican  tastes.  On  his  return  to 
America,  he  found  two  parties  respecting 
the  foreign  commercial  policy,  Mr.  Adams 
sympathizing  with  that  in  favor  of  England 
and  himself  favoring  France. 

On  the  inauguration  of  General  Wash- 
ington as  President,  Mr.  Jefferson  was 
chosen  by  him  for  the  office  of  Secretary  of 
State.  At  this  time  the  rising  storm  of  the 
French  Revolution  became  visible,  and 
Washington  watched  it  with  great  anxiety. 
His  cabinet  was  divided  in  their  views  of 
constitutional   government  as   well   as  re- 


garding the  issues  in  France.  General 
Hamilton,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  was 
the  leader  of  the  so-called  Federal  partv, 
while  Mr.  Jefferson  was  the  leader  of  the 
Republican  party.  At  the  same  time  there 
was  a  strong  monarchical  party  in  this 
country,  with  which  Mr.  Adams  sympa- 
thized. Some  important  financial  measures, 
which  were  proposed  by  Hamilton  and 
finally  adopted  by  the  cabinet  and  approved 
by  Washington,  were  opposed  by  Mr. 
Jefferson ;  and  his  enemies  then  began  to 
reproach  him  with  holding  office  under  an 
administration  whose  views  he  opposed. 
The  President  poured  oil  on  the  troubled 
waters.  On  his  re-election  to  the  Presi- 
dency he  desired  Mr.  Jefferson  to  remain 
in  the  cabinet,  but  the  latter  sent  in  his 
resignation  at  two  different  times,  probably 
because  he  was  dissatisfied  with  some  of 
the  measures  of  the  Government.  His 
final  one  was  not  received  until  January  i, 
1794,  when  General  Washington  parted 
from  him  with  great  regret. 

Jefferson  then  retired  to  his  quiet  home 
at  Monticello,  to  enjoy  a  good  rest,  not  even 
reading  the  newspapers  lest  the  political 
gossip  should  disquiet  him.  On  the  Presi- 
dent's again  calling  him  back  to  the  office 
of  Secretary  of  State,  he  replied  that  no 
circumstances  would  ever  again  tempt  him 
to  engage  in  any-thing  public  !  But,  while 
all  Europe  was  ablaze  with  war,  and  France 
in  the  throes  of  a  bloody  revolution  and  the 
principal  theater  of  the  conflict,  a  new 
Presidential  election  in  this  country  came 
on.  John  Adams  was  the  Federal  candi- 
date and  Mr.  Jefferson  became  the  Republi- 
can candidate.  The  result  of  the  election 
was  the  promotion  of  the  latter  to  the  Vice- 
Presidency,  while  the  former  was  chosen 
President.  In  this  contest  Mr.  Jefferson 
really  did  not  desire  to  have  either  office, 
he  was  "so  weary  **  of  party  strife.  He 
loved  the  retirement  of  home  more  than 
any  other  place  on  the  earth. 


THOMAS     ^EFFEliSON. 


But  for  four  long  years  his  Vice-Presi- 
dency passed  joylessl}-  away,  while  the 
partisan  strife  between  Federalist  and  Re- 
publican was  ever  growing  hotter.  The 
former  party  split  and  the  result  of  the 
fourth  general  election  was  the  elevation  of 
Mr.  Jefferson  to  the  Presidency !  with 
Aaron  Burr  as  Vice-President.  These  men 
being  at  the  head  of  a  growing  party,  their 
election  was  hailed  everywhere  with  joy. 
On  the  other  hand,  man}'  of  the  Federalists 
turned  pale,  as  they  believed  what  a  portion 
of  the  pulpit  and  the  press  had  been  preach- 
ing— that  Jefferson  was  a  "  scoffing  atheist," 
a  "Jacobin,"  the  "incarnation  of  all  evil," 
"  breathing  threatening  and  slaughter  !  " 

Mr.  Jefferson's  inaugural  address  con- 
tained nothing  but  the  noblest  sentiments, 
expressed  in  fine  language,  and  his  personal 
behavior  afterward  exhibited  the  extreme 
of  American,  democratic  simplicit\'.  His 
disgust  of  European  court  etiquette  grew 
upon  him  with  age.  He  believed  that 
General  Washington  was  somewhat  dis- 
trustful of  the  ultimate  success  of  a  popular 
Government,  and  that,  imbued  with  a  little 
admiration  of  the  forms  of  a  monarchical 
Government,  he  had  instituted  levees,  birth- 
daj's,  pompous  meetings  with  Congress, 
etc.  Jefferson  was  always  polite,  even  to 
slaves  everywhere  he  met  them,  and  carried 
in  his  countenance  the  indications  of  an  ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The  political  principles  of  the  Jeffersoni- 
an  party  now  swept  the  country,  and  Mr. 
Jefferson  himself  swayed  an  influence  which 
was  never  exceeded  even  by  Washington. 
Under  his  administration,  in  1803,  the  Lou- 
isiana purchase  was  made,  for  $15,000,000, 
the  "  Louisiana  Territory  "  purchased  com- 
prising all  the  land  west  of  the  Mississippi 
to  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

The  year  1804  witnessed  another  severe 
loss  in  his  family.  His  highl}'  accomplished 
and  most  beloved  daughter  Maria  sickened 
and    died,    causing   as   great   grief   in   the 


stricken  parent  as  it  was  possible  for  him  to 
survive  with  any  degree  of  sanity. 

The  same  year  he  was  re-elected  to  the 
Presidency,  with  George  Clinton  as  Vice- 
President.  During  his  second  term  our 
relations  with  England  became  more  com- 
plicated, and  on  June  22,  1807,  near  Hamp- 
ton Roads,  the  United  States  frigate 
Chesapeake  was  fired  upon  by  the  Brit- 
ish man-of-war  Leopard,  and  was  made 
to  surrender.  Three  men  were  killed  and 
ten  wounded.  Jefferson  demanded  repara- 
tion. England  grew  insolent.  It  became 
evident  that  war  was  determined  upon  by 
the  latter  power.  More  than  1,200  Ameri- 
cans were  forced  into  the  British  service 
upon  the  high  seas.  Before  any  satisfactory 
solution  was  reached,  Mr.  Jefferson's 
Presidential  terra  closed.  Amid  all  these 
public  excitements  he  thought  constantly 
of  the  welfare  of  his  family,  and  longed 
for  the  time  when  he  could  return  home 
to  remain.  There,  at  Monticello,  his  sub- 
sequent life  was  very  similar  to  that  of 
Washington  at  Mt.  Vernon.  His  hospi- 
talit}'  toward  his  numerous  friends,  indul- 
gence of  his  slaves,  and  misfortunes  to  his 
property,  etc.,  finally  involved  him  in  debt. 
For  years  his  home  resembled  a  fashion- 
able watering-place.  During  the  summer, 
thirty-seven  house  servants  were  required ! 
It  was  presided  over  by  his  daughter,  Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr.  Jefferson  did  much  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  University  at  Charlottesville, 
making  it  unsectarian,  in  keeping  with  the 
spirit  of  American  institutions,  but  poverty 
and  the  feebleness  of  old  age  prevented 
him  from  doing  what  he  would.  He  even 
went  so  far  as  to  petition  tiie  Legislature 
for  permission  to  dispose  of  some  of  his 
possessions  by  lottery,  in  order  to  raise  the 
necessary  funds  for  home  expenses.  It  was 
granted ;  but  before  the  plan  was  carried 
out,  Mr.  Jefferson  died,  July  4.  1826,  at 
2:50  P.  M. 


PRESIDEXrS     OF     THE     UNITED    STATES. 


AMES  MADISON,  the 
fourth  President  of  the 
United  States,  iSog-'iy, 
was  born  at  Port  Con- 
\\a.y,  Prince  George 
County,  Virginia,  March 
175 1.       His    father, 


Colonel  James  Madison,  was 
a  wealthy  planter,  residing 
upon  a  very  fine  estate 
called  "  Montpelier,"  only 
twenty-five  miles  from  the 
home  of  Thomas  Jefferson 
at  Monticello.  The  closest 
personal  and  political  at- 
tachment existed  between 
these  illustrious  men  from  their  early  youth 
until  death. 

James  was  the  eldest  of  a  family  of  seven 
children,  four  sons  and  three  daughters,  all 
of  whom  attained  maturity.  His  early  edu- 
cation was  conducted  mostly  at  home, 
under  a  private  tutor.  Being  naturally  in- 
tellectual in  his  tastes,  he  consecrated  him- 
self with  unusual  vigor  to  study.  At  a  very 
early  age  he  made  considerable  proficiency 
in  the  Greek,  Latin,  French  and  Spanish 
languages.  In  1769  he  entered  Princeton 
College,  New  Jersey,  of  which  the  illus- 
trious Dr.  Weatherspoon  was  then  Presi- 
dent.    He  graduated  in  1771,  with  a  chai'- 


acter  of  the  utmost  purit}-,  and  a  mind 
highly  disciplined  and  stored  with  all  the 
learning  which  embellished  and  gave  effi- 
ciency to  his  subsequent  career.  After 
graduating  he  pursued  a  course  of  reading 
for  several  months,  under  the  guidance  of 
President  Weatherspoon,  and  in  1772  re- 
turned to  Virginia^  where  he  continued  in 
incessant  study  for  two  years,  nominally 
directed  to  the  law,  but  reall}'  including 
extended  researches  in  theology,  philoso- 
phy and  general  literature. 

The  Church  of  England  was  the  estab- 
lished church  in  Virginia,  invested  with  all 
the  prerogatives  and  immunities  which  it 
enjoyed  in  the  fatherland,  and  other  de- 
nomi nations  labored  under  serious  disabili- 
ties, the  enforcement  of  which  was  rightly 
or  wrongly  characterized  by  them  as  per- 
secution. Madison,  took  a  prominent  stand 
in  behalf  of  the  removal  of  all  disabilities, 
repeatedly  appeared  in  the  court  of  liis  own 
county  to  defend  the  Baptist  nonconform- 
ists, and  was  elected  from  Orange  County  to 
the  Virginia  Convention  in  the  sj^ring  of 
1766,  when  he  signalized  the  beginning  of 
his  public  career  by  procuring  the  passage 
of  an  amendment  to  the  Declaration  of 
Rights  as  prepared  by  George  Mason,  sub- 
stituting for  "toleration"  a  more  emphatic 
assertion  of  religious  liberlv. 


«»■■««»  Jir5»a».=.  ■!„■.»«..  1. 


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■■■iia_M«a»M»»_W«M«.M»W. 


■'■.■■■-■■■■■■■■-■■■■■■■-■■■«M«WBi»-««WiiW«M»Wl."M*ll!Jg 


yAMES    AlADlSOi^. 


1^ 


In  1776  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Virginia  Convention  to  frame  the  Constitu- 
tion of  the  State.  Like  Jefferson,  he  took 
but  little  part  in  the  public  debates.  His 
main  strength  lay  in  his  conversational  in- 
fluence and  in  his  pen.  In  November,  1777, 
he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Council  of 
State,  and  in  March,  1780,  took  his  seat  in 
the  Continental  Congress,  where  he  first 
gained  prominence  through  his  energetic 
opposition  to  the  issue  of  paper  money  by 
the  States.  He  continued  in  Congress  three 
years,  one  of  its  most  active  and  influential 
members. 

In  1784  Mr.  Madison  v.'as  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Virginia  Legislature.  He  ren- 
dered important  service  by  promoting  and 
participating  in  that  revision  of  the  statutes 
which  effectually  abolished  the  remnants  of 
the  feudal  system  subsistent  up  to  that 
time  in  the  form  of  entails,  primogeniture, 
and  State  support  given  the  Anglican 
Church  ;  and  his  "  Memorial  and  Remon- 
strance" against  a  general  assessment  for 
the  support  of  religion  is  one  of  the  ablest 
papers  which  emanated  from  his  pen.  It 
settled  the  question  of  the  entire  separation 
of  church  and  State  in  Virginia. 

Mr.  Jefferson  says  of  him,  in  allusion  to 
the  study  and  experience  through  which  he 
had  already  passed : 

"  Trained  in  these  successive  schools,  he 
acquired  a  habit  of  self-possession  which 
placed  at  ready  command  the  rich  resources 
of  his  luminous  and  discriminating  mind  and 
of  his  extensive  information,  and  rendered 
him  the  first  of  every  assembly  of  which  he 
afterward  became  a  member.  Never  wan- 
dering from  his  subject  into  vain  declama- 
tion, but  pursuing  it  closely  in  language 
pure,  classical  and  copious,  soothing  al- 
wa3's  the  feelings  of  his  adversaries  by  civili- 
ties and  softness  of  expression,  he  rose  to  tlie 
eminent  stati(in  which  he  held  in  the  great 
National  Convention  of  1787;  and  in  that  of 
Virginia,  which  followed,  he  sustained  the 


new  Constitution  in  all  its  parts,  bearing  ofi 
the  palm  against  the  logic  of  George  Mason 
and  the  fervid  declamation  of  Patrick 
Henry.  With  these  consummate  powers 
were  united  a  pure  and  spotless  virtue 
which  no  calumny  has  ever  attempted  to 
sully.  Of  the  power  and  polish  of  his  pen, 
and  of  the  wisdom  of  his  administration  in 
the  highest  office  of  the  nation,  I  need  say 
nothing.  They  have  spoken,  and  will  for- 
ever speak,  for  themselves." 

In  January,  1786,  Mr.  Madison  took  the 
initiative  in  proposing  a  meeting  of  State 
Commissioners  to  devise  measures  for  more 
satisfactory  commercial  relations  between 
the  States.  A  meeting  was  held  at  An- 
napolis to  discuss  this  subject,  and  but  five 
States  were  represented.  The  convention 
issued  another  call,  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Madi- 
son, urging  all  the  States  to  send  their  dele- 
gates to  Philadelphia,  in  May,  1787,  to 
draught  a  Constitution  for  the  United 
States.  The  delegates  met  at  the  time  ap- 
pointed, every  State  except  Rhode  Island 
being  represented.  George  Washington 
was  chosen  president  of  the  convention, 
and  the  present  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  was  then  and  there  formed.  There 
was  no  mind  and  no  pen  more  active  in 
framing  this  immortal  document  than  the 
mind  and  pen  of  James  Madison.  He  was, 
perhaps,  its  ablest  advocate  in  the  pages  of 
the   Federalist. 

Mr.  Madison  was  a  member  of  the  first 
four  Congresses,  1789-97,  in  which  he  main- 
tained a  moderate  opposition  to  Hamilton's 
financial  policy.  He  declined  the  mission 
to  France  and  the  Secretaryship  of  State, 
and,  gradually  identifying  himself  with  the 
Republican  party,  became  from  1792  its 
avowed  leader.  In  1796  he  was  its  choice 
{ox  the  Presidency  as  successor  to  Wash- 
ington. Mr.  Jeffei'son  wrote:  "There  is 
not  another  person  in  the  United  States 
with  whom,  being  placed  at  the  helm  of  our 
affairs,  my  mind  would  be  so  completely  at 


r 


PJ^ESIDEXTS    OF     THE     UN /TED    STATES. 


rest  for  the  fortune  of  our  political  bark." 
But  Mr.  Madison  declined  to  be  a  candi- 
date. His  term  in  Congress  had  expired, 
and  he  returned  from  New  York  to  his 
beautiful  retreat  at  Montpelier. 

In  1794  Mr.  Madison  married  a  young 
widow  of  remarkable  powers  of  fascination 
— Mrs.  Todd.  Her  maiden  name  was  Doro- 
thy Paine.  She  was  born  in  1767,  in  Vir- 
ginia, of  Quaker  parents,  and  had  been 
educated  in  the  strictest  rules  of  that  sect. 
When  but  eighteen  years  of  age  she  married 
a  young  lawyer  and  moved  to  Philadelphia, 
where  she  was  introduced  to  brilliant  scenes 
of  fashionable  life.  She  speedily  laid  aside 
the  dress  and  address  of  the  Quakeress,  and 
became  one  of  the  most  fascinating  ladies 
of  the  republican  court.  In  New  York, 
after  the  death  of  her  husband,  she  was  the 
belle  of  the  season  and  was  surrounded  with 
admirers.  Air.  Madisnn  won  the  prize. 
She  proved  an  invaluable  helpmate.  In 
Washington  she  was  the  life  of  society. 
If  there  was  an}'  diffident,  timid  young 
girl  just  making  her  appearance,  she 
found  in  Mrs.  Madison  an  encouraging 
friend. 

During  the  stormy  administration  of  John 
Adams  Madison  remained  in  private  life, 
but  was  the  author  of  the  celebrated  "  Reso- 
lutions of  1798,"  adopted  by  the  Virginia 
Legislature,  in  condemnation  of  the  Alien 
and  Sedition  laws,  as  well  as  of  the  "  report" 
in  which  he  defended  those  resolutions, 
which  is,  by  many,  considered  his  ablest 
State  paper. 

The  storm  passed  away ;  the  Alien  and 
Sedition  laws  were  repealed,  John  Adams 
lost  his  re-election,  and  in  1801  Thomas  Jef- 
ferson was  chosen  President.  The  great  re- 
action in  public  sentiment  which  seated 
Jefferson  in  the  presidential  chair  was  large- 
ly owing  to  the  writings  of  Madison,  who 
was  consequently  well  entitled  to  the  post 
of  Secretary'  of  State.  With  great  ability 
he  discharged  the  duties  of  this  responsible 


office  during  the  eight  years  of  Mr.  JeiTt  i 
son's  administration. 

As  Mr.  Jefferson  was  a  widower,  and 
neither  of  his  daughters  could  be  often  with 
him,  Mrs.  Madison  usually  presided  over 
theJestivities  of  the  White  House;  and  as 
her  husband  succeeded  Mr.  Jefferson,  hold- 
ing his  office  for  two  terms,  this  remarkable 
woman  was  the  mistress  of  the  presidential 
mansion  for  sixteen  years. 

Mr.  Madison  being  entirely  engrossed  by 
the  cares  of  his  office,  all  the  duties  of  so- 
cial life  devolved  upon  his  accomplished 
wife.  Never  were  such  responsibilities 
more  ably  discharged.  The  most  bitter 
foes  of  her  husband  and  of  the  administra- 
tion were  received  with  the  frankly  prof- 
fered hand  and  the  cordial  smile  of  wel- 
come; and  the  influence  of  this  gentle 
woman  in  allaying  the  bitterness  of  party 
rancor  became  a  great  and  salutary  power 
in  the  nation. 

As  tlie  term  of  Mr.  Jefferson's  Presidency 
drew  near  its  close,  party  strife  was  roused 
to  the  utmost  to  elect  his  successor.  It  was 
a  death-grapple  between  the  two  great 
parties,  the  Federal  and  Republican.  Mr. 
Madison  was  chosen  President  by  an  elec- 
toral vote  of  122  to  53,  and  was  inaugurated 
March  4,  1809,  at  a  critical  period,  when 
the  relations  of  the  United  States  with  Great 
Britain  were  becoming  embittered,  and  his 
first  term  was  passed  in  diplomatic  quarrels, 
aggravated  by  the  act  of  non-intercourse  of 
May,  1810,  and  finally  resulting  in  a  decla- 
ration of  war.    . 

On  the  1 8th  of  June,  181 2,  President 
Madison  gave  his  approval  to  an  act  of 
Congress  declaring  war  against  Great  Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding  the  bitter  hostility 
of  the  Federal  party  to  the  war,  the  countrv 
in  general  approved ;  and  in  the  autumn 
Madison  was  re-elected  to  the  Presidency 
by  12S  electoral  votes  to  89  in  favor  of 
George  Clinton. 

March  4,  1817,  Madison  vielded  the  Pre;.! 


!^'^!jris"Tiv^*^"r!*r^?L'^^!r^^i!!?r^"!i^^ 


yAMES    MADISON. 


31 


deiicy  to  his  Secretary  of  State  and  inti- 
mate friend,  James  Monroe,  and  retired  to 
his  ancestral  estate  at  Montpelier,  where  he 
passed  the  evening  of  iiis  days  surrounded 
by  attaciied  friends  and  enjoying  the 
merited  respect  of  the  whole  nation.  He 
took  pleasure  in  promoting  agriculture,  as 
president  of  the  county  society,  and  in 
watching  the  development  of  the  University 
of  Virginia,  of  which  he  was  loug  rector  and 
visitor.  In  extreme  old  age  he  sat  in  1829 
as  a  member  of  the  convention  called  to  re- 
form the  Virginia  Constitution,  where  his 
appearance  was  hailed  with  the  most  gen- 
uine interest  and  satisfaction,  though  he 
was  too  infirm  ^o  participate  in  the  active 
work  of  revision.  Small  in  stature,  slender 
and  delicate  in  form,  with  a  countenance 
full  of  intelligence,  and  expressive  alike  of 
mildness  and  dignity,  he  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  all  who  attended  the  convention, 
and  was  treated  v/ith  the  utmost  deference. 
He  seldom  addressed  the  assembly,  though 
he  always  appeared  self-possessed,  and 
watched  with  unflagging  interest  the  prog- 
ress of  every  msasure.  Though  the  con- 
vention sat  sixteen  weeks,  he  spoke  only 
twice ;  but  when  he  did  speak,  the  whole 
house  paused  to  listen.  His  voice  was 
feeble  though  his  enunciation  was  very  dis- 
tinct. One  of  the  reporters,  Mr.  Stansbury, 
relates  the  following  anecdote  of  Mr.  Madi- 
son's last  speech: 

"  The  next  day,  as  there  was  a  great  call 
for  it,  and  the  report  had  not  been  returned 
for  publication,  I  sent  my  son  with  a  re- 
spectful note,  requesting  the  manuscript. 
My  son  was  a  lad  of  sixteen,  whom  I  had 
taken  with  me  to  act  as  amanuensis.  On 
delivering  my  note,  he  was  received  with 
the  utmost  politeness,  and  requested  to 
come  up  into  Mr.  Madison's  room  and  wait 
while  his  eye  ran  over  the  paper,  as  com- 
pany had  prevented  his  attending  to  it.  He 
did  so,  and  Mr.  Madison  sat  down  to  correct 
the  report.     The  lad  stood  near  him  so  that 


his  eye  fell  on  the  paper.  Coming  to  a 
certain  sentence  in  the  speech,  Mr.  Madison 
erased  a  word  and  substituted  another  ;  but 
hesitated,  and  not  feeling  satisfied  with  the 
second  word,  drew  his  pen  through  it  also. 
My  son  was  young,  ignorant  of  the  world, 
and  unconscious  of  the  solecism  of  which  he 
was  about  to  be  guilty,  when,  in  all  simplic- 
ity, he  suggested  a  word.  Probably  no 
other  person  then  living  would  have  taken 
such  a  liberty.  But  the  sage,  instead  of 
regarding  such  an  intrusion  with  a  frown, 
raised  his  eyes  to  the  boy's  face  with  a 
pleased  surprise,  and  said,  '  Thank  you,  sir  ; 
it  is  the  very  word,'  and  immediately  in- 
serted it.  I  saw  him  the  next  day,  and  he 
mentioned  the  circumstance,  with  a  compli- 
ment on  the  young  critic." 

Mr.  Madison  died  at  Montpelier,  June  28, 
1836,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-five. 
While  not  possessing  the  highest  order  of 
talent,  and  deficient  in  oratorical  powers, 
he  was  pre-eminently  a  statesman,  of  a  well- 
balanced  mind.  His  attainments  were  solid, 
his  knowledge  copious,  his  judgment  gener- 
ally sound,  his  powers  of  analysis  and  logi- 
cal statement  rarely  surpassed,  his  language 
and  literary  style  correct  and  polished,  his 
conversation  witty,  his  temperament  san- 
guine and  trustful,  his  integrity  unques- 
tioned, his  manners  simple,  courteous  and 
winning.  By  these  rare  qualities  he  con- 
ciliated the  esteem  not  only  of  friends,  but 
of  political  opponents,  in  a  greater  degree 
than  any  American  statesman  in  the  present 
century. 

Mrs.  Madison  survived  her  husband  thir- 
teen years,  and  died  July  12,  1849,  ''i  the 
eighty-second  year  of  her  age.  She  was  one 
of  the  most  remarkable  women  our  coun- 
try has  produced.  Even  now  she  is  ad- 
miringly remembered  in  Washington  as 
"  Dolly  Madison,"  and  it  is  fitting  that  her 
memory  should  descend  to  posterity  in 
1  company  with  thatof  the  companion  of 
her  life. 


PRESIDENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


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s  -\:A  -^v3a^£^T:s:!::rS3CE: 


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s^<r"^'  jt-,'  I**'  |ts£i<?i4t<;-i'S;Si'^-j^' 


AMES  MONROE,  the  fifth 
President  of  the  United 
States,  i8i7-'25,  was  born 
in  Westmoreland  County 
Virginia,  April  28,  1758] 
He  was  a  son  of  Spence 
Monroe,  and  a  descendant 
of  a  Scottish  cavalier  fam- 
ily. Like  all  his  predeces- 
sors thus  far  in  the  Presi- 
dential chair,  he  enjoyed  all 
the  advantages  of  educa- 
tion which  the  country 
could  then  afford.  He  was 
early  sent  to  a  fine  classical 
school,  and  at  the  age  of  six- 
teen entered  William  and  Mary  College.. 
In  1776,  when  he  had  been  in  college  but 
two  years,  the  Declaration  of  Independence 
was  adopted,  and  our  feeble  militia,  with- 
out arms,  amunition  or  clothing,  were  strug- 
gling against  the  trained  armies  of  England. 
James  Monroe  left  college,  hastened  to 
General  Washington's  headquarters  at  New 
York  and  enrolled  himself  as  a  cadet  in  the 
army. 

At  Trenton  Lieutenant  Monroe  so  dis- 
tinguished himself,  receiving  a  wound  in  his 
shoulder,  that  he  was  promoted  to  a  Cap- 
taincy. Upon  recovering  from  his  wound, 
he  was  invited  to  act  as  aide  to  Lord  Ster- 
ling, and  in  that  capacity  he  took  an  active 
part  in  the  battles  of  Brandywine,  Ger- 
mantown  and  Monmouth.   At  Germantown 


he  stood  by  the  side  of  Lafayette  when  the 
French  Marquis  received  his  wound.  Gen- 
eral Washington,  who  had  formed  a  high 
idea  of  young  Monroe's  ability,  sent  him  to 
Virginia  to  raise  a  new  regiment,  of  which 
he  was  to  be  Colonel;  but  so  exhausted  was 
Virginia  at  that  time  that  the  effort  proved 
unsuccessful.  He,  however,  received  his 
commission. 

Finding  no  opportunity  to  enter  the  army 
as  a  commissioned  officer,  he  returned  to  his 
original  plan  of  studying  law,  and  entered 
the  ofifice  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  who  was 
then  Governor  of  Virginia.  He  developed 
a  very  noble  character,  frank,  manly  and 
sincere.     Mr.  Jefferson  said  of  him: 

"James  Monroe  is  so  perfectly  honest 
that  if  his  soul  were  turned  inside  out  there 
would  not  be  found  a  spot  on  it." 

In  1782  he  was  elected  to  the  Assembly 
of  Virginia,  and  was  also  appointed  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Executive  Coimcil.  The  next 
3-ear  he  was  chosen  delegate  to  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  for  a  term  of  three  years. 
He  was  present  at  Annapolis  when  Wash- 
ington surrendered  his  commission  of  Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With  Washington,  Jefferson  and  Madison 
he  felt  deeply  the  inefBciency  of  the  old 
Articles  of  Confederation,  and  urged  the 
formation  of  a  new  Constitution,  which 
should  invest  the  Central  Government  with 
something  like  national  power.  Influenced 
bv  these  views,  he  introduced  a  resolution 


^.^-^-^^/^  X  /^^-^^^^^^^^^ 


yAMES    MONROE. 


121 8 J  82 


35 


that  Congress  should  be  empowered  to 
regulate  trade,  and  to  lay  an  impost  duty 
of  five  per  cent.  The  resolution  was  refer- 
red to  a  committee  of  which  he  was  chair- 
man. Tiie  report  and  the  discussion  which 
rose  upon  it  led  to  the  convention  of  five 
States  at  Annapolis,  and  the  consequent 
general  convention  at  Philadelphia,  which, 
in  1787,  drafted  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States. 

At  this  time  there  was  a  controversy  be- 
tween New  York  and  Massachusetts  in 
reference  to  their  boundaries.  The  high 
esteem  in  which  Colonel  Monroe  was  held 
is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  he  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  the  judges  to  decide  the 
controvers}-.  While  in  New  York  attend- 
ing Congress,  he  married  Miss  Kortright, 
a  young  lady  distinguished  alike  for  her 
beauty  and  accomplishments.  For  nearly 
fifty  years  this  happy  union  remained  un- 
broken. In  London  and  in  Paris,  as  in  her 
own  country,  Mrs.  Monroe  won  admiration 
and  affection  by  the  loveliness  of  her  per- 
son, the  brilliancy  of  her  intellect,  and  the 
amiabilit)'  of  her  character. 

Returning  to  Virginia,  Colonel  Monroe 
commenced  the  practice  of  law  at  Freder- 
icksburg. He  was  very  soon  elected  to  a 
seat  in  the  State  Legislature,  and  the  next 
year  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Vir- 
ginia convention  which  was  assembled  to 
decide  upon  the  acceptance  or  rejection  of 
the  Constitution  which  had  been  drawn  up 
at  Philadelphia,  and  was  now  submitted 
to  the  several  States.  Deeply  as  he  felt 
the  imperfections  of  the  old  Confederacy, 
he  was  opposed  to  the  new  Constitution, 
thinking,  with  many  others  of  the  Republi- 
can party,  that  it  gave  too  much  power  to 
the  Central  Government,  and  not  enough 
to  the  individual  States. 

In  1789  he  became  a  member  of  the 
United  States  Senate,  which  office  he  held 
acceptably  to  his  constituents,  and  with 
honor  to  himself  for  four  years. 


Having  opposed  the  Constitution  as  not 
leaving  enough  power  with  the  States,  he, 
of  course,  became  more  and  more  identi- 
fied with  the  Republican  party.  Thus  he 
found  himself  in  cordial  co-operation  with 
Jefferson  and  Madison.  The  great  Repub- 
lican party  became  the  dominant  power 
which  ruled  the  land. 

George  Washington  was  then  President. 
England  had  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Bourbons  against  the  principles  of  the 
French  Revolution.  President  Washing- 
ton issued  a  proclamation  of  neutralit}'  be- 
tween these  contending  powers.  France 
had  helped  us  in  the  struggle  for  our  lib- 
erties. All  the  despotisms  of  Europe  were 
now  combined  to  prevent  the  French 
from  escaping  from  tyranny  a  thousandfold 
worse  than  that  which  we  had  endured. 
Colonel  Monroe,  more  magnanimous  than 
prudent,  was  anxious  that  wc  should  help 
our  old  allies  in  their  extremity.  He  vio- 
lently opposed  the  President's  procla- 
mation as  ungrateful  and  wanting  in 
magnanimity. 

Washington,  who  could  appreciate  such 
a  character,  developed  his  calm,  serene, 
almost  divine  greatness  by  appointing  that 
very  James  Monroe,  who  was  denouncing 
the  policy  of  the  Government,  as  the  Minis- 
ter of  that  Government  to  the  republic  of 
France.  He  was  directed  by  Washington 
to  express  to  the  French  people  our  warm- 
est sympathy,  communicating  to  them  cor- 
responding resolves  approved  by  the  Pres- 
ident, and  adopted  by  both  houses  of 
Congress. 

Mr.  Monroe  was  welcomed  by  the  Na- 
tional Convention  in  France  with  the  most 
enthusiastic  demonstrations  of  respect  and 
affection.  He  was  publicly  introduced  to 
that  body,  and  received  the  embrace  of  the 
President,  Merlin  de  Douay,  after  having 
been  addressed  in  a  speech  glowing  with 
congratulations,  and  with  expressions  of 
desire  that  harmony  might  ever   exist  be- 


Presidents  of  the   UNiTEt)  states. 


tween  the  two  nations.  The  flags  of  the 
two  republics  were  intertwined  in  the  hall 
of  the  convention.  Mr.  Monroe  presented 
the  American  colors,  and  received  those  of 
France  in  return.  The  course  which  he 
pursued  in  Paris  was  so  annoying  to  Eng- 
land and  to  the  friends  of  England  in 
this  country  that,  near  the  close  of  Wash- 
ii.gton's  administration,  Mr.  Monroe,  was 
recalled. 

After  his  return  Colonel  Monroe  wrote  a 
book  of  400  pages,  entitled  "  A  View  of  the 
Conduct  of  the  Executive  in  Foreign  Af- 
fairs." In  this  work  he  ver}'  ably  advo- 
cated his  side  of  the  question;  but,  with 
the  magnanimity  of  the  man,  he  recorded  a 
warm  tribute  to  the  patriotism,  ability  and 
spotless  integrity  of  John  Jay,  between 
whom  and  himself  there  was  intense  antag- 
onism ;  and  in  subsequent  years  he  ex- 
pressed in  warmest  terms  his  perfect 
\  eneration  for  the  character  of  George 
Washington. 

Shortly  after  his  return  to  this  countrv 
Colonel  Monroe  was  elected  Governor  of 
Virginia,  and  held  that  office  for  three 
years,  the  period  limited  by  the  Constitu- 
tion. In  1802  he  was  an  Envoy  to  France, 
and  to  Spain  in  1805,  and  was  Minister  to 
England  in  1803.  In  1806  he  returned  to 
his  quiet  home  in  Virginia,  and  with  his 
wife  and  childrenandan  ample  competence 
from  his  paternal  estate,  enjoyed  a  few  years 
of  domestic  repose. 

In  1809  Mr.  Jefferson's  second  term  of 
office  expired,  and  many  of  the  Republican 
party  were  anxious  to  nominate  James 
Monroe  as  his  successor.  The  majority 
were  in  favor  of  Mr.  Madison.  Mr.  Mon- 
roe withdrew  his  name  and  was  soon  after 
chosen  a  second  time  Governor  of  Virginia. 
He  soon  resigned  that  office  to  accept  the 
position  of  Secretary  of  State,  offered  him 
by  President  Madison.  The  correspond- 
ence which  he  then  carried  on  with  the 
British    Government     demonstrated    that 


there  was  no  hope  of  any  peaceful  adjusi 
ment  of  our  difficulties  with  the  cabinet  oi 
St.  James.  War  was  consequently  declared 
in  June,  1812.  Immediately  after  the  sack 
of,  Washington  the  Secretary  of  War  re- 
signed, and  Mr.  Monroe,  at  the  earnest 
request  of  Mr.  Madison,  assumed  the  ad- 
ditional duties  of  the  War  Department, 
without  resigning  his  position  as  Secretary 
of  State.  It  has  been  confidently  stated, 
that,  had  Mr.  Monroe's  energies  been  in  the 
War  Department  a  few  months  earlier,  the 
disaster  at  Washington  would  not  have 
occurred. 

The  duties  now  devolving  upon  Mr.  Mon- 
roe were  extremely  arduous.  Ten  thou- 
sand men,  picked  from  the  veteran  armies 
of  England,  v.-ere  sent  with  a  powerful  fleet 
to  New  Orleans  to  acquire  possession  of 
the  mouths  of  the  Mississippi.  Our  finan- 
ces were  in  the  most  deplorable  condition. 
The  treasur}'  was  exhausted  and  our  credit 
gone.  And  yet  it  was  necessary  to  make 
the  most  rigorous  preparations  to  meet  the 
foe.  In  this  crisis  James  Monroe,  the  Sec- 
retai-y  of  War,  with  virtue  unsurpassed  in 
Greek  or  Roman  story,  stepped  forward 
and  pledged  his  own  individual  credit  as 
subsidiary  to  that  of  the  nation,  and  thus 
succeeded  in  placing  the  city  of  New  Or- 
leans in  such  a  posture  of  defense,  that  it 
was  enabled  successfully  to  repel  the  in- 
vader. 

INIr.  Monroe  was  truly  the  armor-bearer 
of  President  Madison,  and  the  most  efficient 
business  man  in  his  cabinet.  His  energy 
in  the  double  capacity  of  Secretary,  both 
of  State  and  War,  pervaded  all  the  depart- 
ments of  the  country.  He  proposed  to 
increase  the  arm}^  to  100,000  men,  a  meas- 
ure which  he  deemed  absolutely  necessary 
to  save  us  from  ignominious  defeat,  but 
which,  at  the  same  time,  he  knew  would 
render  his  name  so  unpopular  as  to  preclude 
the  possibility  of  his  being  a  successful  can- 
didate for  the  Presidency. 


The  happy  result  of  the  conference  at 
Ghent  in  securing  peace  rendered  the  in- 
crease of  the  army  unnecessary;  but  it  is  not 
too  much  to  say  that  James  Monroe  placed 
in  the  hands  of  Andrew  Jackson  the 
weapon  with  which  to  beat  off  the  foe  at 
New  Orleans.  Upon  the  return  of  peace 
Mr.  Monroe  resigned  the  department  of 
war,  devoting  himself  entirely  to  the  duties 
of  Secretary  of  State.  These  he  continued 
to  discharge  until  the  close  of  President 
Madison's  administration,  with  zeal  which 
was  never  abated,  and  with  an  ardor  of 
self-devotion  which  made  him  almost  for- 
getful of  the  claim.s  of  fortune,  health  or 
life. 

Mr.  Madison's  second  term  expired  in 
March,  1817,  and  Mr.  Monroe  succeeded 
to  the  Presidency.  He  was  a  candidate  of 
the  Republican  party,  now  taking  the  name 
of  the  Democratic  Republican.  In  1821  he 
was  re-elected,  with  scarcely  any  opposition. 
Out  of  232  electoral  votes,  he  received  231. 
The  slavery  question,  which  subsequently 
assumed  such  formidable  dimensions,  now 
began  to  make  its  appearance.  The  State 
of  Missouri,  which  had  been  carved  out  of 
that  immense  territory  which  we  had  pur- 
chased of  France,  applied  for  admission  to 
the  Union,  with  a  slavery  Constitution. 
There  were  not  a  few  who  foresaw  the 
evils  impending.  After  the  debate  of  a 
week  it  was  decided  that  Missouri  could 
not  be  admitted  into  the  Union  with  slav- 
ery. This  important  question  was  at  length 
settled  by  a  compromise  proposed  by 
Henry  Clay. 

The  famous  "Monroe  Doctrine,"  of  which 
so  much  has  been  said,  originated  in  this 
way:  In  1823  it  was  rumored  that  the 
Holy  Alliance  was  about  to  interfere  to 
prevent  the  establishment  of  Republican 
liberty  in  the  European  colonies  of  South 
America.  President  Monroe  wrote  to  his 
old  friend  Thomas  Jefferson  for  advice  in 
the  emergency.     In  his  reply  under  date  of 


October  24,  Mr.  Jefferson  writes  upon  the 
supposition  that  our  attempt  to  resist  this 
European  movement  might  lead  to  war: 

"  Its  object  is  to  introduce  and  establish 
the  American  system  of  keeping  out  of  our 
land  all  foreign  powers;  of  never  permitting 
those  of  Europe  to  intermeddle  with  the 
affairs  of  our  nation.  It  is  to  maintain  our 
own  principle,  not  to  depart  from  it." 

December  2,  1823,  President  Monroe 
sent  a  message  to  Congress,  declaring  it  to 
be  the  policy  of  this  Government  not  to 
entangle  ourselves  with  the  broils  of  Eu- 
rope, and  not  to  allow  Europe  to  interfere 
with  the  affairs  of  nations  on  the  American 
continent;  and  the  doctrine  was  announced, 
that  any  attempt  on  the  part  of  the  Euro- 
pean powers  "  to  extend  their  system  to 
any  portion  of  this  hemisphere  would  be 
regarded  by  the  United  States  as  danger- 
ous to  our  peace  and  safety." 

March  4,  1825,  Mr.  Monroe  surrendered 
the  presidential  chair  to  his  Secretary  of 
State,  John  Quincy  Adams,  and  retired, 
with  the  universal  respect  of  the  nation, 
to  his  private  residence  at  Oak  Hill,  Lou- 
doun Count}',  Virginia.  His  time  had  been 
so  entirely  consecrated  to  his  country,  that 
he  had  neglected  his  pecuniary  interests, 
and  was  deeply  involved  in  debt.  The 
welfare  of  his  country  had  ever  been  up- 
permost in  his  mind. 

For  many  years  Mrs.  Monroe  was  in  such 
feeble  health  that  she  rarely  appeared  in 
public.  In  1830  Mr.  Monroe  took  up  his 
residence  with  his  son-in-law  in  New  York, 
where  he  died  on  the  4th  of  July,  1831. 
The  citizens  of  New  York  conducted  his 
obsequies  with  pageants  more  imposing 
than  had  ever  been  witnessed  there  before. 
Our  country  will  ever  cherish  his  mem- 
ory with  pride,  gratefully  enrolling  his 
name  in  the  list  of  its  benefactors,  pronounc- 
ing him  the  worthy  successor  of  the  illus- 
trious men  who  had  preceded  him  in  the 
presidential  chair. 


nin^j 


Br. 


,^^,:^r.fw,^^^f\r.f\r.^^,f\r^^^jw,f\r,^\%^r 


p\l:'.dd^'r'r•^!PP-r^rl^m^4^i£^r^'B^Jd^e:^I!.EiF^^^^^ 


p^'OHN  QUINCY  ADAMS, 

,f  3-  the  sixth  President  of  the 
Iji,'^  United  States,  1825-9, 
J    "J  was   born    in  the    rural 

\.^      home    of     his     honored 
J.°      father,  John   Adams,   in 
Q  u  i  n  c  y  ,    Massachusetts, 
July  II,  1767.     Hismother, 
a  woman  of  exalted  worth, 
watched  over  his  childhood 
during  the  almost  constant 
absence  of  his  father.      He 
commenced   his   education 
at  the  village  school,  giving 
at  an  early  period  indica- 
ions  of   superior  mental  en- 
dowments. 

When  eleven  years  of  age  he  sailed  with 
his  father  for  Europe,  where  the  latter  was 
associated  with  Franklin  and  Lee  as  Minister 
Plenipotentiary.  The  intelligence  of  John 
Quincy  attracted  the  attention  of  these  men 
and  received  from  them  flattering  marks  of 
attention.  Mr.  Adams  had  scarcely  returned 
to  this  country  in  1779  ^f^  he  was  again 
sent  abroad,  and  John  Quinc}^  again  accom- 
panied him.  On  this  vo3'age  he  commenced 
a  diary,  which  practice  he  continued,  with 
but  few  interruptions,  until  his  death.  He 
journeyed  with  his  father  from  Ferrol,  in 
Spain,  to  Paris.  Here  he  applied  himself 
for  six  months  to  study;  then  accompanied 


his  father  to  Holland,  where  he  entered, 
first  a  school  in  Amsterdam,  and  then  the 
University  of  Leyden.  In  1781,  when  only 
fourteen  years  of  age,  he  was  selected  by 
Mr.  Dana,  our  Minister  to  the  Russian 
court,  as  his  private  secretary.  In  this 
school  of  incessant  labor  he  spent  fourteen 
months,  and  then  returned  alone  to  Holland 
through  Sweden,  Denmark,  Hamburg  and 
Bremen.  Again  he  resumed  his  studies 
under  a  private  tutor,  at  The  Hague. 

In  the  spring  of  1782  he  accompanied  his 
father  to  Paris,  forming  acquaintance  with 
the  most  distinguished  men  on  the  Conti- 
nent. After  a  short  visit  to  England,  he  re- 
turned to  Paris  and  studied  until  Maj', 
1785,  when  he  returned  to  America,  leav- 
ing his  father  an  embassador  at  the  court 
of  St.  James.  In  1786  he  entered  the  jun- 
ior class  in  Harvard  University,  and  grad- 
uated with  the  second  honor  of  his  class. 
The  oration  he  delivered  on  this  occasion, 
the  "  Importance  of  Public  Faith  to  the 
Well-being  of  a  Community,"  was  pub- 
lished— an  event  very  rare  in  this  or  any 
other  land. 

Upon  leaving  college  at  the  age  of  twenty 
he  studied  law  three  years  with  the  Hon. 
Theophilus  Parsons  in  Newburyport.  In 
1790  he  opened  a  law  office  in  Boston.  The 
profession  was  crowded  with  able  men,  and 
the  fees  were  small.     The  first  year  he  had 


3.  2.  M. 


yOIJN    ^UINCr    ADAMS. 


no  clients,  but  not  a  moment  was  lost.  The 
second  year  passed  away,  still  no  clients, 
and  still  he  was  dependent  upon  his  parents 
for  support.  Anxiously  he  awaited  the 
third  year.  The  reward  now  came.  Cli- 
ents began  to  enter  his  office,  and  before 
the  end  of  the  year  he  was  so  crowded 
with  business  that  all  solicitude  respecting 
a  support  was  at  an  end. 

When  Great  Britain  commenced  war 
against  France,  in  1793,  Mr.  Adams  wrote 
some  articles,  urging  entire  neutrality  on 
the  part  of  the  United  States.  The  view 
was  not  a  popular  one.  Many  felt  that  as 
France  had  helped  us,  we  were  bound  to 
help  France.  But  President  Washington 
coincided  with  Mr.  Adams,  and  issued  his 
proclamation  of  neutrality.  His  writings 
at  this  time  in  the  Boston  journals  gave 
him  so  high  a  reputation,  that  in  June, 
1794,  he  was  appointed  by  Washington 
resident  Minister  at  the  Netherlands.  In 
July,  1797,  he  left  The  Hague  to  go  to  Port- 
ugal as  Minister  Plenipotentiary.  Wash- 
ington at  this  time  wrote  to  his  father,  John 
Adams: 

"  Without  intending  to  compliment  the 
father  or  the  mother,  or  to  censure  any 
others,  I  give  it  as  my  decided  opinion, 
that  Mr.  Adams  is  the  most  valuable  char- 
acter we  have  abroad;  and  there  remains 
no  doubt  in  ni}'  mind  that  he  will  prove  the 
ablest  of  our  diplomatic  corps." 

On  his  way  to  Portugal,  upon  his  arrival 
in  London,  he  met  with  dispatches  direct- 
ing him  to  the  court  of  Berlin,  but  request- 
ing him  to  remain  in  London  until  he  should 
receive  instructions.  While  waiting  he 
was  married  to  Miss  Louisa  Catherine  John- 
son, to  whom  he  had  been  previously  en- 
gaged. Miss  Johnson  was  a  daughter  of 
Mr.  Joshua  Johnson,  American  Consul 
in  London,  and  was  a  lady  endowed  with 
that  beauty  and  those  accomplishments 
which  fitted  her  to  move  in  the  elevated 
sphere  for  which  she  was  destined. 


In  July,  1799,  having  fulfilled  all  the  pur- 
poses of  his  mission,  Mr.  Adams  returned. 
In  1802  he  was  chosen  to  the  Senate  of 
Massachusetts  from  Boston,  and  then  was 
elected  Senator  of  the  United  States  for  six 
years  from  March  4,  1804.  His  reputation, 
his  ability  and  his  experience,  placed  him 
immediately  among  the  most  prominent 
and  influential  members  of  that  body.  He 
sustained  the  Government  in  its  measures 
of  resistance  to  the  encroachments  of  Eng- 
land, destroying  our  commerce  and  insult- 
ing our  flag.  There  was  no  man  in  America 
more  familiar  with  the  arrogance  of  the 
British  court  upon  these  points,  and  no 
one  more  resolved  to  present  a  firm  resist- 
ance. This  course,  so  truly  patriotic,  and 
which  scarcely  a  voice  will  now  be  found 
to  condemn,  alienated  him  from  the  Fed- 
eral party  dominant  in  Boston,  and  sub- 
jected him  to  censure. 

In  1805  Mr.  Adams  was  chosen  professor 
of  rhetoric  in  Harvard  College.  His  lect- 
ures at  this  place  were  subsequently  pub- 
lished. In  1809  he  was  sent  as  Minister  to 
Russia.  He  was  one  of  the  commissioners 
that  negotiated  the  treaty  of  peace  with 
Great  Britain,  signed  December  24,  1814, 
and  he  was  appointed  Minister  to  the  court 
of  St.  James  in  1815.  In  1817  he  became 
Secretary  of  State  in  Mr.  Monroe's  cabinet 
in  which  position  he  remained  eight  years. 
Few  will  now  contradict  the  assertion  that 
the  duties  of  that  office  were  never  more 
ably  discharged.  Probabl}^  the  most  im- 
portant measure  which  Mr.  Adams  con- 
ducted was  the  purchase  of  Florida  from 
Spain  for  $5,000,000. 

The  campaign  of  1824  was  an  exciting 
one.  Four  candidates  were  in  the  field. 
Of  the  260  electoral  votes  that  were  cast, 
Andrew  Jackson  received  ninety-nine;  John 
Quincy  Adams,  eighty-four;  William  H. 
Crawford,  forty-one,  and  Henry  Clay, 
thirty-seven.  As  there  was  no  choice  by 
the  people,  the  question  went  to  the  House 


of  Representatives.  Mr.  Clay  gave  the 
vote  of  Kentucky  to  Mr.  Adams,  and  he 
was  elected. 

The  friends  of  all  disappointed  candidates 
now  combined  in  a  venomous  assault  upon 
Mr.  Adams.  There  is  nothing  more  dis- 
graceful in  the  past  history  of  our  country 
than  the  abuse  which  was  poured  in  one 
uninterrupted  stream  upon  this  high- 
minded,  upright,  patriotic  man.  There  was 
never  an  administration  more  pure  in  prin- 
ciples, more  conscientiously  devoted  to  the 
best  interests  of  the  country,  than  that  of 
John  Quincy  Adams;  and  never,  perhaps, 
was  there  an  administration  more  unscru- 
pulously assailed.  Mr.  Adams  took  his  seat 
in  the  presidential  chair  resolved  not  to 
know  any  partisanship,  but  only  to  con- 
sult for  the  interests  of  the  whole  Republic, 

He  refused  to  dismiss  any  man  from  of- 
fice for  his  political  views.  If  he  was  a  faith- 
ful officer  that  was  enough.  Bitter  must 
have  been  his  disappointment  to  find  that  the 
Nation  could  not  appreciate  such  conduct. 

Mr.  Adams,  in  his  public  manners,  was 
cold  and  repulsive;  though  with  his  per- 
sonal friends  he  was  at  times  very  genial. 
This  chilling  address  very  seriously  de- 
tracted from  his  popularity.  No  one  can 
read  an  impartial  record  of  his  administra- 
tion without  admitting  that  a  more  noble 
example  of  uncompromising  dignity  can 
scarcely  be  found.  It  was  stated  publicly 
that  Mr.  Adams'  administration  was  to  be 
put  down,  "  though  it  be  as  pure  as  the  an- 
gels which  stand  at  the  right  hand  of  the 
throne  of  God."  Many  of  the  active  par- 
ticipants in  these  scenes  lived  to  regret  the 
course  they  pursued.  Some  years  after, 
Warren  R.  Davis,  of  South  Carolina,  turn- 
ing to  Mr.  Adams,  then  a  member  of  the 
House  of  Representatives,  said: 

"  Well  do  I  remember  the  enthusiastic 
zeal  with  which  we  reproached  the  admin- 
istration of  that  gentleman,  and  the  ardor 
and  vehemence  with  which  we  labored  to 


bring  in  another.  For  the  share  I  had  in 
these  transactions,  and  it  was  not  a  small 
one,  I  ho  fie  God  will  forgive  vie,  for  I  shall 
never  forgive  myself. ' ' 

March  4,  1829,  Mr.  Adams  retired  from 
the  Presidency  and  was  succeeded  by  An- 
drew Jackson,  the  latter  receiving  168  out 
of  261  electoral  votes.  John  C.  Calhoun 
was  ejected  Vice-President.  The  slavery 
question  now  began  to  assume  pretentious 
magnitude.  Mr.  Adams  returned  to 
Quincy,  and  pursued  his  studies  with  una- 
bated zeal.  But  he  was  not  long  permitted 
to  remain  in  retirement.  In  November, 
1830,  he  was  elected  to  Congress.  In  this 
he  recognized  the  principle  that  it  is  honor- 
able for  the  General  of  yestei'day  to  act  as 
Corporal  to-day,  if  by  so  doing  he  can  ren- 
der service  to  his  country.  Deep  as  are 
our  obligations  to  John  Quincy  Adams  for 
his  services  as  embassador,  as  Secretary  of 
State  and  as  President;  in  his  capacity  as 
legislator  in  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, he  conferred  benefits  upon  our  land 
which  eclipsed  all  the  rest,  and  which  can 
never  be  over-estimated. 

For  seventeen  )'ears,  until  his  death,  he 
occupied  the  post  of  Representative,  tow- 
ering above  all  his  peers,  ever  ready  to  do 
brave  battle  for  freedom,  and  winning  the 
title  of  "  the  old  man  eloquent."  Upon 
taking  his  seat  in  the  House  he  announced 
that  he  should  hold  himself  bound  to  no 
party.  He  was  usually  the  first  in  his 
place  in  the  morning,  and  the  last  to  leave 
his  seat  in  the  evening.  Not  a  measure 
could  escape  his  scrutiny.  The  battle 
which  he  fought,  almost  singl)-,  against  the 
pro-slavery  part}'  in  the  Government,  was 
sublime  in  its  moral  daring  and  heroism. 
For  persisting  in  presenting  petitions  for 
the  abolition  of  slavery,  he  was  threatened 
with  indictment  by  the  Grand  Jury,  with 
expulsion  from  the  House,  with  assassina- 
tion; but  no  threats  could  intimidate  him, 
and  his  final  triumph  was  complete. 


JOHN    ^UINC2-    ADAMS. 


On  one  occasion  Mr.  Adams  presented  a 
petition,  signed  by  several  women,  against 
the  annexation  of  Texas  for  tlie  purpose  of 
cutting  it  up  into  slave  States.  Mr.  How- 
ard, of  Maryland,  said  that  these  women 
discredited  not  only  themselves,  but  their 
section  of   the  country,    by    turning   from 

j  their  domestic  duties  to  the  conflicts  of  po- 

[  litical  life. 

[      "Are    women,"    exclaimed  Mr.   Adams, 

I  "  to  have  no  opinions  or  actions  on  subjects 
relating  to  the  general  welfare?  Where 
did  the  gentleman  get  his  principle?  Did 
he  find  it  in  sacred  history, — in  the  language 
of  Miriam,  the  prophetess,  in  one  of  the 
noblest  and  sublime  songs  of  triumph  that 
ever  met  the  human  eye  or  ear?  Did  the 
gentleman  never  hear  of  Deborah,  to  whom 
the  children  of  Israel  came  up  for  judg- 
ment ?  Has  he  forgotten  the  deed  of  Jael, 
who  slew  the  dreaded  enemy  of  her  coun- 
try ?  Has  he  forgotten  Esther,  who,  by  her 
petition  saved  her  people  and  her  coun- 
try? 

"  To  go  from  sacred  history  to  profane, 
does  the  gentleman  there  find  it  '  discredita- 
ble '  for  women  to  take  an  interest  in  politi- 
cal affairs?  Has  he  forgotten  the  Spartan 
mother,  who  said  to  her  son  when  going 
out  to  battle,  '  My  son,  come  back  to  me 
ivith  thy  shield,  or  upon  thy  shield  ? '  Does 
he  remember  Cloelia  and  her  hundred  com- 
panions, who  swam  across  the  river  under 
a  shower  of  darts,  escaping  from  Porsena  ? 
Has  he  forgotten  Cornelia,  the  mother  of 
the  Gracchi  ?  Does  he  not  remember  Por- 
tia, the  wife  of  Brutus  and  the  daughter  of 
Cato? 

"  To  come  to  later  periods,  what  says  the 
history  of  our  Anglo-Saxon  ancestors? 
To  say  nothing  of  Boadicea,  the  British 
heroine  in  the  time  of  the  Cajsars,  what 
name  is  more  illustrious  than  that  of  Eliza- 
beth ?  Or,  if  he  will  go  to  the  continent, 
will  he  not  find  the  names  of  Maria  Theresa 
of    Hungarv,    of  the    two    Catherines    of 


Prussia,  and  of  Isabella  of  Castile,  the  pa- 
troness of  Columbus  ?  Did  she  bring  '  dis- 
credit '  on  her  sex  by  mingling  in  politics  ?  " 

In  this  glowing  strain  Mr.  Adams  si- 
lenced and  overwhelmed  his  antagonists. 

In  January,  1842,  Mr.  Adams  presented 
a  petition  from  forty-five  citizens  of  Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts,  praying  for  a  peaceable 
dissolution  of  the  Union.  The  pro-slavery 
party  in  Congress,  who  were  then  plotting 
the  destruction  of  the  Government,  were 
aroused  to  a  pretense  of  commotion  such  as 
even  our  stormy  hall  of  legislation  has 
rarely  witnessed.  They  met  in  caucus,  and, 
finding  that  they  probably  would  not  be 
able  to  expel  Mr.  Adams  from  the  House 
drew  up  a  series  of  resolutions,  which,  if 
adopted,  would  inflict  upon  him  disgrace, 
equivalent  to  expulsion.  Mr.  Adams  had 
presented  the  petition,  which  was  most  re- 
spectfully worded,  and  had  moved  that  it  be 
referred  to  a  committee  instructed  to  re- 
port an  answer,  showing  the  reason  why 
the  prayer  ought  not  to  be  granted. 

It  was  the  25th  of  January.  The  whole 
body  of  the  pro-slavery  party  came  crowd- 
ing together  in  the  House,  prepared  to 
crush  Mr.  Adams  forever.  One  of  the  num- 
ber, Thomas  F.  Marshall,  of  Kentucky,  was 
appointed  to  read  the  resolutions,  which 
accused  Mr.  Adams  of  high  treason,  of 
having  insulted  the  Government,  and  of 
meriting  expulsion;  but  for  which  deserved 
punishment,  the  House,  in  its  great  merc3^ 
would  substitute  its  severest  censure.  With 
the  assumption  of  a  very  solemn  and  mag- 
isterial air,  there  being  breathless  silence  in 
the  audience,  Mr.  Marshall  hurled  the  care- 
fully prepared  anathemas  at  his  victim. 
Mr.  Adams  stood  alone,  the  whole  pro-slav- 
ery part}'  against  him. 

As  soon  as  the  resolutions  were  read, 
every  eye  being  fixed  upon  him,  that  bold 
old  man,  whose  scattered  locks  were  whit- 
ened by  sevent)'-five  years,  casting  a  wither- 
ing glance  in  the  direction  of  his  assailants, 


r" 


PRESIDENTS     OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


in  a  clear,  shrill  tone,  tremulous  with  sup- 
pressed emotion,  said: 

"  In  reply  to  this  audacious,  atrocious 
charge  of  high  treason,  I  call  for  the  read- 
ing of  the  first  paragraph  of  the  Declaration 
of  Independence.  Read  it'!  Read  it!  and 
see  what  that  says  of  the  rights  of  a  people 
to  reform,  to  change,  and  to  dissolve  their 
Government.' 

The  attitude,  the  manner,  the  tone,  the 
words;  the  venerable  old  man,  v»'ith  flash- 
ing eye  and  flushed  cheek,  and  whose  very 
form  seemed  to  expand  under  the  inspiration 
of  the  occasion — all  presented  a  scene  over- 
flowing in  its  sublimity.  There  was  breath- 
less silence  as  that  paragraph  was  read,  in 
defense  of  whose  principles  our  fathers  had 
pledged  their  lives,  their  fortunes  and  their 
sacred  honor.  It  was  a  proud  hour  to  Mr. 
Adams  as  they  were  all  compelled  to  listen 
to  the  words: 

"  Thai,  to  secure  these  rights,  govern- 
ments are  instituted  among  men,  deriving 
their  just  powers  from  the  consent  of  the 
governed;  and  that  whenever  any  form  of 
government  becomes  destructive  of  those 
ends,  it  is  the  right  of  the  people  to  alter  or 
abolish  it,  and  to  institute  nev/  government, 
laying  its  foundations  on  such  principles 
and  organizing  its  powers  in  such  form 
as  shall  seem  most  likely  to  effect  their 
safety  and  happiness." 

That  one  sentence  routed  and  baffled  the 


foe.  The  heroic  old  man  looked  around 
upon  the  audience,  and  thundered  out, 
"  Read  that  again  !  "  It  was  again  read. 
Then  in  a  few  fiery,  logical  words  he  stated 
his  defense  in  terms  which  even  prejudiced 
minds  could  not  resist.  His  discomfited 
assailants  made  several  attempts  to  rally. 
After  a  conflict  of  eleven  days  they  gave 
up  vanquished  and  their  resolution  was  ig- 
nominiously  laid  upon  the  table. 

In  January,  1846,  when  seventy-eight 
years  of  age,  he  took  part  in  the  great  de- 
bate on  the  Oregon  question,  displaying 
intellectual  vigor,  and  an  extent  and  accu- 
racy of  acquaintance  with  the  subject  that 
excited  great  admiration. 

On  the  2 1st  of  February,  1848,  he  rose  on 
the  floor  of  Congress  with  a  paper  in  his 
hand  to  address  the  Speaker.  Suddenly 
he  fell,  stricken  by  paralysis,  and  was  caught 
in  the  arms  of  those  around  him.  For  a 
time  he  was  senseless  and  was  conveyed 
to  a  sofa  in  the  rotunda.  With  reviving 
consciousness  he  opened  his  eyes,  looked 
calml}'  around  and  said,  "  This  is  the  end  of 
earth."  Then  after  a  moment's  pause,  he 
added,  "  /  am  content."  These  were  his  last 
words,  and  lie  soon  breathed  his  last,  in  the 
apaitment  beneath  the  dome  of  the  capitol 
— the  theater  of  his  labors  and  his  triumphs. 
In  the  language  of  hymnology,  he  "  died  at 
his  post;"  he  "  ceased  at  once  to  work  and 
live." 


,,#1§^^. 


^a>zu^<L^  b:rp'<Q:^.,.-«^^L-t^  ^ 


ANDREW     JACKSON. 


^^f/^^'^NDREW  JACKSON, 
the  seventh  President 
of  the  United  States, 
29-'37,  was  born  at 
the  Waxhaw  Settle, 
ment,  Union  Coun- 
''j'i^  ty,  North  Carolina, 
Maich  i6,  1767.  His  parents 
uere  Scotch-Irish,  natives  of 
Cariickfergus,  who  came  to 
America  in  1765,  and  settled 
on  Twelve-Mile  Creek,  a  trib- 
utary of  the  Catawba.  His 
fathei,  who  was  a  poor  farm 
labuiCi,  died  shortly  before  An- 
drew's birth,  when  his  mother  removed  to 
Waxhaw,  where  some  relatives  resided. 

Few  particulars  of  the  childhood  of  Jack- 
son have  been  preserved.  His  education 
was  of  the  most  limited  kind,  and  he  showed 
no  fondness  for  books.  He  grew  up  to  be  a 
tali,  lank  boy,  with  coarse  hair  and  freck- 
led cheeks,  with  bare  feet  dangling  from 
trousers  too  short  for  him,  very  fond  of  ath- 
letic sports,  running,  boxing  and  wrestling. 
He  was  generous  to  the  younger  and 
weaker  boys,  but  very  irascible  and  over- 
bearing with  his  equals  and  superiors.  He 
was  profane — a  vice  in  which  he  surpassed 
all  other  men.    The  character  of  his  mother 


he  revered;  and  it  was  not  until  after  her 
death  that  his  predominant  vices  gained 
full  strength. 

In  1780,  at  the  age  of  thirteen,  Andrew, 
or  Andy,  as  he  was  called,  with  his  brother 
Robert,  volunteered  to  serve  in  the  Revo- 
lutionary forces  under  General  Sumter,  and 
was  a  witness  of  the  latter's  defeat  at  Hang- 
ing Rock.  In  the  following  year  the 
brothers  were  made  prisoners,  and  confined 
in  Camden,  experiencing  brutal  treatment 
from  their  captors,  and  being  spectators  of 
General  Green's  defeat  at  Hobkirk  Hill. 
Through  their  mother's  exertions  the  boys 
were  exchanged  while  suffering  from  small- 
pox. In  two  days  Robert  was  dead,  and 
Andy  apparently  dying.  The  strength  of 
his  constitution  triumphed,  and  he  regained 
health  and  vigor. 

As  he  was  getting  better,  his  mother 
heard  the  cry  of  anguish  from  the  prison- 
ers whom  the  British  held  in  Charleston, 
among  whom  were  the  sons  of  her  sisters. 
She  hastened  to  their  relief,  was  attacked 
by  fever,  died  and  was  buried  where  her 
grave  could  never  be  found.  Thus  Andrew 
Jackson,  when  fourteen  years  of  age,  was 
left  alone  in  the  world,  without  father, 
mother,  sister  or  brother,  and  without  one 
dollar  which  he  could  call  his  own.     He 


PI^ESIDBNTS     OF    THE     UNITED 


soon  entered  a  saddler's  shop,  and  labored 
diligently  for  six  months.  But  gradually, 
as  health  returned,  he  became  more  and 
more  a  wild,  reckless,  lawless "  boy.  He 
gambled,  drank  and  was  regarded  as  about 
the  worst  character  that  could  be  found. 

He  now  turned  schoolmaster.  He  could 
teach  the  alphabet,  perhaps  the  multiplica- 
tion table;  and  as  he  was  a  very  bold  boy, 
it  is  possible  he  might  have  ventured  to 
teach  a  little  writing.  But  he  soon  began  to 
think  of  a  profession  and  decided  to  study 
law.  With  a  very  slender  purse,  and  on 
the  back  of  a  ver}-  fine  horse,  he  set  out 
for  Salisbury,  North  Carolina,  where  he 
entered  the  law  office  of  Mr.  McCay. 
Here  he  remained  two  years,  professedly 
studying  law.  He  is  still  remembered  in 
traditions  of  Salisbury,  which  say: 

"  Andrew  Jackson  was  the  most  roaring, 
rollicking,  horse-racing,  card-playing,  mis- 
chievous fellow  that  ever  lived  iu  Salisbur}'. 
He  did  not  trouble  the  law-books  much." 

Andrew  was  now,  at  the  age  of  twent}', 
a  tall  young  man,  being  over  six  feet  in 
height.  He  was  slender,  remarkably  grace- 
ful and  dignified  in  his  manners,  an  exquis- 
ite horseman,  and  developed,  amidst  his 
loathesome  profanity  and  multiform  vices,  a 
vein  of  rare  magnanimity.  His  temper  was 
fiery  in  the  extreme;  but  it  was  said  of  him 
that  no  man  knew  better  than  Andrew 
Jackson  when  to  get  angry  and  when  not. 

In  1786  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and 
two  years  later  removed  to  Nashville, 
in  what  was  then  the  western  district  of 
North  Carolina,  with  the  appointment  of  so- 
licitor, or  public  prosecutor.  It  was  an  of- 
fice of  little  honor,  small  emolument  and 
great  peril.  Few  men  could  be  found  to 
accept  it. 

And  now  Andrew  Jackson  commenced 
vigorously  to  practice  law.  It  was  an  im- 
portant part  of  his  business  to  collect  debts. 
It  required  nerve.  During  the  first  seven 
years  of   his  residence   in   those  wilds  he 


traversed  the  almost  pathless  forest  between 
Nashville  and  Jonesborough,  a  distance  of 
200  miles,  twent)'-two  times.  Hostile  In- 
dians were  constantl}'  on  the  watch,  and  a 
man  was  liable  at  any  moment  to  be  shot 
down  in  his  own  field.  Andrew  Jackson 
was  just  the  man  for  this  service — a  wild, 
daring,  rough  backwoodsman.  Daily  he 
made  hair-breadth  escapes.  He  seemed  to 
bear  a  charmed  life.  Boldl}',  alone  or  with 
few  companions,  he  traversed  the  forests, 
encountering  all  perils  and  triumphing 
over  all. 

In  1790  Tennessee  became  a  Territory, 
and  Jackson  was  appointed,  by  President 
Washington,  United  States  Attorney  for 
the  new  district.  In  1791  he  married  Mrs. 
Rachel  Robards  (daughter  of  Colonel  John 
Donelson),  whom  he  supposed  to  have  been 
divorced  in  that  year  by  an  act  of  the  Leg- 
islature of  Virginia.  Two  years  after  this 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jackson  learned,  to  their 
great  surprise,  that  Mr.  Robards  had  just 
obtained  a  divorce  in  one  of  the  courts  of 
Kentucky,  and  that  the  act  of  the  Virginia 
Legislature  was  not  final,  but  conditional. 
To  remed}'  the  irregularity  as  much  as  pos- 
sible, a  new  license  was  obtained  and  the 
marriage  ceremony 'was  again  performed. 

It  proved  to  be  a  marriage  of  rare  felic- 
ity. Probably  there  never  was  a  more 
affectionate  union.  However  rough  Mr. 
Jackson  might  have  been  abroad,  he  was 
alwa3^s  gentle  and  tender  at  home;  and 
through  all  the  vicissitudes  of  their  lives,  he 
treated  Mrs.  Jackson  with  the  most  chival- 
ric  attention. 

Under  the  circumstances  it  was  not  un- 
natural that  the  facts  in  the  case  of  this 
marriage  were  so  misrepresented  b}-  oppo- 
nents in  the  political  campaigrts  a  quarter 
or  a  century  later  as  to  become  the  basis 
of  serious  charges  against  Jackson's  moral- 
ity which,  however,  have  been  satisfactorily 
attested  by  abundant  evidence. 

Jackson    was   untiring   in    his  duties  as 


I 


United  States  Attorney,  which  demanded 
frequent  journeys  through  the  wilderness 
and  exposed  him  to  Indian  hostilities.  He 
acquired  considerable  property  in  land,  and 
obtained  such  influence  as  to  be  chosen 
a  member  of  the  convention  which  framed 
the  Constitution  for  the  new  State  of  Ten- 
nessee, in  1796,  and  in  that  year  was  elected 
its  first  Representative  in  Congress.  Albert 
Gallatin  thus  describes  the  first  appearance 
of  the  Hon.  Andrew  Jackson  in  the  House: 
"A  tall,  lank,  uncouth-looking  personage, 
with  locks  of  hair  hanging  over  his  face  and 
a  cue  down  his  back,  tied  with  an  eel  skin; 
his  dress  singular,  his  manners  and  deport- 
ment those  of  a  rough  backwoodsman." 

Jackson  was  an  earnest  advocate  of  the 
Democratic  party.  Jefferson  was  his  idol. 
He  admired  Bonaparte,  loved  France  and 
hated  England.  As  Mr.  Jackson  took  his 
seat,  General  Washington,  whose  second 
term  of  office  was  just  expiring,  delivered 
his  last  speech  to  Congress.  A  committee 
drew  up  a  complimentary  address  in  reply. 
Andrew  Jackson  did  not  approve  the  ad- 
dress and  was  one  of  twelve  who  voted 
against  it. 

Tennessee  had  fitted  out  an  expedition 
against  the  Indians,  contrary  to  the  policy 
of  the  Government.  A  resolution  was  intro- 
duced that  the  National  Government 
should  pay  the  expenses.  Jackson  advo- 
cated it  and  it  was  carried.  This  rendered 
him  very  popular  in  Tennessee.  A  va- 
cancy chanced  soon  after  to  occur  in  the 
Senate,  and  Andrew  Jackson  was  chosen 
United  States  Senator  by  the  State  of  Ten- 
nessee. John  Adams  was  then  President 
and  Thomas  Jefferson,  Vice-President. 

In  1798  Mr.  Jackson  returned  to  Tennes- 
see, and  resigned  his  seat  in  the  Senate. 
Soon  after  he  was  chosen  Judge  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  that  State,  with  a  salary  of 
$600.  This  office  he  held  six  years.  It  is 
said  that  his  decisions,  though  som.etimes 
ungrammatical,  were  generally  right.     He 


did  not  enjoy  his  seat  upon  the  bench,  and 
renounced  the  dignity  in  1804.  About 
this  time  he  was  chosen  Major-General  of 
militia,  and  lost  the  title  of  judge  in  that  of 
General. 

When  he  retired  from  the  Senate  Cham- 
ber, he  decided  to  try  his  fortune  through 
trade.  He  purchased  a  stock  of  goods  in 
Philadelphia  and  sent  them  to  Nashville, 
where  he  opened  a  store.  He  lived  about 
thirteen  miles  from  Nashville,  on  a  tract  of 
land  of  several  thousand  acres,  mostly  un- 
cultivated. He  used  a  small  block-house 
for  a  store,  from  a  narrow  window  of 
which  he  sold  goods  to  the  Indians.  As  he 
had  an  assistant  his  office  as  judge  did  not 
materially  interfere  with  his  business. 

As  to  slavery,  born  in  the  midst  of  it,  the 
idea  never  seemed  to  enter  his  mind  that  it 
could  be  wrong.  He  eventually  became 
an  extensive  slave  owner,  but  he  was  one  of 
the  most  humane  and  gentle  of  masters. 

In  1804  Mr.  Jackson  withdrew  from  pol- 
itics and  settled  on  a  plantation  which  he 
called  the  Hermitage,  near  Nashville.  He 
set  up  a  cotton-gin,  formed  a  partnership 
and  traded  in  New  Orleans,  making  the 
voyage  on  flatboats.  Through  his  hot  tem- 
per he  became  involved  in  several  quarrels 
and  "affairs  of  honor,"  during  this  period, 
in  one  of  which  he  was  severely  wounded, 
but  had  the  misfortune  to  kill  his  opponent, 
Charles  Dickinson.  For  a  time  this  affair 
greatly  injured  General  Jackson's  popular- 
ity. The  verdict  then  was,  and  continues 
to  be,  that  General  Jackson  was  outra- 
geously wrong.  If  hesubsequently  felt  any 
remorse  he  never  revealed  it  to  anyone. 

In  1805  Aaron  Burr  had  visited  Nash- 
ville and  been  a  guest  of  Jackson,  with 
whom  he  corresponded  on  the  subject  of  a 
war  with  Spain,  which  was  anticipated  and 
desired  by  them,  as  well  as  by  the  people 
of  the  Southwest  generally. 

Burr  repeated  his  visit  in  September, 
1806,  when  he   engaged  in  the  celebrated 


P/fEJ/DENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


combinations  which  led  to  his  trial  for  trea- 
son. He  was  warml)-  received  by  Jackson, 
at  whose  instance  a  public  ball  was  given 
in  his  honor  at  Nashville,  and  contracted 
with  the  latter  for  boats  and  provisions. 
Early  in  1807,  when  Burr  had  been  pro- 
claimed a  traitor  by  President  Jefferson, 
volunteer  forces  for  the  Federal  service 
were  organized  at  Nashville  under  Jack- 
son's command;  but  his  energy  and  activ- 
ity did  not  shield  him  from  suspicions  of 
connivance  in  the  supposed  treason.  He 
was  summoned  to  Richmond  as  a  witness 
in  Burr's  trial,  but  was  not  called  to  the 
stand,  probably  because  he  was  out-spoken 
in  his  partisanship. 

On  the  outbreak  of  the  war  with  Great 
Britain  in  1812,  Jackson  tendered  his  serv- 
ices, and  in  January,  181 3,  embarked  for 
New  Orleans  at  the  head  of  the  Tennessee 
contingent.  In  March  he  received  an  or- 
der to  disband  his  forces;  but  in  Septem- 
ber he  again  took  the  field,  in  the  Creek 
war,  and  in  conjunction  with  his  former 
partner.  Colonel  Coffee,  inflicted  upon  the 
Indians  the  memorable  defeat  at  Talladega, 
Emuckfaw  and  Tallapoosa. 

In  May,  18 14,  Jackson,  who  had  now  ac- 
quired a  national  i^eputation,  was  appointed 
a  Major-General  of  the  United  States  army, 
and  commenced  a  campaign  against  the 
British  in  Florida.  He  conducted  the  de- 
fense at  Mobile,  September  15,  seized  upon 
Pensacola,  November  6,  and  immediately 
transported  the  bulk  of  his  troops  to  New 
Orleans,  then  threatened  by  a  powerful 
naval  force.  Martial  law  was  declared  in 
Louisiana,  the  State  militia  was  called  to 
arms,  engagements  with  the  British  were 
fought  December  23  and  28,  and  after  re-en- 
forcements had  been  received  on  both  sides 
the  famous  victory  of  January  8,  1815, 
crowned  Jackson's  fame  as  a  soldier,  and 
made  him  the  typical  American  hero  of 
the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

In  i8i7-'i8  Jackson   conducted  the  war 


against  the  Seminoles  of  Florida,  during 
which  he  seized  upon  Pensacola  and  exe- 
cuted by  courtmartial  two  British  subjects, 

Arbuthnot    and    Ambrister acts    which 

might  easily  have  involved  the  United 
States  in  war  both  with  Spain  and  Great 
Britain.  Fortunately  the  peril  was  averted 
by  the  cession  of  Florida  to  the  United 
States;  and  Jackson,  who  had  escaped  a 
trial  for  the  irregularity  of  his  conduct 
only  through  a  division  of  opinion  in  Mon- 
roe's cabinet,  was  appointed  in  1821  Gov- 
ernor of  the  new  Territory.  Soon  after  he 
declined  the  appointment  of  minister  to 
Mexico. 

In  1S23  Jackson  was  elected  to  the  United 
States  Senate,  and  nominated  by  the  Ten- 
nessee Legislature  for  the  Presidency.  This 
candidacy,  though  a  matter  of  surprise,  and 
even  merryment,  speedil}^  became  popular, 
and  in  1824,  when  the  stormy  electoral  can- 
vas resulted  in  the  choice  of  John  Quincy 
Adams  by  the  House  of  Representatives, 
General  Jackson  received  the  largest  popu- 
lar vote  among  the  four  candidates. 

In  1828  Jackson  was  triumphantly  elected 
President  over  Adams  after  a  campaign  of 
unparalleled  bitterness.  He  was  inaugu- 
rated March  4,  1829,  and  at  once  removed 
from  office  all  the  incumbents  belonging  to 
the  opposite  party — a  procedure  new  to 
American  politics,  but  which  naturally  be- 
came a  precedent. 

His  first  term  was  characterized  by  quar- 
rels between  the  Vice-President,  Calhoun, 
and  the  Secretary  of  State,  Van  Buren,  at- 
tended by  a  cabinet  crisis  originating  in 
scandals  connected  with  the  name  of  Mrs. 
General  Eaton,  wife  of  the  Secretary  of 
War;  by  the  beginning  of  his  war  upon  the 
United  States  Bank,  and  by  his  vigorous 
action  against  the  partisans  of  Calhoun, 
who,  in  South  Carolina,  threatened  to 
nullify  the  acts  of  Congress,  establishing  a 
protective  tariff. 

In    the    Presidential    campaign   of   1832 


ANDREW    JACKSON. 


m 


% 


Jackson  received  219  out  of  288  electoral 
votes,  his  competitor  being  Mr.  Clay,  while 
Mr.  Wirt,  on  an  Anti-Masonic  platform, 
received  the  vote  of  Vermont  alone.  In 
1833  President  Jackson  removed  the  Gov- 
ernment deposits  from  the  United  States 
bank,  thereby  incurring  a  vote  of  censure 
from  the  Senate,  which  was,  however,  ex- 
punged four  years  later.  During  this  second 
term  of  office  the  Cherokees,  Choctaws  and 
Creeks  were  removed,  not  without  diffi- 
culty, from  Georgia,  Alabama  and  Missis- 
sippi, to  the  Indian  Territory;  the  National 
debt  was  extinguished;  Arkansas  and 
Michigan  were  admitted  as  States  to  the 
Union;  the  Seminole  war  was  renewed;  the 
anti-slavery  agitation  first  acquired  impor- 
tance; the  Mormon  delusion,  which  had 
organized  in  1829,  attained  considerable 
proportions  in  Ohio  and  Missouri,  and  the 
country  experienced  its  greatest  pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads  with  locomotive  propulsion 
were  introduced  into  America  during  Jack- 
son's first  term,  and  had  become  an  impor- 
tant element  of  national  life  before  the 
close  of  his  second  term.  For  many  rea- 
sons, therefore,  the  administration  of  Presi- 
dent Jackson  formed  an  era  in  American 
history,  political,  social  and  industrial. 
He  succeeded  in  effecting  the  election  of 


his  friend  Van  Buren  as  his  successor,  re- 
tired from  the  Presidency  March  4,  1837, 
and  led  a  tranquil  life  at  the  Hermitage 
until  his  death,  which  occurred  June  8, 
1845. 

During  his  closing  years  he  was  a  pro- 
fessed Christian  and  a  member  ol  the  Pres- 
byterian church.  No  American  of  this 
century  has  been  the  subject  of  such  oppo- 
site judgments.  He  was  loved  and  hated 
with  equal  vehemence  during  his  fife,  but 
at  the  present  distance  of  time  from  his 
career,  while  opinions  still  vary  as  to  the 
merits  of  his  public  acts,  few  of  his  country- 
men will  question  that  he  was  a  warm- 
hearted, brave,  patriotic,  honest  and  sincere 
man.  If  his  distinguishing  qualities  were 
not  such  as  constitute  statesmanship,  in  the 
highest  sense,  he  at  least  never  pretended 
to  other  merits  than  such  as  were  written 
to  his  credit  on  the  page  of  American  his- 
tory— not  attempting  to  disguise  the  de- 
merits which  were  equally  legible.  The 
majority  of  his  countrymen  accepted  and 
honored  him,  in  spite  of  all  that  calumny 
as  well  as  truth  could  allege  against  him. 
His  faults  may  therefore  be  truly  said  to 
have  been  those  of  his  time;  his  magnifi- 
cent  virtues  may  also,  with  the  same  jus- 
tice, be  considered  as  typical  of  a  state  of 
society  which  has  nearly  passed  away. 


EB*M»«"«--Jia»iSWS»&«»»»»,»J««W,B,B.5gB»g»gBiS»iE»g«IS«riB»^^ 


PRESIDENTS     OF     THE     U.XITED    STATES. 


*^^imiS^^>f^^^^S!s-^'i 


l'gt%>t^cy^<^.*^^(^J(SgJ- 


:<SSit^<fS)*S5i^?i^'iifJ§i' 


\RTIN  VAN  BU- 
REN,  the  eighth 
'j.-^ps,  President  of  the 
United  States,  1837- 
_  _  _  '41,  was  born  at  Kin- 
"^•X  derhook,  Ne w  York, 
December  5,  1782. 
His  ancestors  were  of  Dutch 
origin,  and  were  among  the 
earliest  emigrants  from  Hol- 
land to  the  banks  of  the 
Hudson.  His  father  was  a 
tavern-keeper,  as  well  as  a 
farmer,  and  a  very  decided 
Democrat. 
*"  Martin  commenced  the  study 
of  law  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  politics  before  he  had  reached 
the  age  of  twenty.  In  1803  he  commenced 
the  practice  of  law  in  his  native  village. 
In  1809  he  removed  to  Hudson,  the  shire 
town  of  his  county,  where  he  spent  seven 
years,  gaining  strength  by  contending  in 
the  courts  with  some  of  the  ablest  men 
who  have  adorned  the  bar  of  his  State. 
The  heroic  example  of  John  Quincy  Adams 
in  retaining  in  office  every  faithful  man, 
without  regard  to  his  political  preferences, 
had  been  thoroughly  repudiated  by  Gen- 
eral Jackson.  The  unfortunate  principle 
was  now  fully  estabhshed,  that  "  to  the 
victor  belong  the  spoils."  Still,  this  prin- 
ciple, to  which  Mr.  Van  Buren  gave  his  ad- 


herence, was  not  devoid  of  inconveniences. 
When,  subsequently,  he  attained  power 
which  placed  vast  patronage  in  his  hands, 
he  was  heard  to  say :  "  I  prefer  an  office 
that  has  no  patronage.  When  I  give  a  man 
an  office  I  offend  his  disappointed  competi- 
tors and  their  friends.  Nor  am  I  certain  of 
gaining  a  friend  in  the  man  I  appoint,  for, 
in  all  probability,  he  expected  something 
better." 

In  18 1 2  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  elected  to 
the  State  Senate.  In  181 5  he  was  appointed 
Atiorne3f-General,  and  in  t 8 16  to  the  Senate 
a  second  time.  In  18 18  there  was  a  great 
split  in  the  Democratic  party  in  Nev/  York, 
and  Mr.  Van  Buren  took  the  lead  in  or- 
ganizing that  portion  of  the  party  called 
the  Albany  Regency,  which  is  said  to  have 
swayed  the  destinies  of  the  State  for  a 
quarter  of  a  century. 

In  1 82 1  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the 
convention  for  revising  the  State  Constitu- 
tion, in  which  he  advocated  an  extension  of 
the  franchise,  but  opposed  universal  suf- 
frage, and  also  favored  the  proposal  that 
colored  persons,  in  order  to  vote,  should 
have  freehold  property  to  the  amount  of 
$250.  In  this  year  he  was  also  elected  to 
the  United  States  Senate,  and  at  the  con- 
clusion of  his  term,  in  1S27,  was  re-elected, 
but  resigned  the  following  year,  having 
been  chosen  Governor  of  the  State.  In 
March,  1829,  he  was  appointed  Secretary  of 


■■■■■^■■■■^■■■■■■■d 


O  7  lyi^^  .^^-/j^.^^^1-^^^ 


MARTIN    VAN   BUREN. 


55 


State  by  President  Jackson,  but  resigned 
in  April,  1831,  and  during  the  recess  of 
Congress  was  appointed  minister  to  Eng- 
land, whitlier  he  proceeded  in  Septembci", 
but  the  Senate,  when  convened  in  Decem- 
ber, refused  to  ratify  the  appointment. 

In  May,  1832,  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  nomi- 
nated as  the  Democratic  candidate  for  Vice- 
President,  and  elected  in  the  following 
November.  May  26,  1836,  he  received  the 
nomination  to  succeed  General  Jackson  as 
President,  and  received  170  electoral  votes, 
out  of  283. 

Scarcely  had  he  taken  his  seat  in  the 
Presidential  chair  when  a  financial  panic 
swept  over  the  land.  Many  attributed 
this  to  the  war  which  General  Jackson  had 
waged  on  the  banks,  and  to  his  endeavor  to 
secure  an  almost  exclusive  specie  currency. 
Nearly  every  bank  in  the  country,  was  com- 
pelled to  suspend  specie  payment,  and  ruin 
pervaded  all  our  great  cities.  Not  less  than 
254  houses  failed  in  New  York  in  one  week. 
All  public  works  were  brought  to  a  stand, 
and  there  was  a  general  state  of  dismay. 
President  Van  Buren  urged  tlie  adoption  of 
the  independent  treasury  system,  which 
was  twice  passed  in  the  Senate  and  defeated 
in  the  House,  but  finally  became  a  law  near 
the  close  of  his  rxlministration. 

Another  important  measure  was  the  pass- 
age of  a  pre-emption  law,  giving  actual  set- 
tlers the  preference  in  the  purchase  of 
public  lands.  The  question  of  slavery,  also, 
now  began  to  assume  great  prominence  in 
national  politics,  and  after  an  elaborate 
anti-slavery  speech  by  Mr.  Slade,  of  Ver- 
mont, in  the  House  of  Representatives,  the 
Southern  members  withdrew  for  a  separate 
consultation,  at  which  Mr.  Rhctt,  of  South 
Carolina,  proposed  to  declare  it  expedient 
that  the  Union  should  be  dissolved ;  but 
the  matter  was  tided  over  by  the  passage 
of  a  resolution  that  no  petitions  or  papers 
relating  to  slavery  should  be  in  any  way 
considered  or  acted  upon. 


In  the  Presidential  election  of  1840  Mr. 
Van  Buren  was  nominated,  without  opposi- 
tion, as  the  Democratic  candidate,  William 
H.  Harrison  being  the  candidate  of  the 
Whig  party.  The  Democrats  carried  only 
seven  States,  and  out  of  294  electoral  votes 
only  sixty  were  for  Mr.  Van  Buren,  the  re- 
maining 234  being  for  his  opponent.  The 
Whig  popular  majority,  however,  was  not 
large,  the  elections  in  many  of  the  States 
being  very  close. 

March  4,  1841,  Mr.  Van  Buren  retired 
from  the  Presidency.  From  his  fine  estate 
at  Lindenwald  he  still  exerted  a  powerful 
influence  upon  the  politics  of  the  country. 
In  1844  he  was  again  proposed  as  the 
Democratic  candidate  for  the  Presidency, 
and  a  majority  of  the  delegates  of  the 
nominating  convention  were  in  his  favor ; 
but,  owing  to  his  opposition  to  the  pro- 
posed annexation  of  Texas,  he  could  not 
secure  the  requisite  two-thirds  vote.  His 
name  was  at  length  withdrawn  by  his 
friends,  and  Mr.  Polk  received  the  nomina- 
tion, and  was  elected. 

In  1848  Mr.  Cass  was  the  regular  Demo- 
cratic candidate.  A  schism,  however, 
sprang  up  in  the  party,  upon  the  question 
of  the  permission  of  slavery  in  the  newly- 
acquired  territory,  and  a  portion  of  the 
party,  taking  the  name  of  "  Free-Soilers," 
nominated  Mr.  Van  Buren.  They  drev/ 
away  sufficient  votes  to  secure  the  election 
of  General  Taylor,  the  Whig  candidate. 
After  this  Mr.  Van  Buren  retired  to  his  es- 
tate at  Kinderhook,  where  the  remainder 
of  his  life  was  passed,  with  the  exception  of 
a  European  tour  in  1853.  He  died  at 
Kinderhook,  July  24,  1862,  at  the  age  of 
eighty  years. 

Martin  Van  Buren  was  a  great  and  good 
man,  and  no  one  will  question  his  right  to 
a  high  position  among  those  who  have 
been  the  successors  of  Washington  in  the 
faithful  occupancy  of  the  Presidential 
chair. 


PRESIDENTS    OP    THM    UNITED    STATES. 


^^%ILLIAffl  HENRY  MfiRISHI.  ^^^^^ 


ILL  I  AM  HENRY 
HARRISON,  the 
ninth  President  of 
the  United  States, 
I  8  4  I ,  was  born 
February  9,  1773, 
in  Charles  County, 
Virginia,  at  Berkeley,  the  resi- 
dence of  his  father.  Governor 
Benjamin  Harrison.  He  studied 
at  Hampden,  Sidney  College, 
with  a  view  of  entering  the  med- 
ical profession.  After  graduation 
he  went  to  Philadelphia  to  study 
medicine  under  the  instruction  of 
Dr.  Rush. 
George  Washington  was  then  President 
of  the  United  States.  The  Indians  were 
committing  fearful  ravages  on  our  North- 
western frontier.  Young  Harrison,  either 
lured  by  the  love  of  adventure,  or  moved 
by  the  sufferings  of  families  exposed  to  the 
most  horrible  outrages,  abandoned  his  med- 
ical studies  and  entered  the  army,  having 
obtained  a  commission  of  ensign  from  Pres- 
ident Washington.  The  first  duty  assigned 
him  was  to  take  a  train  of  pack-horses 
bound  to  Fort  Hamilton,  on  the  Miami 
River,  about  forty  miles  from  Fort  Wash- 
ington.    He    was   soon    promoted    to   the 


rank  of  Lieutenant,  and  joined  the  army 
which  Washington  had  placed  under  the 
command  of  General  Wayne  to  prosecute 
more  vigorously  the  war  with  the  In- 
dians. Lieutenant  Harrison  received  great 
commendation  from  his  commanding  offi- 
cer, and  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
Captain,  and  placed  in  command  at  Fort 
Washington,  now  Cincmnati,  Ohio. 

About  this  time  he  married  a  daughter 
of  John  Cleves  Symmes,  one  of  the  fron- 
tiersmen who  had  established  a  thriving 
settlement  on  the  bank  of  the  Maumee. 

In  1797  Captain  Harrison  resigned  his 
commission  in  the  army  and  was  appointed 
Secretary  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  and 
ex-officio  Lieutenant-Governor,  General  St. 
Clair  being  then  Governor  of  the  Territory. 
At  that  time  the  law  in  reference  to  the 
disposal  of  the  public  lands  was  such  that 
no  one  could  purchase  in  tracts  less  than 
4,000  acres.  Captain  Harrison,  in  the 
face  of  violent  opposition,  succeeded  in 
obtaining  so  much  of  a  modification  of 
this  unjust  law  that  the  land  was  sold  in 
alternate  tracts  of  640  and  320  acres.  The 
Northwest  Territory  was  then  entitled 
to  one  delegate  in  Congress,  and  Cap- 
tain Harrison  was  chosen  to  fill  that  of- 
fice.    In  1800  he  was  appointed  Governor 


^  A'/Ya^ 


-^-^j^j^^^t-- 


g»-III^M«H-«-|M«M«l«'a.-Bii«ai!H«H»«»»—«»W.j;«H«lEWg«^M-M«*«», 


IVJLL/AAf    HENnr    HARRISON. 


59 


'  of    Indiana   Territory    and    soon    after    of 
Upper  Louisiana.     He   was  also   Superin- 
tendent of  Indian  Affairs,  and  so  well  did  he 
fulfill  these  duties  that  he  was  four  times 
appointed  to  this  office.     During  his  admin- 
istration he  effected  thirteen  treaties  with 
the  Indians,  by    which    the  United  States 
acquired  60,000,000  acres  of  land.     In  1804 
he  obtained  a  cession  from  the    Indians  of 
all  the  land  between  the  Illinois  River  and 
the  Mississippi. 
In  1S12  he  was   made  Major-General  of 
j   Kentucky    militia     and  Brigadier-General 
\  in  the   army,    with    the  command  of   the 
I  Northwest  frontier.     In  1813  he  was  made 
I  Major-General,  and  as  such  won  much  re- 
:  nown  by  the  defense  of  Fort  Meigs,  and  the 
battle  of  the  Thames,  Octobers,   1813.     In 
1 8 14  he  left  the  army  and  was  employed  in 
Indian  affairs  by  the  Government. 

In  1816  General  Harrison  was  chosen  a 
member  of  the  National  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives to  represent  the  district  of  Ohio. 
In  the  contest  which  preceded  his  election 
he  was  accused  of  corruption  in  respect  to 
the  commissariat  of  the  army.  Immedi- 
ately upon  taking  his  seat,  he  called  for  an 
investigation  of  the  charge.  A  committee 
was  appointed,  and  his  vindication  was 
triumphant.  A  high  compliment  was  paid 
to  his  patriotism,  disinterestedness  and 
devotion  to  the  public  service.  For  these 
:  services  a  gold  medal  was  presented  to  him 
j   with  the  thanks  of  Congress. 

In  1 8 19  he  was  elected  to  the  Senate  of 
Ohio,  and  in  1824,  as  one  of  the  Presiden- 
■  tial  electors  of  that  State,  he  gave  his  vote 
to  Henry  Clay.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
elected  to  the  Senate  of  the  United  States. 
In  1828  he  was  appointed  by  President 
Adams  minister  plenipotentiary  to  Colom- 
bia, but  was  recalled  by  General  Jackson 
immediately  after  the  inauguration  of  the 
latter. 

Upon    his  return    to  the   United  States, 
General  Harrison   retired  to    his   farm   at 


North  Bend,  Hamilton  County,  Ohio,  six- 
teen miles  below  Cincinnati,  where  for 
twelve  years  he  was  clerk  of  the  County 
Court.  He  once  owned  a  distillery,  but 
perceiving  the  sad  effects  of  whisky  upon 
the  surrounding  population,  he  promptly 
abandoned  his  business  at  great  pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In  1836  General  Hairison  was  brought 
forward  as  a  candidate  for  the  Presidency. 
Van  Buren  was  the  administration  candi- 
date; the  opposite  party  could  not  unite, 
and  four  candidates  were  brought  forward. 
General  Harrison  received  seventy-three 
electoral  votes  without  any  general  concert 
among  his  friends.  The  Democratic  party 
triumphed  and  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  chosen 
President.  In  1839  General  Harrison  was 
again  nominated  for  the  Presidency  by  the 
Whigs,  at  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  Mr. 
Van  Buren  being  the  Democratic  candi- 
date. General  Harrison  received  234  elec- 
toral votes  against  sixty  for  his  opponent. 
This  election  is  memorable  chiefly  for  the 
then  extraordinary  means  employed  during 
the  canvass  for  popular  votes.  Mass  meet- 
ings and  processions  were  introduced,  and 
the  watchwords  "  log  cabin  "  and  "  hard 
cider  "  were  effectually  used  by  the  Whigs, 
and  aroused  a  popular  enthusiasm. 

A  vast  concourse  of  people  attended  his 
inauguration.  His  address  on  that  occasion 
was  in  accordance  with  his  antecedents,  and 
gave  great  satisfaction.  A  short  time  after  he 
took  his  seat,  he  was  seized  by  a  pleurisy- 
fever,  and  after  a  few  days  of  violent  sick- 
ness, died  April  4,  just  one  short  month  after 
his  inauguration.  His  death  was  universally 
regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  of  National 
calamities.  Never,  since  the  death  of 
Washington,  were  there,  throughout  one 
land,  such  demonstrations  of  sorrow.  Not 
one  single  spot  can  be  found  to  sully  his 
fame;  and  through  all  ages  Americans  will 
pronounce  with  love  and  reverence  the 
name  of  William  Henrv  Harrison. 


Presidents   of  the   united  states. 


OHN  TYLER,  the  tenth 
President  of  the  United 
States,  was  born  in 
Charles  City  County, 
Virginia,  March  29,  1790. 
His  father.  Judge  John 
Tyler,  possessed  large 
landed  estates  in  Virginia, 
and  was  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  men  of  his 
day,  fining  the  offices  of 
Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Delegates,  Judge  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  and  Governor 
of  the  State. 
At  the  early  age  of  twelve 
John  entered  William  and  Mary 
College,  and  graduated  with  honor  when 
but  seventeen  years  old.  He  then  closely 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  law,  and  at 
nineteen  years  of  age  commenced  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession.  When  only  twenty- 
one  he  was  elected  to  a  seat  in  the  State 
Legislature.  He  acted  with  the  Demo- 
cratic party  and  advocated  the  measures  of 
Jefferson  and  Madison.  For  five  years  he 
was  elected  to  the  Legislature,  receiving 
nearly  the  unanimous  vote  of  his  county. 

When  but  twenty-six  years  of  age  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  Congress.  He  advo- 
cated a  strict  construction  of  the  Constitu- 
tion and  the  most  careful    vigilance   over 


youn^ 


State  rights.  He  was  soon  compelled  to 
resign  his  seat  in  Congress,  owing  to  ill 
health,  but  afterward  took  his  seat  in  the 
State  Legislature,  where  he  exerted  a 
powerful  influence  in  promoting  public 
works  of  great  utility. 

In  1825  Mr.  Tyler  was  chosen  Governor 
of  his  State — a  high  honor,  for  Virginia 
had  many  able  men  as  competitors  for 
the  prize.  His  administration  was  signally 
a  successful  one.  He  urged  forward  inter- 
nal improvements  and  strove  to  remove 
sectional  jealousies.  His  popularity  secured 
his  re-election.  In  1827  he  was  elected 
United  States  Senator,  and  upon  taking  his 
seat  joined  the  ranks  of  the  opposition.  He 
opposed  the  tariff,  voted  against  the  bank 
as  unconstitutional,  opposed  all  restrictions 
upon  slavery,  resisted  all  projects  of  inter- 
nal improvements  by  the  General  Govern- 
ment, avowed  his  sympathy  with  Mr.  Cal- 
houn's views  of  nullification,  and  declared 
that  General  Jackson,  by  his  opposition  to 
the  nullifiers,  had  abandoned  the  principles 
of  the  Democratic  party.  Such  was  Mr. 
Tyler's  record  in  Congress. 

This  hostility  to  Jackson  caused  Mr. 
Tyler's  retirement  from  the  Senate,  after 
his  election  to  a  second  term.  He  soon 
after  removed  to  Williamsburg  for  the 
better  education  of  his  children,  and  again 
took  his  S2at  in  the  Legislature. 


JCrj'i^rc  Mj^^ 


In  1839  he  was  sent  to  the  National  Con- 
vention at  Harrisburg  to  nominate  a  Presi- 
dent. General  Harrison  received  a  majority 
of  votes,  much  to  the  disappointment  of  the 
South,  who  had  wished  for  Henry  Cla3^ 
In  order  to  conciliate  the  Southern  Whigs, 
John  Tyler  was  nominated  for  Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison  and  Tyler  were  inaugu- 
rated March  4,  1841.  In  one  short  month 
from  that  time  President  Harrison  died, 
and  Mr.  Tyler,  to  his  own  surprise  as  well 
as  that  of  the  nation,  found  himself  an 
occupant  of  the  Presidential  chair.  His 
position  was  an  exceedingly  difficult  one, 
as  he  was  opposed  to  the  main  principles  of 
the  party  which  had  brought  him  into 
power.  General  Harrison  had  selected  a 
Whig  cabinet.  Should  he  retain  them,  and 
thus  surround  himself  with  councilors 
whose  views  were  antagonistic  to  his  own? 
or  should  he  turn  against  the  party  that 
had  elected  him,  and  select  a  cabinet  in 
harmony  with  himself?  This  was  his  fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President  Tyler  deserves  more  charity 
than  he  has  received.  He  issued  an  address 
to  the  people,  which  gave  general  satisfac- 
tion. He  retained  the  cabinet  General 
Harrison  had  selected.  His  veto  of  a  bill 
chartering  a  new  national  bank  led  to  an 
open  quarrel  with  the  party  which  elected 
him,  and  to  a  resignation  of  the  entire 
cabinet,  except  Daniel  Webster,  Secretary 
of  State. 

President  Tyler  attempted  to  conciliate. 
He  appointed  a  new  cabinet,  leaving  out  all 
strong  party  men,  but  the  Whig  members 
of  Congress  were  not  satisfied,  and  they 
published  a  manifesto  September  13,  break- 
ing off  all  political  relations.  The  Demo- 
crats had  a  majority  in  the  House ;  the 
Whigs  in  the  Senate.  Mr.  Webster  soon 
found  it  necessary  to  resign,  being  forced 
out  by  the  pressure  of  his  Whig  friends. 

April  12, 1844,  President  Tyler  concluded, 
through  Mr.  Calhoun,  a  treaty  for  the  an- 


nexation of  Texas,  which  was  rejected  by 
the  Senate ;  but  he  effected  his  object  in  the 
closing  days  of  his  administration  by  the 
passage  of  the  joint  resolution  of  March  i 
1845. 

He  was  nominated  for  the  Presidency  by 
an  informal  Democratic  Convention,  held 
at  Baltimore  in  May,  1844,  but  soon  with- 
drew from  the  canvass,  perceiving  that  he 
had  not  gained  the  confidence  of  the  Demo- 
crats at  large. 

Mr.  Tyler's  administration  was  particu- 
larly unfortunate.  No  one  was  satisfied. 
Whigs  and  Democrats  alike  assailed  him. 
Situated  as  he  was,  it  is  more  than  can 
be  expected  of  human  nature  that  he 
should,  in  all  cases,  have  acted  in  the  wisest 
manner ;  but  it  will  probably  be  the  verdict 
of  all  candid  men,  in  a  careful  review  of  his 
career,  that  John  Tyler  was  placed  in  a 
position  of  such  difficult}^  that  he  could  not 
pursue  an}'  course  which  would  not  expose 
him  to  severe  censure  and  denunciation. 

In  18 1 3  Mr.  Tyler  married  Letitia  Chris- 
tian, who  bore  him  three  sons  and  three 
daughters,  and  died  in  Washington  in  1842. 
June  26,  1844,  he  contracted  a  second  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Julia  Gardner,  of  New 
York.  He  lived  in  almost  complete  retire- 
ment from  politics  until  February,  1861, 
when  he  was  a  member  of  the  abortive 
"  peace  convention,"  held  at  Washington, 
and  was  chosen  its  President.  Soon  after 
he  renounced  his  allegiance  to  the  United 
States  and  was  elected  to  the  Confederate 
Congress.  He  died  at  Richmond,  January 
17,  1862,  after  a  short  illness. 

Unfortunately  for  his  memory  the  name 
of  John  Tyler  must  forever  be  associated 
with  all  the  misery  of  that  terrible  Re- 
bellion, whose  cause  he  openly  espoused. 
It  is  with  sorrow  that  history  records  that 
a  President  of  the  United  States  died  while 
defending  the  flag  of  rebellion,  which  was 
arrayed  against  the  national  banner  in 
deadly  warfare. 


VxMES   KNOX  POLK, 
the  eleventh  President  of 
the  United  States,  1845- 
*49,   was   born   in    Meck- 
»         lenburg    County,  North 
CaroHna,    November    2, 
1795.     He   was   the   eldest 
son  of  a  family  of  six  sons 
and  four  daughters,  and  was 
■     a  grand-nephew  of  Colonel 
Thomas  Polk,  celebrated  in 
^     connection  with  the  Meck- 
lenburg Declaration  of  In- 
dependence. 

In  1806  his  father,  Samuel 
Polk,  emigrated  with  his  fam- 
il}'  two  or  three  hundred  miles  west  to  the 
valley  of  the  Duck  River.  He  was  a  sur- 
veyor as  well  as  farmer,  and  gradually  in- 
creased in  wealth  until  he  became  one  of 
the  leading  men  of  the  region. 

In  the  common  schools  James  rapidly  be- 
came proficient  in  all  the  common  branches 
of  an  English  education.  In  1813  he  was 
sent  to  Murfreesboro  Academy,  and  in  the 
autumn  of  181 5  entered  the  sophomore  class 
in  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  at 
Chapel  Hill,  graduating  in  1818.  After  a 
short  season  of  recreation  he  went  to  Nash- 
ville and  entered  the  law  office  of  Felix 
Grundv.     As  soon  as  he  had  his    finished 


legal  studies  and  been  admitted  to  the 
he  returned  to  Columbia,  the  shire  town  of 
Maury  County,  and  opened  an  office. 

James  K.  Polk  ever  adhered  to  the  polit- 
ical faith  of  his  father,  which  was  that  of 
a  Jeffersonian  Republican.     In  1823  he  was 
elected  to  the  Legislature  of  Tennessee.   As 
a  "  strict  constructionist,"  he  did  not  think 
that  the  Constitution  empowered  the  Gen- 
eral Government  to  carry  on  a  system  of 
internal  improvements  in    the  States,    but 
deemed  it  important  that    it  should    have 
that  power,  and   wished  the    Constitution  I 
amended  that  it  might  be  conferred.     Sub^  1 
sequently,  however,  he  becariie  alarmed  lest  | 
the  General  Government  become  so  strong  | 
as  to  undertake  to  interfere  with  slavery.  ' 
He   therefore   gave    all    his    influence  to 
strengthen  the  State  governments,  and  to 
check  the  growth  of  the  central  power. 

In  January,  1824,  Mr.  Polk  married  Miss 
Mary  Childress,  of  Rutherford  County,  Ten- 
nessee. Had  some  one  then  whispered  to 
him  that  he  was  destined  to  become  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  and  that  he  must 
select  for  his  companion  one  who  would 
adorn  that  distinguished  station,  he  could 
not  have  made  a  more  fitting  choice.  She 
was  truly  a  lady  of  rare  beauty  and  culture. 

In  the  fall  of  1825  Mr.  Polk  was  chosen 
a  member  of  Congress,  and   was  continU' 


^ 


JAMES    K.    POLK. 


oiisly  re-elected  until  1839.  He  then  with- 
drew, only  that  he  might  accept  the 
gubernatorial  chair  of  his  native  State. 
He  was  a  warm  friend  of  General  Jackson, 
who  had  been  defeated  in  the  electoral 
contest  by  John  Quincy  Adams.  This 
latter  gentleman  had  just  taken  his  seat  in 
the  Presidential  chair  when  Mr.  Polk  took 
his  seat  in  the  House  of  Representatives. 
He  immediately  united  himself  with  the 
opponents  of  Mr.  Adams,  and  was  soon 
regarded  as  the  leader  of  the  Jackson  party 
in  the  House. 

The  four  years  of  Mr.  Adams'  adminis- 
tration passed  awa}-,  and  General  Jackson 
took  the  Presidential  chair.  Mr.  Polk  had 
now  become  a  man  of  great  influence  in 
I  Congress,  and  was  chairman  of  its  most 
j  important  committee — that  of  Wa3^s  and 
Means.  Eloquently  he  sustained  General 
Jackson  in  all  his  measures — in  his  hostility 
to  internal  improvements,  to  the  banks,  and 
to  the  tariff.  Eight  years  of  General  Jack- 
son's administration  passed  away,  and  the 
powejs  he  had  wielded  passed  into  the 
hands  of  Martin  Van  Buren ;  and  still  Mr. 
Polk  remained  in  the  House,  the  advocate 
of  that  type  of  Democracy  which  those 
distinguished  men  upheld. 

During   five   sessions   of    Congress    Mr. 
Polk  was  speaker  of  the  House.     He  per- 
formed his  arduous  duties  to  general  satis- 
faction, and  a  unanimous  vote  of  thanks  to 
,     him  was  passed  by  the  House  as  he  with- 
I     drew,    March   4,    1839.      He    was    elected 
!     Governor   by   a    large   majorit}',  and  took 
1     the  oath  of  office  at  Nashville,  October  14, 
1839.     He  was  a  candidate  for  re-election 
in  1 841,  but  was  defeated.     In  the  mean- 
time  a   wonderful   revolution    had   swept 
over  the  country.  "W.  H.  Harrison.the  Whig 
candidate,  had  been  called  to  the  Presiden- 
tial chair,  and  in  Tennessee  the  Whig  ticket 
had  been  carried  by  over  12,000  majority. 
Under  these  circumstances  Mr.  Polk's  suc- 
cess was  hopeless.     Still  he  canvassed  the 


State  with  his  Whig  competitor,  Mr.  Jones, 
traveling  in  the  most  friendly  manner  to- 
gether, often  in  the  same  carriage,  and  at 
one  time  sleeping  in  the  same  bed.  Mr. 
Jones  was  elected  by  3,000  majority. 

And  now  the  question  of  the  annexation 
of  Texas  to  our  country  agitated  the  whole 
land.  When  this  question  became  national 
Mr.  Polk,  as  the  avowed  champion  of  an- 
nexation, became  the  Presidential  candidate 
of  the  pro-slavery  wing  of  the  Democratic 
party,  and  George  M.  Dallas  their  candi- 
date for  the  Vice-Presidency.  They  were 
elected  by  a  large  majority,  and  were  in- 
augurated March  4,  1845. 

President  Polk  formed  an  able  cabinet, 
consisting  of  James  Buchanan,  Robert  J. 
Walker,  William  L.  Marcy,  George  Ban- 
croft, Cave  Johnson  and  John  Y.  Mason. 
The  Oregon  boundary  question  was  settled, 
the  Department  of  the  Interior  was  created, 
the  low  tariff  ot  1846  was  carried,  the 
financial  system  of  the  Government  was 
reorganized,  the  Mexican  war  was  con- 
ducted, which  resulted  in  the  acquisition  of 
California  and  New  Mexico,  and  had  far- 
reaching  consequences  upon  the  later  fort- 
unes of  tlie  republic.  Peace  was  made. 
We  had  wrested  from  Mexico  territory 
equal  to  four  times  the  empire  of  France, 
and  five  times  that  of  Spain.  In  the  prose- 
cution of  this  war  we  expended  20,000 
lives  and  more  than  $100,000,000.  Of  this 
money  $15,000,000  were  paid  to  Mexico. 

Declining  to  seek  a  renomination,  Mr. 
Polk  retired  from  the  Presidency  March  4, 
1849,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  General 
Zachary  Taylor.  He  retired  to  Nashville, 
and  died  there  June  19,  1849,  i"  the  fifty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age.  His  funeral  was  at- 
tended the  following  day,  in  Nashville,  with 
every  demonstration  of  respect.  He  left 
no  children.  Without  being  possessed  of 
extraordinary  talent,  Mr.  Polk  was  a  capable 
administrator  of  public  affairs,  and  irre- 
proachable in  private  life. 


'  ,r  •  ,:yK-4^^^^t£i^ 


^'o^t 


ACHARY  TAY- 
LOR, the  twelfth 
President  of  the 
United  States, 
1 849-' 50,  was  born 
in  Orange  County, 
Virginia,  Septem- 
ber 24,  1784.  His  father, 
Richard  Taylor,  was  Colo- 
nel of  a  Virginia  regiment 
in  the  Revolutionary  war, 
and  removed  to  Kentucky 
in  1785  ;  purchased  a  large 
plantation  near  Louisville 
and  became  an  influential  cit- 
izen ;  was  a  member  of  the  convention  that 
framed  the  Constitution  of  Kentucky ;  served 
in  both  branches  of  the  Legislature ;  was 
Collector  of  the  port  of  Louisville  under 
President  Washington ;  as  a  Presidential 
elector,  voted  for  Jefferson,  Madison,  Mon- 
roe and  Clay;    died  January  19,1829. 

Zachary  remained  on  his  father's  planta- 
tion until  1808,  in  which  year  (May  3)  he 
was  appointed  First  Lieutenant  in  the 
Seventh  Infantry,  to  fill  a  vacancy  oc- 
casioned by  the  death  of  his  elder  brother, 
Hancock.  Up  to  this  point  he  had  received 
but  a  limited  education. 

Joining  his  regiment  at  New  Orleans,  he 


was  attacked  with  yellow  fever,  with  nearly 
fatal  termination.  In  November,  1810,  he 
was  promoted  to  Captain,  and  in  the  sum- 
mer o(  18 1 2  he  was  in  command  of  Fort 
Harrison,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Wabash 
River,  near  the  present  site  of  Terre  Haute, 
his  successful  defense  of  which  with  but  a 
handful  of  men  against  a  large  force  of 
Indians  which  had  attacked  him  was  one  of 
the  first  marked  military  achievements  of 
the  war.  He  was  then  brevetted  Major, 
and  in   18 14  promoted  to  the  full  rank. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  war  Taylor 
was  actively  employed  on  the  Western 
frontier.  In  the  peace  organization  of  1815 
he  was  retained  as  Captain,  but  soon  after 
resigned  and  settled  near  Louisville.  In 
May,  1816,  however,  he  re-entered  the  army 
as  Major  of  the  Third  Infantry  ;  became 
Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Eighth  Infantry 
in  1819,  and  in  1832  attained  the  Colonelcy 
of  the  First  Infantry,  of  which  lie  had  been 
Lieutenant-Colonel  since  1821.  On  different 
occasions  he  had  been  called  to  Washington 
as  member  of  a  military  board  for  organiz- 1 
ing  the  militia  of  the  Union,  and  to  aid  the 
Government  with  his  knowledge  in  the  , 
organization  of  the  Indian  Bureau,  having 
for  many  years  discharged  the  duties  of 
Indian  agent  over  large  tracts  of  Western 


/::i^<0^/Q:^V''7-y/yc^ 


Z  AC  HART    TAYLOR. 


country.  He  served  through  the  Black 
Hawk  war  in  1832,  and  in  1837  was  ordered 
to  take  command  in  Florida,  then  the  scene 
of  war  with  the  Indians. 

In  1846  he  was  transferred  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Army  of  the  Southwest,  from 
which  he  was  relieved  the  same  year  at  his 
own  request.  Subsequently  he  was  sta- 
tioned on  the  Arkansas  frontier  at  Forts 
Gibbon,  Smith  and  Jesup,  which  latter  work 
had  been  built  under  his  direction  in  1822. 

May  28,  1845,  he  received  a  dispatch  from 
the  Secretary  of  War  informing  him  of  the 
receipt  of  information  by  the  President 
"that  Texas  would  shortly  accede  to  the 
terms  of  annexation,"  in  which  event  he 
was  instructed  to  defend  and  protect  her 
from  "foreign  invasion  and  Indian  incur- 
sions." He  proceeded,  upon  the  annexation 
of  Texas,  with  about  1,500  men  to  Corpus 
Christi,  where  his  force  was  increased  to 
some  4,000. 

Taylor  was  brevetted  Major-General  May 
28,  and  a  month  later,  June  29,  1S46,  his  full 
commission  to  that  grade  was  issued.  After 
needed  rest  and  reinforcement,  he  advanced 
in  September  on  Monterey,  which  city  ca- 
pitulated after  three-days  stubborn  resist- 
ance. Here  he  took  up  his  winter  quarters. 
The  plan  for  the  invasion  of  Mexico,  by 
way  of  Vera  Cruz,  with  General  Scott  in 
command,  was  now  determined  upon  by 
the  Govenrment,  and  at  the  moment  Taylor 
was  about  to  resume  active  operations,  he 
received  ordeis  to  send  the  larger  part  of 
his  force  to  reinforce  the  army  of  General 
Scott  at  Vera  Cruz.  Though  subsequently 
reinforced  by  raw  recruits,  yet  after  pro- 
viding a  garrison  for  Monterey  and  Saltillo 
he  had  but  about  5,300  effective  troops,  of 
which  but  500  or  600  were  regulars.  In 
this  weakened  condition,  however,  he  was 
destined  to  achieve  his  greatest  victory. 
Confidently  relying  upon  his  strength  at 
Vera  Cruz  to  resist  the  enemy  for  a  long 
tim.e,  Santa  Anna  directed  his  entire  army 


against  Taylor  to  overwhelm  him,  and  then 
to  return  to  oppose  the  advance  of  Scott's 
more  formidable  invasion.  The  battle  of 
Bucna  Vista  was  fought  February  22  and . 
23,  1847.  Taylor  received  the  thanks  of 
Congress  and  a  gold  medal,  and  '•  Old 
Rough  and  Ready,"  the  sobriquet  given 
him  in  the  army,  became  a  household  word. 
He  remained  in  quiet  possession  of  the 
Rio  Grande  Valley  until  November,  when 
he  returned  to  the  United  States. 

In  the  Whig  convention  which  met  at 
Philadelphia,June  7,  1848,  Taylor  was  nomi- 
nated on  the  fourth  ballot  as  candidate  of 
the  Whig  party  for  President,  over  Henry 
Clay,  General  Scott  and  Daniel  Webster. 
In  November  Ta3'lor  received  a  majority 
of  electoral  votes,  and  a  popular  vote  of 
1,360,752,  against  1,219,962  for  Cass  and 
Butler,  and  291,342  for  Van  Buren  and 
Adams.  General  Taylor  was  inaugurated 
March  4,  1849. 

The  free  and  slave  States  being  then  equal 
in  number,  the  struggle  for  supremacy  on 
the  part  of  the  leaders  in  Congress  was 
violent  and  bitter.  In  the  summer  of  1849 
California  adopted  in  convention  a  Consti- 
tution prohibiting  slavery  within  its  borders. 
Taylor  advocated  the  immediate  admission 
of  California  with  her  Constitution,  and  the 
postponement  of  the  question  as  to  the  other 
Territories  until  they  could  hold  conven- 
tions and  decide  for  themselves  whether 
slavery  should  exist  within  their  borders. 
This  policy  ultimately  prevailed  through 
the  celebrated  "  Compromise  Measures"  of 
Henry  Clay;  but  not  during  the  life  of  the 
brave  soldier  and  patriot  statesman.  July 
5  he  was  taken  suddenly  ill  with  a  bilious 
fever,  which  proved  fatal,  his  death  occur- 
ring July  9,  1850.  One  of  his  daughters 
married  Colonel  W.  W.  S.  Bliss,  his  Adju- 
tant-General and  Chief  of  Staff  in  Florida 
and  Mexico,  and  Private  Secretary  during 
his  Presidency.  Another  daughter  was 
married  to  Jefferson  Davis. 


rr 


PUES/DENTS     OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


.g.,  ;  ^jB^ 


LL  A  RD  FILL- 
MORE, the  thir- 
Ik^^^kI/  teenth  President 
of  the  United 
[i^  States,  i85o-'3,  was 
born  in  Summer 
Hill,  Cayuga 
County,  New  York,  Janu- 
ary 7,  1800.  He  was  of 
New  England  ancestry,  and 
his  educational  advantages 
were  limited.  He  early 
karned  the  clothiers'  trade, 
but  spent  all  his  leisure  time 
111  study.  At  nineteen  years 
)f  age  he  was  induced  by 
Wood  to  abandon  his  trade 
and  commence  the  study  of  law.  Upon 
learning  that  the  young  man  was  entirely 
destitute  of  means,  he  took  him  into  his 
own  office  and  loaned  him  such  money  as 
he  needed.  That  he  might  not  be  heavily 
burdened  with  debt,  young  Fillm.ore  taught 
school  during  the  winter  months,  and  in 
various  other  ways  helped  himself  along. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-three  he  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and 
commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession 
in  the   village  of  Aurora,  situated  on  the 


eastern  bank  of  the  Cayuga  Lake.  In  1825 
he  married  Miss  Abigail  Powers,  daughter 
of  Rev.  Lemuel  Powers,  a  lady  of  great 
moral  worth.  In  1825  he  took  his  seat  in 
the  House  of  Assembly  of  his  native  State, 
as  Representative  from  Erie  County, 
whither  he  had  recently  moved. 

Though  he  had  never  taken  a  very 
active  part  in  politics  his  vote  and  his  S3'm- 
pathies  were  with  the  Whig  part}'.  The 
State  was  then  Democratic,  but  his  cour- 
tesy, ability  and  integrity  won  the  respect 
of  his  associates.  In  1832  he  was  elected 
to  a  seat  in  the  United  States  Congress. 
At  the  close  of  his  term  he  returned  to  his 
law  practice,  and  in  two  years  more  he  was 
again  elected  to  Congress. 

He  now  began  to  have  a  national  reputa- 
tion. His  labors  were  very  arduous.  To 
draft  resolutions  in  the  committee  room, 
and  then  to  defend  them  against  the  most 
skillful  opponents  on  the  floor  of  the  House 
requires  readiness  of  mind,  mental  resources 
and  skill  in  debate  such  as  few  possess. 
Weary  with  these  exhausting  labors,  and 
pressed  by  the  claims  of  his  private  affairs, 
Mr.  Fillmore  wrote  a  letter  to  his  constitu- 
ents and  declined  to  be  a  candidate  for  re- 
election.    Notwithstanding  this  ccramuni- 


\  r^VJii^ii5^»M'"MBi^^«i»«,gB 


'■■■»'a"«« 


^M. 


(y(X/.rA.H^(j     </^Ci^v-i^cm:u) 


MILLARD    FILLMORE. 


cation  his  friends  met  in  convention  and 
renominated  him  by  acclamation.  Though 
gratified  by  this  proof  of  their  appreciation 
of  his  labors  he  adhered  to  his  resolve  and 
returned  to  his  home. 

In  1847  Ml"-  Fillmore  was  elected  to  the 
important  ofSce  of  comptroller  of  the  State. 
In  entering  upon  the  very  responsible  duties 
which  this  situation  demanded,  it  was  nec- 
essary for  him  to  abandon  his  profession, 
and  he  removed  to  the  city  of  Albany.  In 
this  year,  also,  the  Whigs  were  looking 
around  to  find  suitable  candidates  for  the 
President  and  Vice-President  at  the  ap- 
proaching election,  and  the  names  of  Zach- 
ary  Taylor  and  iMillard  Fillmore  became 
the  rallying  cry  of  the  Whigs.  On  the 4th 
of  March,  1849,  General  Taylor  was  inaug- 
urated President  and  Millard  Fillmore 
Vice-President  of  the  United  States. 

The  great  question  of  slavery  had  as- 
sumed enormous  proportions,  and  perme- 
ated every  subject  that  was  brought  before 
Congress.  It  was  evident  that  the  strength 
of  our  institutions  was  to  be  severely  tried. 
July  9,  1850,  President  Taylor  died,  and,  by 
the  Constitution,  Vice-President  Fillmore 
became  President  of  the  United  States. 
The  agitated  condition  of  the  country 
brought  questions  of  great  delicacy  before 
him.  He  was  bound  by  his  oath  of  office 
to  execute  the  laws  of  the  United  States. 
One  of  these  laws  was  understood  to  be, 
that  if  a  slave,  escaping  from  bondage, 
should  reach  a  free  State,  the  United  States 
was  bound  to  do  its  utmost  to  capture  him 
and  return  him  to  his  master.  Most  Chris- 
tian men  loathed  this  law.  President  Fill- 
more felt  bound  by  his  oath  rigidly  to  see 
it  enforced.  Slavery  was  organizing  armies 
to  invade  Cuba  as  it  had  invaded  Texas, 
and  annex  it  to  the  United  States.  Presi- 
dent Fillmore  gave  all  the  influence  of  his 
exalted  station  against  the  atrocious  enter- 
prise. 

Mr.  Fillmore  had  serious   difficulties  to 


contend  with,  since  the  opposition  had  a 
majority  in  both  Houses.  He  did  every- 
thing in  his  power  to  conciliate  the  South, 
but  the  pro-slavery  party  in  that  section 
felt  the  inadequency  of  all  measures  of  tran- 
sient conciliation.  The  population  of  the 
free  States  was  so  rapidly  increasing  over 
that  of  the  slave  States,  that  it  was  inevita- 
ble that  the  power  of  the  Government 
should  soon  pass  into  the  hands  of  the  free 
States.  The  famous  compromise  measures 
were  adopted  under  Mr.  Fillmore's  admin- 
istration, and  the  Japan  expedition  was 
sent  out. 

March  4,  1853,  having  served  one  term. 
President  Fillmore  retired  from  office.  He 
then  took  a  long  tour  through  the  South, 
where  he  met  with  quite  an  enthusiastic 
reception.  In  a  speech  at  Vicksburg,  al- 
luding to  the  rapid  growth  of  the  country, 
he  said: 

"  Canada  is  knocking  for  admission,  and 
Mexico  would  be  glad  to  come  in,  and 
without  saying  whether  it  would  be  right 
or  wrong,  we  stand  with  open  arms  to  re- 
ceive them;  for  it  is  the  manifest  destiny  of 
this  Government  to  embrace  the  whole 
North  American  Continent." 

In  1855  Mr.  Fillmore  went  to  Europe 
where  he  was  received  with  those  marked 
attentions  which  his  position  and  character 
merited.  Returning  to  this  country  in 
1856  he  was  nominated  for  the  Presidency 
bv  the  "Know-Nothing"  part}'.  Mr.  Bu- 
chanan, the  Democratic  candidate  was 
the  successful  competitor.  Mr.  Fillmore 
ever  afterward  lived  in  retirement.  Dur- 
ing the  conflict  of  civil  war  he  was  mostly 
silent.  It  was  generally  supposed,  how- 
ever, that  his  sympathy  was  with  the  South- 
ern Confederacy.  He  kept  aloof  from  the 
conflict  without  any  words  of  cheer  to  the 
one  party  or  the  other.  For  this  reason 
he  was  forgotten  by  both.  He  died  of 
paralysis,  in  Buffalo,  New  York,  March  8, 
1874. 


PRESIDENTS     OF    THE     UN/TED    STATES. 


! 


<^<^5.^-*<^isf-» 


I    Fpi]I^IiII]  PIER6E.    W 

~>  „  ^  , , _  .  # 


'^$^;^^.^s^m^m^,^0^i^^^^xmm^m^ 


^""^  RAN  KLIN  PIERCE, 
the  fourteenth  Presi- 
^  dent  of  the  United 
States,  was  born  in 
Hillsborough,  New 
Hampshire,  Novem- 
ber 23,  1804.  His 
father.  Governor 
Benjamin  Pierce,  was  a  Rev- 
olutionary soldier,  a  man  of 
rigid  integrity ;  was  for  sev- 
eral years  in  the  State  Legis- 
lature, a  member  of  the  Gov- 
ernor's council  and  a  General 
of  the  militia. 
Franklin  was  the  sixth  of  eight  children. 
As  a  boy  he  listened  eagerly  to  the  argu- 
ments of  his  father,  enforced  by  strong  and 
ready  utterance  and  earnest  gesture.  It 
was  in  the  days  of  intense  poHtical  excite- 
ment, when,  all  over  the  New  England 
States,  Federalists  and  Democrats  were  ar- 
rayed so  fiercely  against  each  other. 

In  1820  he  entered  Bowdoin  College,  at 
Brunswick,  Maine,  and  graduated  in  1824, 
and  commenced  the  study  of  law  in  the 
office  of  Judge  Woodbury,  a  very  distin- 
guished lawyer,  and  in  1827  was  admitted 
to  the  bar.  He  practiced  with  great  success 
in  Hillsborough  and  Concord.     He  served 


in  the  State  Legislature  four  years,  the  last 
two  of  which  he  was  chosen  Speaker  of  the 
House  by  a  very  large  vote. 

In  1833  he  was  elected  a  member  of  Con- 
gress. In  1837  he  was  elected  to  the  United 
States  Senate,  just  as  Mr.  Van  Buren  com- 
menced   his   administration. 

In  1834  he  married  Miss  Jane  Means 
Appleton,  a  lad}-  admirably  fitted  to  adorn 
every  station  with  which  her  husband  was 
honored.  Three  sons  born  to  them  all 
found  an  early  grave. 

Upon  his  accession  to  office.  President 
Polk  appointed  Mr.  Pierce  Attorney-Gen- 
eral of  the  United  States,  but  the  offer  was 
declined  in  consequence  of  numerous  pro- 
fessional engagements  at  home  and  the 
precarious  state  of  Mrs.  Pierce's  health. 
About  the  same  time  he  also  declined  the 
nomination  for  Governor  by  the  Demo- 
cratic party. 

The  war  with  Mexico  called  Mr.  Pierce 
into  the  army.  Receiving  the  appointment 
of  Brigadier-General,  he  embarked  with  a 
portion  of  his  troops  at  Newport,  Rhode 
Island,  May  27,  1847.  He  served  during 
this  war,  and  distinguished  himself  by  his 
bravery,  skill  and  excellent  'judgment. 
When  he  reached  his  home  in  his  native 
State  he  was  enthusiastically  received  by 


^;^a/^c!^^ 


HgggMg»"«"a"«"«iiTi 


FRANKLIN    PIERCE. 


79 


the  advocates  of  the  war,  and  coldly  by  its 
opponents.  He  resumed  the  practice  of  his 
profession,  frequently  taking  an  active  part 
in  political  questions,  and  giving  his  sup- 
port to  the  pro-slavery  wing  of  the  Demo- 
cratic party. 

June  12,  1852,  the  Democratic  convention 
met  in  Baltimore  to  nominate  a  candidate 
for  the  Presidency.  For  four  days  they 
continued  in  session,  and  in  thirty-five  bal- 
lotings  no  one  had  received  the  requisite 
two-thirds  vote.  Not  a  vote  had  been 
thrown  thus  far  for  General  Pierce.  Then 
the  Virginia  delegation  brought  forward 
his  name.  There  were  fourteen  more  bal- 
lotings,  during  which  General  Pierce 
gained  strength,  until,  at  the  forty-ninth 
ballot,  he  received  282  votes,  and  all  other 
candidates  eleven.  General  Winfield  Scott 
was  the  Whig  candidate.  General  Pierce 
was  elected  with  great  unanimity.  Only 
four  States — Vermont,  Massachusetts,  Ken- 
tucky and  Tennessee — cast  their  electoral 
votes  against  him.  March  4,  1853,  he  was 
inaugurated  President  of  the  United  States, 
and  William  R.  King,  Vice-President. 

President  Pierce's  cabinet  consisted  of 
William  S.  Marcy,  James  Guthrie,  Jefferson 
Davis,  James  C.  Dobbin,  Robert  McClel- 
land, James  Campbell  and  Caleb  Cushing. 

At  the  demand  of  slavery  the  Missouri 
Compromise  was  repealed,  and  all  the  Ter- 
ritories of  the  Union  were  thrown  open  to 
slavery.  The  Territor}'  of  Kansas,  west  of 
Missouri,  was  settled  by  emigi^ants  mainly 
from  the  North.  According  to  law,  they 
were  about  to  meet  and  decide  whether 
slavery  or  freedom  should  be  the  law  of 
that  realm.  Slavery  in  Missouri  and 
other  Southern  States  rallied  her  armed 
legions,  marched  them  into  Kansas,  took 
possession  of  the  polls,  drove  away  the 
citizens,  deposited  their  own  votes  by 
handfuls,  went  through  the  farce  of  count- 
ing them,  and  then  declared  that,  by  an 
overwhelming  majority,  slavery  was  estab- 


lished in  Kansas.  These  facts  nobody 
denied,  and  yet  President  Pierce's  adminis- 
tration felt  bound  to  respect  the  decision 
obtained  by  such  votes.  The  citizens  of 
Kansas,  the  majority  of  whom  were  free- 
State  men,  met  in  convention  and  adopted 
the  following  resolve : 

"Resolved,  That  the  body  of  men  who, 
for  the  past  two  months,  have  been  passing 
laws  for  the  people  of  our  Territory, 
moved,  counseled  and  dictated  to  by  the 
demagogues  of  other  States,  are  to  us  a 
foreign  body,  representing  only  the  lawless 
invaders  who  elected  them,  and  not  the 
people  of  this  Territory ;  that  we  repudiate 
their  action  as  the  monstrous  consummation 
of  an  act  of  violence,  usurpation  and  fraud 
unparalleled  in  the  history  of  the  Union." 

The  free-State  people  of  Kansas  also  sent 
a  petition  to  the  General  Government,  im- 
ploring its  protection.  In  reply  the  Presi- 
dent issued  a  proclamation,  declaring  that 
Legislature  thus  created  must  be  recog- 
nized as  the  legitimate  Legislature  of  Kan- 
sas, and  that  its  laws  were  binding  upon 
the  people,  and  that,  if  necessary,  the  whole 
force  of  the  Governmental  arm  would  be 
put  forth  to  inforce  those  laws. 

James  Buchanan  succeeded  him  in  the 
Presidency,  and,  March  4,  1857,  President 
Pierce  retired  to  his  home  in  Concord, 
New  Hampshire.  When  the  Rebellion 
burst  forth  Mr.  Pierce  remained  steadfast 
to  the  principles  he  had  always  cherished, 
and  gave  his  sympathies  to  the  pro-slavery 
part}',  with  which  he  had  ever  been  allied. 
He  declined  to  do  anything,  either  by 
voice  or  pen,  to  strengthen  the  hands  ot 
the  National  Government.  He  resided  in 
Concord  until  his  death,  which  occurred  in 
October,  1869.  He  was  one  of  the  most 
genial  and  social  of  men,  generous  to 
a  fault,  and  contributed  liberally  of  his 
moderate  means  for  the  alleviation  of  suf- 
fering and  want.  He  was  an  honored 
communicant  of  the  Episcopal  church. 


PBESIDE\TS     OF    THE     UXITED    STATES. 


'AMES  BUCHANAN,  the 
fifteenth  President  of  the 
United   States,   1857-61, 
was     born    in    Franklin 
Count }-,  Pennsylvania, 
April   23,    1791.      The 
place    where    his  father's 
cabin   stood    was    called 
Stony  Batter,   and  it.  was 
situated  in  a  wild,  romantic 
spot,  in  a  gorge  of   mount- 
ains,   with    towering    sum- 
mits rising  all  around.     He 
was  of   Irish   ancestry,   his 
father  having  emigrated  in- 
1783,    with   very  little  prop- 
erty, save  his  own  strong  arms. 

James  remained  in  his  secluded  home  for 
eight  years  enjoying  very  few  social  or 
intellectual  advantages.  His  parents  were 
industrious,  frugal,  prosperous  and  intelli- 
gent. In  1799  his  father  removed  to  Mer- 
cersburg,  where  James  was  placed  in 
school  and  commenced  a  course  in  English, 
Greek  and  Latin.  His  progress  was  rapid 
and  in  1801  he  entered  Dickinson  College 
at  Carlisle.  Here  he  took  his  stand  among 
the  first  scholars  in  the  institution,  and  was 
able  to  master  the  most  abstruse  subjects 
with  facility.  In  1809  he  graduated  with 
the  highest  honors  in  his  class. 

He  was  then  eighteen  years  of  age,  tall. 


graceful  and  in  vigorous  health,  fond  of 
athletic  sports,  an  unerring  shot  and  en- 
livened with  an  exuberant  flow  of  animal 
spirits.  He  immediately  commenced  the 
study  of  law  in  the  city  of  Lancaster,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1812.  He  rose 
very  rapidly  in  his  profession  and  at  once 
took  undisputed  stand  with  the  ablest  law- 
yers of  the  State.  When  but  twent3--si.\- 
years  of  age,  unaided,  by  counsel,  he  suc- 
cessfully defended  before  the  State  Senate 
one  of  the  Judges  of  the  State,  who  was 
tried  upon  articles  of  impeachment.  At 
the  age  of  thirty  it  was  generally  admitted 
that  he  stood  at  the  head  of  the  bar,  and 
there  was  no  lawyer  in  the  State  who  had 
a  more  extensive  or  lucrative  practice. 

In  1812,  just  after  Mr.  Buchanan  had 
entered  upon  the  practice  of  the  law,  our 
second  war  with  England  occurred.  With 
all  his  powers  he  sustained  the  Govern- 
ment, eloquently  urging  the  rigorous  pros- 
ecution of  the  war;  and  even  enlisting  as  a 
private  soldier  to  assist  in  repelling  the 
British,  who  had  sacked  Washington  and 
were  threatening  Baltimore.  He  was  at 
that  time  a  Federalist,  but  when  the  Con- 
stitution was  adopted  by  both  parties, 
Jefferson  truly  said,  "  We  are  all  Federal- 
ists; we  are  all  Republicans." 

The  opposition  of  the  Federalists  to  the 
war  with  England,  and  the  alien  and  sedi- 


'a*'grg5»S»r_B,»,»_ia,ii 


^T^Zj^^    <S-^^<^>^C5i' /Z-<5'>^^ 


i»-»-B«»«W-»«-WB 


^AMES    BUCHANAN: 


83 


tion  laws  of  John  Adams,  brought  the  party 
into  dispute,  and  the  name  of  Federalist 
became  a  reproach.  Mr.  Buchanan  almost 
immediately  upon  entering  Congress  began 
to  incline  more  and  more  to  the  Repub- 
licans. In  the  stormy  Presidential  election 
of  1824,  in  which  Jackson,  Clay,  Crawford 
and  John  Ouincy  Adams  were  candidates, 
JNIr.  Buchanan  espoused  the  cause  of  Gen- 
eral Jackson  and  unrelentingly  opposed  the 
administration  of  Mr.  Adams. 

Upon  his  elevation  to  the  Presidency, 
General  Jackson  appointed  Mr.  Buchanan, 
minister  to  Russia.  Upon  his  return  in  1833 
he  was  elected  to  a  seat  in  the  United  States 
Senate.  He  there  met  as  his  associates, 
Webster,  Clay,  Wright  and  Calhoun.  He 
advocated  the  measures  proposed  by  Presi- 
dent Jackson"  of  making  reprisals  against 
France,  and  defended  the  course  of  the  Pres- 
ident in  his  unprecedented  and  wholesale 
removals  from  office  of  those  who  were  not 
the  supporters  of  his  administration.  Upon 
this  question  he  was  brought  into  direct  col- 
lision with  Henry  Clay.  In  the  discussion 
of  the  question  respecting  the  admission  of 
Michigan  and  Arkansas  into  the  Union,  Mr. 
Buchanan  defined  his  position  by  saying: 

"  The  older  I  grow,  the  more  I  am  in- 
clined to  be  what  is  called  a  State-rights 
man." 

M.  de  Tocqueville,  in  his  renowned  work 
upon  "  Democracy  in  America,"  foresaw 
the  trouble  which  was  inevitable  from  the 
doctrine  of  State  sovereignty  as  held  by 
Calhoun  and  Buchanan.  He  was  con- 
vinced that  the  National  Government  was 
losing  that  strength  which  was  essential 
to  its  own  existence,  and  that  the  States 
were  assuming  powers  which  threatened 
the  perpetuity  of  the  Union.  Mr.  Buchanan 
received  the  book  in  the  Senate  and  de- 
clared the  fears  of  De  Tocqueville  to  be 
groundless,  and  yet  he  lived  to  sit  in  the 
Presidential  chair  and  see  State  after  State, 
in  accordance  with  his  own  views  of  State 


rights,  breaking  from  the  Union,  thus 
crumbling  our  RepubHc  into  ruins;  while 
the  unhappy  old  man  folded  his  arms  in 
despair,  declaring  that  the  National  Consti- 
tution invested  him  with  no  power  to  arrest 
the  destruction. 

Upon  Mr.  Polk's  accession  to  the  Presi- 
dency, Mr.  Buchanan  became  Secretary  of 
State,  and  as  such  took  his  share  of  the 
responsibility  in  the  conduct  of  the  Mexi- 
can war.  At  the  close  of  Mr.  Polk's  ad- 
ministration, Mr.  Buchanan  retired  to  pri- 
vate life;  but  his  intelligence,  and  his  great 
ability  as  a  statesman,  enabled  him  to  exert 
a  powerful  influence  in  National  affairs. 

Mr.  Pierce,  upon  his  election  to  the 
Presidency,  honored  Mr.  Buchanan  with 
the  mission  to  England.  In  the  year  1856 
the  National  Democratic  convention  nomi- 
nated Mr.  Buchanan  for  the  Presidency. 
The  political  conflict  was  one  of  the  most 
severe  in  which  our  country  has  ever  en- 
gaged. On  the  4th  of  March,  1857,  Mr. 
Buchanan  was  inaugurated  President.  His 
cabinet  were  Lewis  Cass,  Howell  Cobb, 
J.  B.  Floyd,  Isaac  Toucey,  Jacob  Thomp- 
son,  A.  V.  Brown  and   J.   S.  Black. 

The  disruption  of  the  Democratic  party, 
in  consequence  of  the  manner  in  which  the 
issue  of  the  nationality  of  slavery  was 
pressed  by  the  Southern  wing,  occurred  at 
the  National  convention,  held  at  Charleston 
in  April,  i860,  for  the  nomination  of  Mr. 
Buchanan's  successor,  when  the  majority 
of  Southern  delegates  withdrew  upon  the 
passage  of  a  resolution  declaring  that  the 
constitutional  status  of  slavery  should  be 
determined  by  the  Supreme  Court. 

In  the  next  Presidential  canvass  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  was  nominated  by  the  oppo- 
nents of  Mr.  Buchanan's  administration. 
Mr.  Buchanan  remained  in  Washington 
long  enough  to  see  his  successor  installed 
and  then  retired  to  his  home  in  Wheatland. 
He  died  June  i,  1868,  aged  seventy-seven 
years. 


1 


PRESIDENTS     OF     THE     UNITED    STATES. 


IL 


BRAHAM  LIN- 
■'i^  COLN,  the  sixteenth 
-r  President  of  the 
United  States,  i86i-'5, 
_^  ,  was  born  February 
J^ir^n^j]^  12,  1S09,  in  Larue 
^■i^  (then  Hardin)  County, 
Kentuck)',  in  a  cabin  on  Nolan 
Creek,  three  miles  west  of 
Hudgensville.  His  parents 
\\  ere  Thomas  and  Nancy 
(Hanks)  Lincoln.  Of  his  an- 
cestry and  early  years  the  little 
that  is  known  may  best  be 
given  in  his  own  language :  "  M}- 
parents  were  both  born  in  Virginia,  of  un- 
distinguished families — second  families,  per- 
haps I  should  say.  M}'  mother,  who  died 
in  my  tenth  year,  was  of  a  family  of  the 
name  of  Hanks,  some  of  whom  now  remain 
in  Adams,  and  others  in  Macon  County, 
Illinois.  My  paternal  grandfather,  Abra- 
ham Lincoln,  emigrated  from  Rockbridge 
County,  Virginia,  to  Kentucky  in  1781  or 
1782,  where,  a  year  or  two  later,  he  was 
killed  by  Indians — not  in  battle,  but  by 
stealth,  when  he  was  laboring  to  open  a 
farm  in  the  forest.  His  ancestors,  who  were 
Quakers,  went  to  Virginia  from  Berks 
County,  Pennsylvania.     An  effort  to  iden- 


tify them  with  the  New  England  family  of 
the  same  name  ended  in  nothing  more  defi- 
nite than  a  similarity  of  Christian  names  in 
both  families,  such  as  Enoch,  Levi,  Mor- 
decai,  Solomon,  Abraham  and  the  like. 
My  father,  at  the  death  of  his  father,  was 
but  six  years  of  age,  and  he  grew  up,  liter- 
ally, without  education.  He  removed  from 
Kentuck}'  to  what  is  now  Spencer  County, 
Indiana,  in  my  eighth  year.  We  reached 
our  new  home  about  the  time  the  State  came 
into  the  Union.  It  was  a  wild  region,  with 
bears  and  other  wild  animals  still  in  the 
woods.     There  I  grew  to  manhood. 

"  There  were  some  schools,  so  called,  but 
no  qualification  was  ever  i-equired  of  a 
teacher  beyond  '  readin',  writin',  and  cipher- 
in'  to  the  rule  of  three.'  If  a  straggler,  sup- 
posed to  understand  Latin,  happened  to 
sojourn  in  the  neighborhood,  he  was  looked 
upon  as  a  wizard.  There  was  absolutely 
nothing  to  excite  ambition  for  education. 
Of  course,  when  I  came  of  age  I  did  not 
know  much.  Still,  somehow,  I  could  read, 
write  and  cipher  to  the  rule  of  three,  and 
that  was  all.  I  have  not  been  to  school 
since.  The  little  advance  I  now  have  upon 
this  store  of  education  I  have  picked  up 
from  time  to  time  under  the  pressure  of 
necessity.    I  was  raised  to  farm-work,  which 


/^. 


U"       /r^-^-c- ^r-'^       e>H 


g/y^6<>-^^  cct^^ 


ABRAHAM    LINCOLN. 


I  continued  till  I  was  twenty-two.  At 
twent3'-one  I  came  to  Illinois  and  passed 
the  first  year  in  Macon  County.  Then  I  got 
to  New  Salem,  at  that  time  in  Sangamon, 
now  in  Menard  County,  where  I  remained 
a  year  as  a  sort  of  clerk  in  a  store. 

"  Then  came  the  Black  Hawk  war,  and  I 
was  elected  a  Captain  of  volunteers — a  suc- 
cess which  gave  me  more  pleasure  than  any 
I  have  had  since.  I  went  the  campaign, 
was  elated ;  ran  for  the  Legislature  the 
same  year  (1832)  and  was  beaten,  the  only 
time  I  have  ever  been  beaten  by  the  people. 
The  next  and  three  succeeding  biennial 
elections  I  was  elected  to  the  Legislature, 
and  was  never  a  candidate  afterward. 

"  During  this  legislative  period  I  had 
studied  law,  and  removed  to  Springfield  to 
practice  it.  In  1846  I  was  elected  to  the 
Lower  House  of  Congress ;  was  not  a  can- 
didate for  re-election.  From  1849  to  1854, 
inclusive,  I  practiced  the  law  more  assid- 
uously than  ever  before.  Always  a  Whig 
in  politics,  and  generally  on  the  Whig  elec- 
toral tickets,  making  active  canvasses,  I  was 
losing  interest  in  politics,  when  the  repeal 
of  the  Missouri  Compromise  roused  me 
again.  What  I  have  done  since  is  pretty 
well  known." 

The  early  residence  of  Lincoln  in  Indi- 
ana was  sixteen  miles  north  of  the  Ohio 
River,  dn  Little  Pigeon  Creek,  one  and  a 
half  miles  east  of  Gentryville,  within  the 
present  township  of  Carter.  Here  his 
mother  died  October  5,  181 8,  and  the  next 
year  his  father  married  Mrs.  Sally  (Bush) 
Johnston,  of  Elizabethtown,  Kentucky.  She 
was  an  affectionate  foster-parent,  to  whom 
Abraham  was  indebted  for  his  first  encour- 
agement to  stud}'.  He  became  an  eager 
reader,  and  the  few  books  owned  in  the 
vicinity  were  many  times  perused.  He 
worked  frequently  for  the  neighbors  as  a 
farm  laborer ;  was  for  some  time  clerk  in  a 
store  at  Gentryville ;  and  became  famous 
throughout   that    region    for    his   athletic 


powers,  his  fondness  for  argument,  his  in- 
exhaustible fund  of  humerous  anecdote,  as 
well  as  for  mock  oratory  and  the  composi- 
tion of  rude  satirical  verses.  In  1828  he 
made  a  trading  voyage  to  New  Orleans  as 
"  bow-hand  "  on  a  flatboat ;  removed  to 
Illinois  in  1830;  helped  his  father  build  a 
log  house  and  clear  a  farm  on  the  north 
fork  of  Sangamon  River,  ten  miles  west  of 
Decatur,  and  was  for  some  time  employed 
in  splitting  rails  for  the  fences — a  fact  which 
was  prominentl}'  brought  forward  for  a 
political  purpose  thirty  years  later. 

In  the  spring  of  185 1  he,  with  two  of  his 
relatives,  was  hired  to  build  a  flatboat  on 
the  Sangamon  River  and  navigate  it  to 
New  Orleans.  The  boat  "stuck"  on  a 
mill-dam,  and  was  got  off  with  great  labor 
through  an  ingenious  mechanical  device 
which  some  years  later  led  to  Lincoln's 
taking  out  a  patent  for  "an  improved 
method  for  lifting  vessels  over  shoals." 
This  voyage  was  memorable  for  another 
reason — the  sight  of  slaves  chained,  mal- 
treated and  flogged  at  New  Orleans  was 
the  origin  of  his  deep  convictions  upon  the 
slavery  question. 

Returning  from  this  voyage  he  became  a 
resident  for  several  years  at  New  Salem,  a 
recently  settled  village  on  the  Sangamon, 
where  he  was  successively  a  clerk,  grocer, 
surveyor  and  postmaster,  and  acted  as  pilot 
to  the  first  steamboat  that  ascended  the 
Sangamon.  Here  he  studied  law,  inter- 
ested himself  in  local  politics  after  his 
return  from  the  Black  Hawk  war,  and 
became  known  as  an  effective  "  stump- 
speaker."  The  subject  of  his  first  political 
speech  was  the  improvement  of  the  channel 
of  the  Sangamon,  and  the  chief  ground  on 
which  he  announced  himself  (1832)  a  candi- 
date for  the  Legislature  was  his  advocacy 
of  this  popular  measure,  on  which  subject 
his  practical  experience  made  him  the  high- 
est authority. 

Elected  to  the  Legislature  in  1834  as  a 


11^ 


s^ 


PRES/DEXTS     OF     THE     UNITED    STATES. 


"  Henry  Clay  Whig,"  he  rapidly  acquired 
that  command  of  language  and  that  homely 
but  forcible  rhetoric  which,  added  to  his 
intimate  knowledge  of  the  people  from 
which  he  sprang,  made  him  more  than  a 
match  in  debate  for  his  few  well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted  to  the  bar  in  1837  he  soon 
established  himself  at  Springfield,  where 
the  State  capital  was  located  in  1839, 
largely  through  his  influence;  became  a 
successful  pleader  in  the  State,  Circuit  and 
District  Courts;  married  in  1842  a  lady  be- 
longing to  a  prominent  family  in  Lexington, 
Kentucky;  took  an  active  part  in  the  Pres- 
idential campaigns  of  1840  and  1844  as 
candidate  for  elector  on  the  Harrison  and 
Clay  tickets,  and  in  1846  was  elected  to  the 
United  States  House  of  Representatives 
over  the  celebrated  Peter  Cartwright. 
During  his  single  term  in  Congress  he  did 
not  attain  any  prominence. 

He  voted  for  the  reception  of  anti-slavery 
petitions  for  the  abolition  of  the  slave  trade 
in  the  District  of  Columbia  and  for  the 
Wilmot  proviso;  but  was  chiefly  remem- 
bered for  the  stand  he  took  against  the 
Mexican  war.  For  several  years  there- 
after he  took  comparatively  little  interest 
in  politics,  but  gained  aleading  position  at 
the  Springfield  bar.  Two  or  three  non- 
political  lectures  and  an  eulog}'^  on  Henry 
Clay  (1852)  added  nothing  to  his  reputation. 

In  1854  the  repeal  of  the  Missouri 
Compromise  by  the  Kansas-Nebraska  act 
aroused  Lincoln  from  his  indifference,  and 
in  attacking  that  measure  he  had  the  im- 
mense advantage  of  knowing  perfectly  well 
the  motives  and  the  record  of  its  author, 
Stephen  A.  Douglas,  of  Illinois,  then  popu- 
larly designated  as  the  "  Little  Giant."  The 
latter  came  to  Springfield  in  October,  1854, 
on  the  occasion  of  the  State  Fair,  to  vindi- 
cate his  policy  in  the  Senate,  and  the  "  Anti- 
Nebraska"  Whigs,  remembering  that  Lin- 
coln had  often  measured  his  strength  with 


Douglas  in  the  Illinois  Legislature  and  be- 
fore the  Springfield  Courts,  engaged  him 
to  improvise  a  reply.  This  speech,  in  the 
opinion  of  those  who  heard  it,  was  one  of 
the  greatest  efforts  of  Lincoln's  life ;  cer- 
tainly the  most  effective  in  his  whole  career. 
It  took  the  audience  by  storm,  and  from 
that  moment  it  was  felt  that  Douglas  had 
met  his  match.  Lincoln  was  accordingly 
selected  as  the  Anti-Nebraska  candidate  for 
the  United  States  Senate  in  place  of  General 
Shields,  whose  term  expired  March  4,  1855, 
and  led  to  several  ballots;  but  Trumbull 
was  ultimately  chosen. 

The  second  conflict  on  the  soil  of  Kan- 
sas, which  Lincoln  had  predicted,  soon  be- 
gan. The  result  was  the  disruption  of  the 
Whig  and  the  formation  of  the  Republican 
party.  At  the  Bloomington  State  Conven- 
tion in  1856,  where  the  new  party  first 
assumed  form  in  Illinois,  Lincoln  made  an 
impressive  address,  in  which  for  the  first 
time  he  took  distinctive  ground  against 
slavery  in  itself. 

At  the  National  Republican  Convention 
at  Philadelphia,  June  17,  after  the  nomi- 
nation of  Fremont,  Lincoln  was  put  for- 
ward by  the  Illinois  delegation  for  the 
Vice-Presidency,  and  received  on  the  first 
ballot  no  votes  against  259  for  William  L. 
Dayton.  He  took  a  prominent  part  in  the 
canvass,  being  on  the  electoral  ticket. 

In  1858  Lincoln  was  unanimously  nomi- 
nated by  the  Repubhcan  State  Convention 
as  its  candidate  for  the  United  States  Senate 
in  place  of  Douglas,  and  in  his  speech  of 
acceptance  used  the  celebrated  illustration 
of  a  "house  divided  against  itself"  on  the 
slavery  question,  v.hich  was,  perhaps,  the 
cause  of  his  defeat.  The  great  debate  car- 
ried on  at  all  the  principal  towns  of  Illinois 
between  Lincoln  and  Douglas  as  rival  Sena- 
torial candidates  resulted  at  the  time  in  the 
election  of  the  latter ;  but  being  widely  cij- 
culated  as  a  campaign  document,  it  fixed 
the    attention   of    the    country    upon    the 


ABRAHAM    LINCOLN. 


former,  as  the  clearest  and  most  convinc- 
ing exponent  of  Republican  doctrine. 

Early  in  1S59  he  began  to  be  named  in 
lUinois  as  a  suitable  Republican  candidate 
for  the  Presidential  campaign  of  the  ensu- 
ing year,  and  a  political  address  delivered 
at  the  Cooper  Institute,  New  York,  Febru- 
ary 27,  i860,  followed  by  similar  speeches 
at  New  Haven,  Hartford  and  elsewhere  in 
New  England,  first  made  him  known  to  the 
Eastern  States  in  the  light  by  which  he  had 
long  been  regarded  at  home.  By  the  Re- 
publican State  Convention,  which  met  at 
Decatur,  Illinois,  May  9  and  10,  Lincoln 
was  unanimously  endorsed  for  the  Presi- 
dency. It  was  on  this  occasion  that  two 
rails,  said  to  have  been  split  by  his  hands 
thirty  years  before,  were  brought  into  the 
convention,  and  the  incident  contributed 
much  to  his  popularity.  The  National 
Republican  Convention  at  Chicago,  after 
spirited  efforts  made  in  favor  of  Seward, 
Chase  and  Bates,  nominated  Lincoln  for 
the  Presidency,  with  Hannibal  Hamlin 
for  Vice-President,  at  the  same  time  adopt- 
ing a  vigorous  anti-slavery  platform. 

The  Democratic  party  having  been  dis- 
organized and  presenting  two  candidates, 
Douglas  and  Breckenridge,  and  the  rem- 
nant of  the  "  American"  party  having  put 
forward  John  Bell,  of  Tennessee,  the  Re- 
pubhcan  victory  was  an  easy  one,  Lincoln 
being  elected  November  6  by  a  large  plu- 
rality, comprehending  nearly  all  the  North- 
ern States,  but  none  of  the  Southern.  The 
secession  of  South  Carolina  and  the  Gulf 
States  was  the  immediate  result,  followed 
a  few  months  later  by  that  of  the  border 
slave  States  and  the  outbreak  of  the  great 
civil  war. 

Tlie  life  of  Abraham  Lincoln  became 
thenceforth  merged  in  the  history  of  his 
country.  None  of  the  details  of  the  vast 
conflict  which  filled  the  remainder  of  Lin- 
coln's life  can  here  be  given.  Narrowly 
escaping  assassination   bj'  avoiding  Balti- 


more on  his  way  to  the  capital,  he  reached 
Washington  February  23,  and  was  inaugu- 
rated President  of  the  United  States  March 
4,  1861. 

In  his  inaugural  address  he  said:  "  I  hold, 
that  in  contemplation  of  universal  law  and 
the  Constitution  the  Union  of  these  States  is 
perpetual.  Perpetuity  is  implied  if  not  ex- 
pressed in  the  fundamental  laws  of  all  na- 
tional governments.  It  is  safe  to  assert 
that  no  government  proper  ever  had  a  pro- 
vision in  its  organic  law  for  its  own  termi- 
nation. I  therefore  consider  that  in  view 
of  the  Constitution  and  the  laws,  the  Union 
is  unbroken,  and  to  the  extent  of  my  ability 
I  shall  take  care,  as  the  Constitution  en- 
joins upon  me,  that  the  laws  of  the  United 
States  be  extended  in  all  the  States.  In 
doing  this  there  need  be  no  bloodshed  or  vio- 
lence, and  there  shall  be  none  unless  it  be 
forced  upon  the  national  authority.  The 
power  conferred  to  me  will  be  used  to  hold, 
occupy  and  possess  the  property  and  places 
belonging  to  the  Government,  and  to  col- 
lect the  duties  and  imports,  but  beyond 
what  may  be  necessary  for  these  objects 
there  will  be  no  invasion,  no  using  of  force 
against  or  among  the  people  anywhere.  In 
your  hands,  my  dissatisfied  fellow-country- 
men, is  the  momentous  issue  of  civil  war. 
The  Government  will  not  assail  you.  You 
can  have  no  conflict  without  being  your- 
selves the  aggressors.  You  have  no  oath 
registered  in  heaven  to  destroy  the  Gov- 
ernment, while  I  shall  have  the  most  sol- 
emn one  to  preserve,  protect  and  defend 
it." 

He  called  to  his  cabinet  his  principal 
rivals  for  the  Presidential  nomination  — 
Seward,  Chase,  Cameron  and  Bates;  se- 
cured the  co-operation  of  the  Union  Demo- 
crats, headed  by  Douglas;  called  out  75,000 
militia  from  the  several  States  upon  the  fust 
tidings  of  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Sumter, 
April  15;  proclaimed  a  blockade  of  the 
Southern  posts  April   19;  called  an  extra 


session  of  Congress  for  July  4,  from  which 
he  asked  and  obtained  400,000  men  and 
$400,000,000  for  the  war;  placed  McCIellan 
at  the  head  of  the  Federal  army  on  General 
Scott's  resignation,  October  31;  appointed 
Edwin  M.  Stanton  Secretary  of  War,  Jan- 
uary 14,  1862,  and  September  22,  1862, 
issued  a  proclamation  declaring  the  free- 
dom of  all  slaves  in  the  States  and  parts  of 
States  then  in  rebellion  from  and  after 
January  i.  1863.  This  was  the  crowning 
act  of  Lincoln's  career — the  act  by  which 
he  will  be  chiefly  known  through  all  future 
time — and  it  decided  the  war. 


Johnson  assumed  the  Presidency,  and  active 
measures  were  taken  which  resulted  in  the . 
death  of  Booth  and  the  execution  of  his 
principal  accomplices. 

The  funeral  of  President  Lincoln  was 
conducted  with  unexampled  solemnity  and  * 
magnificence.  Impressive  services  were 
held  in  Washington,  after  which  the  sad 
procession  proceeded  over  the  same  route 
he  had  traveled  four  years  before,  from 
Springfield  to  Washington.  In  Philadel- 
phia his  body  lay  in  state  in  Independence 
Hall,  in  which  he  had  declared  before  his 
first  inauguration   "  that  I  would  sooner  be 


October  16, 1863,  President  Lincoln  called  ;  assassinated  than  to  give  up  the  principles 
for   300,000   volunteers    to    replace    those     ot  the  Declaration  of  Independence."     He 


whose  term  of  enlistment  had  expired ; 
made  a  celebrated  and  touching,  though 
brief,  address  at  the  dedication  of  the 
Gettysburg  military  cemetery,  November 
19,  1863;  commissioned  Ulysses  S.  Grant 
Lieutenant-General  and  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  armies  of  the  United  States, 
March  9,  1864;  was  re-elected  President  in 
November  of  the  same  year,  by  a  large 
majority  over  General  McCIellan,  with 
Andrew  Johnson,  of  Tennessee,  as  Vice- 
President;  delivered  a  very  remarkable  ad- 
dress at  his  second  inauguration,  March  4, 
1865;  visited  the  army  before  Richmond  the 
Game  month;  entered  the  capital  of  the  Con- 
federacy the  day  after  its  fall,  and  upon  the 
surrender  of  General  Robert  E.  Lee's  army, 
April  9,  was  actively  engaged  in  devising 
generous  plans  for  the  reconstruction  of  the 
Union,  when,  on  the  evening  of  Good  Fri- 
day, April  14,  he  was  shot  in  his  box  at 
Ford's  Theatre,  Washington,  byJohnWilkcs 
Booth,  a  fanatical  actor,  and  expired  early 
on  the  following  morning,  April  15.  Al- 
most simultaneously  a  murderous  attack 
was  made  upon  William  H.  Seward,  Secre- 
tary of  State. 

At  noon  on  the  15  th  of  April  Andrew 


was  buried  at  Oak  Ridge  Cemetery,  near 
Springfield,  Illinois,  on  May  4,  where  a 
monument  emblematic  of  the  emancipation 
of  the  slaves  and  the  restoration  of  the 
Union  mark  his  resting  place. 

The  leaders  and  citizens  of  the  expiring 
Confederacy  expressed  genuine  indignation 
at  the  murder  of  a  generous  political  adver- 
sar)'.  Foreign  nations  took  part  in  mourn- 
ing the  death  of  a  statesman  who  had  proved 
himself  a  true  representative  of  American 
nationality.  The  freedmen  of  the  Soutib 
almost  worshiped  the  memorj-  of  their  de- 
liverer; and  the  general  sentiment  of  the 
great  Nation  he  had  saved  awarded  him  a 
place  in  its  affections,  second  only  to  that 
held  by  Washington. 

The  characteristics  of  Abraham  Lincoln 
have  been  familiarly  known  throughout  the 
civilized  world.  His  tall,  gaunt,  ungainly 
figure,  homely  countenance,  and  his  shrewd 
mother-wit,  shown  in  his  celebrated  con- 
versations overflowing  in  humorous  and 
pointed  anecdote,  combined  with  an  accu- 
rate, intuitive  appreciation  of  the  questions 
of  the  time,  are  recognized  as  forming  the 
best  type  of  a  period  of  American  history 
now  rapidly  passing  away. 


»-■,■  J^--,"  Jii_ii_  Jjaa  a 


'y^K£.,C.^i^- 


^^/J^yt^ 


ANDREW     JOHNSON. 


P*^ 


^;s&'-S;S^'->^NDREW  JOHNSON, 

-  '  the  seventeenth  Presi- 
1^  ,  ^  dent  of  the  United 
^^                         «"     States,    1865-9,    '^^'''S 

—  b  o  r  n  at  R  a  1  c  i  g  h  , 
rr^'  ^  North  Carolina,  De- 
'-*     ^^     c  ember  29,    1808. 

His  father  died  when 
he  was  four  yeais  old,  and  in 
his  eleventh  year  he    was  ap- 
pi  enticed  to  a  tailor.     He  nev- 
ci    attended   school,    and    did 
not  learn  to  read   until  late  in 
his   apprenticeship,    when    he 
W     suddenly  acquired  a  passion  for 
obtaining  knowledge,  and  devoted 
all  his  spare  time  to  reading. 

After  working  two  years  as  a  journe}-- 
man  tailor  at  Lauren's  Court-House,  South 
Carolina,  he  removed,  in  1826,  to  Green- 
ville, Tennessee,  where  he  worked  at  his 
trade  and  married.  Under  his  wife's  in- 
structions he  made  rapid  progress  in  his 
education,  and  manifested  such  an  intelli- 
gent interest  in  local  politics  as  to  be 
elected  as  "  workingmen's  candidate  ','  al- 
derman, in  1828,  and  mayor  in  1830,  being 
twice  re-elected  to  each  office. 

During  this  period  he  cultivated  his  tal- 
ents as  a  public  speaker  by  taking  part  in  a 


debating  society,  consisting  largely  of  stu- 
dents of  Greenville  College.  In  1835,  and 
again  in  1839,  ^e  was  chosen  to  the  lower 
house  of  the  Legislature,  as  a  Democrat. 
In  1 841  he  was  elected  State  Senator,  and 
in  1843,  Representative  in  Congress,  being 
re-elected  four  successive  periods,  until 
1853,  when  he  was  chosen  Governor  of 
Tennessee.  In  Congress  he  supported  the 
administrations  of  Tyler  and  Polk  in  their 
chief  measures,  especially  the  annexation 
of  Texas,  the  adjustment  of  the  Oregon 
boundary,  the  Mexican  war,  and  the  tariff 
of  1846. 

In  1855  Mr.  Johnson  was  reelected  Gov- 
ernor, and  in  1857  entered  the  United 
States  Senate,  where  he  was  conspicuous 
as  an  advocate  of  retrenchment  and  of  the 
Homestead  bill,  and  as  an  opponent  of  the 
Pacific  Railroad.  He  was  supported  by  the 
Tennessee  delegation  to  the  Democratic 
convention  in  i860  for  the  Presidential 
nomination,  and  lent  his  influence  to  the 
Breckenridge  wing  of  that  party. 

When  the  election  of  Lincoln  had 
brought  about  the  first  attempt  at  secession 
in  December,  i860,  Johnson  took  in  the 
Senate  a  firm  attitude  for  the  Union,  and 
in  Ma}^,  1861,  on  returning  to  Tennessee, 
he  was  in  imminent  peril  of  suffering  from 


lii 


s 


m 


popular  violence  for  his  loyalty  to  the  "  old 
fiag."  He  was  the  leader  of  the  Loyalists' 
convention  of  East  Tennessee,  and  during 
the  following  winter  was  very  active  in  or- 
ganizing relief  for  the  destitute  loyal  refu- 
gees from  that  region,  his  own  family  being 
among  those  compelled  to  leave. 

By  his  course  in  this  crisis  Johnson  came 
prominently  before  the  Northern  public, 
and  when  in  iS'Iarch,  1862,  he  was  appointed 
by  President  Lincoln  military  Governor  of 
Tennessee,  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he  increased  in  popularity  by  the  vig- 
orous and  successful  manner  in  which  he 
labored  to  restore  order,  protect  Union 
men  and  punish  marauders.  On  the  ap- 
proach of  the  Presidential  campaign  of  1864, 
the  termination  of  the  war  being  plainly 
foreseen,  and  several  Southern  States  being 
partially  reconstructed,  it  was  felt  that  the 
Vice-Presidency  should  be  given  to  a  South- 
ern man  of  conspicuous  loyalty,  and  Gov- 
ernor Johnson  was  elected  on  the  same 
platform  and  ticket  as  President  Lincoln; 
and  on  the  assassination  of  the  latter  suc- 
ceeded to  the  Presidency,  April  15,  1865. 
In  a  public  speech  two  days  later  he  said: 
"  The  American  people  must  be  taught,  if 
they  do  not  already  feel,  that  treason  is  a 
crime  and  must  be  punished;  that  the  Gov- 
ernment will  not  always  bear  with  its  ene- 
mies; that  it  is  strong,  not  onl}-  to  protect, 
but  to  punish.  In  our  peaceful  history 
treason  has  been  almost  unknown.  The 
people  must  understand  that  it  is  the  black- 
est of  crimes,  and  will  be  punished."  He 
then  added  the  ominous  sentence:  "  In  re- 
gard to  my  future  course,  I  make  no  prom- 
ises, no  pledges."  President  Johnson  re- 
tained the  cabinet  of  Lincoln,  and  exhibited 
considerable  severity  toward  traitors  in  his 
earlier  acts  and  speeches,  but  he  soon  inaug- 
urated a  policy  of  reconstruction,  proclaim- 
ing a  general  amnesty  to  the  late  Confeder- 
ates, and  successively  establishing  provis- 
ional Governments  in  the  Southern  States. 


These  States  accordingly  claimed  represen- 
tation in  Congress  in  the  following  Decem- 
ber, and  the  momentous  question  of  what 
should  be  the  policy  of  the  victorious  Union 
toward  its  late  armed  opponents  was  forced 
upon  that  body. 

Two  considerations  impelled  the  Repub- 
lican majority  to  reject  the  pohcy  of  Presi. 
dent  Johnson:  First,  an  apprehension  that 
the  chief  magistrate  intended  to  undo  the  re- 
sults of  the  war  in  regard  to  slavery;  and,sec- 
ond,  the  sullen  attitude  of  the  South,  which 
seemed  to  be  plotting  to  regain  the  policy 
which  arms  had  lost.  The  credentials  of  the 
Southern  members  elect  were  laid  on  the 
table,  a  civil  rights  bill  and  a  bill  extending 
the  sphere  of  the  Freedmen's  Bureau  were 
passed  over  the  executive  veto,  and  the  two 
highest  branches  of  the  Government  were 
soon  in  open  antagonism.  The  action  of 
Congress  was  characterized  by  the  Presi- 
dent as  a  "  new  rebellion."  In  July  the 
cabinet  was  reconstructed,  Messrs.  Randall, 
Stanbury  and  Browning  taking  the  places 
of  Messrs.  Denison,  Speed  and  Harlan,  and 
an  unsuccessful  attempt  was  made  by 
means  of  a  general  convention  in  Philadel- 
phia to  form  a  new  party  on  the  basis  of  the 
administration  policy. 

In  an  excursion  to  Chicago  for  the  pur- 
pose of  laying  a  corner-stone  of  the  monu- 
ment to  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  President 
Johnson,  accompanied  by  several  members 
of  the  cabinet,  passed  through  Philadelphia, 
New  York  and  Alban}',  in  each  of  which 
cities,  and  in  other  places  along  the  route, 
he  made  speeches  justifying  and  explaining 
his  own  policy,  and  violently  denouncing 
the  action  of  Congress. 

August  12,  1867,  President  Johnson  re- 
moved the  Secretary  of  War,  replacing 
him  by  General  Grant.  Secretary  Stanton 
retired  under  protest,  based  upon  the  ten- 
ure-of-office  act  which  had  been  passed  the 
preceding  March.  The  President  then  is- 
sued a  proclamation  declaring  the  insurrec- 


ANDREW    JOHNSON. 


tion  at  an  end,  and  that  "  peace,  order,  tran- 
quility and  civil  authority  existed  in  and 
throughout  the  United  States."  Another 
proclamation  enjoined  obedience  to  the 
Constitution  and  the  laws,  and  an  amnesty 
was  published  September  7,  relieving  nearly 
all  the  participants  in  the  late  Rebellion 
from  the  disabilities  thereby  incurred,  on 
condition  of  taking  the  oath  to  support  the 
Constitution  and  the  laws. 

In  December  Congress  refused  to  confirm 
the  removal  of  Secretary  Stanton,  who 
thereupon  resumed  the  exercise  of  his  of- 
fice; but  February  21,  1868,  President 
Johnson  again  attempted  to  remove  him, 
appointing  General  Lorenzo  Thomas  in  his 
place.  Stanton  refused  to  vacate  his  post, 
and  was  sustained  by  the  Senate. 

February  24  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives voted  to  impeach  the  President  for 
"  high  crime  and  misdemeanors,"  and  March 
5  presented  eleven  articles  of  impeachment 
on  the  ground  of  his  resistance  to  the  exe- 
cution of  the  acts  of  Congress,  alleging,  in 
addition  to  the  offense  lately  committed, 
his  public  expressions  of  contempt  for  Con- 
gress, in  "  certain  intemperate,  inflamma- 
tory and  scandalous  harangues"  pronounced 
in  August  and  September,  1866,  and  there- 
after declaring  that  the  Thirty-ninth  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States  was  not  a 
competent  legislative  body,  and  denying 
its  power  to  propose  Constitutional  amend- 
ments. March  23  the  impeachment  trial 
began,  the  President  appearing  by  counsel, 
and  resulted  in  acquittal,  the  vote  lacking 


one  of  the  two-thirds  vote  required  for 
conviction. 

The  remainder  of  President  Johnson's, 
term  of  office  was  passed  without  any  such 
conflicts  as  might  have  been  anticipated. 
He  failed  to  obtain  a  nomination  for  re- 
election by  the  Democratic  party,  though 
receiving  sixty-five  votes  on  the  first  ballot. 
July  4  and  December  25  new  proclamations 
of  pardon  to  the  participants  in  the  late 
Rebellion  were  issued,  but  were  of  little 
effect.  On  the  accession  of  General  Grant 
to  the  Presidency,  March  4,  1869,  Johnson 
returned  to  Greenville,  Tennessee.  Unsuc- 
cessful in  1870  and  1872  as  a  candidate  re- 
spectively for  United  States  Senator  and 
Representative,  he  was  finally  elected  to  the 
Senate  in  1875,  and  took  his  seat  in  the  extra 
session  of  March,  in  which  his  speeches 
were  comparatively  temperate.  He  died 
July  31,  1875,  and  was  buried  at  Green- 
ville. 

President  Johnson's  administration  was  a 
peculiarly  unfortunate  one.  That  he  should 
so  soon  become  involved  i«  bitter  feud  with 
the  Republican  majority  in  Congress  was 
certainly  a  surprising  and  deplorable  inci- 
dent; yet,  in  reviewing  the  circumstances 
after  a  lapse  of  so  many  years,  it  is  easy  to 
find  ample  room  for  a  charitable  judgment 
of  both  the  parties  in  the  heated  contro- 
versy, since  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  any 
President,  even  Lincoln  himself,  had  he 
lived,  must  have  sacrificed  a  large  portion 
of  his  popularity  in  carrying  out  any  pos- 
sible scheme  of  reconstruction. 


!ar^ 


PRESIDENTS     OF     THE     UNI  TED    STATES. 


iii^iiii^iaii«» 


I 


'■«^^*:r-i«i^^j*^-^>^^ 


<M4«»S'i-#»i«S-'#<S*'##i^i^i^ 


I-^'^^'L^SSES  SIMPSON 
GRANT,  the  eight- 
eenth President  of  the 
United  States,  iSeg-';/, 
^\  as  born  April  27,  1822, 
at  Point  Pleasant, 
^  Clermont  County, 
His  father  was  of  Scotch 


descent,  and  a  dealer  in  leather. 
At  the  age  of  seventeen  he  en- 
tered the  Military  Academy  at 
West  Point,  and  four  years  later 
graduated  twenty -first  in  a  class 
of  thirty-nine,  receiving  the 
commission  of  Brevet  Second 
Lieutenant.  He  was  assigned 
to  the  Fourth  Infantry  and  re- 
mained in  the  army  eleven  years.  He  was 
engaged  in  every  battle  of  the  Mexican  war 
except  that  of  Buena  Vista,  and  received 
two  brevets  for  gallantry. 

In  1848  Mr.  Grant  married  Julia,daughter 
of  Frederick  Dent,  a  prominent  merchant  of 
St.  Louis,  and  in  1854,  having  reached  the 
grade  of  Captain,  he  resigned  his  commis- 
sion in  the  army.  For  several  years  he  fol- 
lowed farming  near  St.  Louis,  but  unsuc- 
cessfully ;  and  in  i860  he  entered  the  leather 
trade  with  his  father  at  Galena,  Illinois. 

When  the  civil  war  broke  out  in  1861, 
Grant  was  thirty-nine  years  of  age,  but  en- 
tirely unknown  to  pubUc  men  and  without 


any  personal  acquaintance  with  great  affairs. 
President  Lincoln's  first  call  for  troops  was 
made  on  the  15th  of  April,  and  on  the  19th 
Grant  was  drilling  a  company  of  volunteers 
at  Galena.  He  also  offered  his  services  to 
the  Adjutant-General  of  the  army,  but  re- 
ceived no  reply.  The  Governor  of  Illinois, 
however,  employed  him  in  the  organization 
of  volunteer  troops,  and  at  the  end  of  five 
weeks  he  was  appointed  Colonel  of  the 
Twenty-first  Infantry.  He  took  command 
of  his  regiment  in  June,  and  reported  first 
to  General  Pope  in  Missouri.  His  superior 
knowledge  of  military  life  rather  surprised 
his  superior  officers,  who  had  never  before 
even  heard  of  him,  and  they  were  thus  led 
to  place  him  on  the  road  to  rapid  advance- 
ment. August  7  he  was  commissioned  a 
Brigadier-General  of  volunteers,  the  ap- 
pointment having  been  made  without  his 
knowledge.  He  had  been  unanimously 
recommended  by  the  Congressmen  from 
Illinois,  not  one  of  whom  had  been  his 
personal  acquaintance.  For  a  few  weeks 
he  was  occupied  in  watching  the  move- 
ments of  partisan  forces  in  Missouri. 

September  i  he  was  placed  in  command 
of  the  District  of  Southeast  Missouri,  with 
headquarters  at  Cairo,  and  on  the  6th,  with- 
out orders,  he  seized  Paducah,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Tennessee  River,  and  commanding 
the  navigation  both  of  that  stream  and  of 


g^ig^PS»~a^a' ■«■—■-■'■■'' 


C/LrSSES    S.    GRANT. 


the  Ohio.  This  stroke  secured  Kentucky 
to  the  Union ;  for  the  State  Legislature, 
which  had  until  then  affected  to  be  neutral, 
at  once  declared  in  favor  of  the  Govern- 
ment. In  November  following,  according 
to  orders,  he  made  a  demonstration  about 
eighteen  miles  below  Cairo,  preventing  the 
crossing  of  hostile  troops  into  Missouri ; 
but  in  order  to  accomplish  this  purpose  he 
had  to  do  some  fighting,  and  that,  too,  with 
only  3,000  raw  recruits,  against  7,000  Con- 
federates. Grant  carried  off  two  pieces  of 
artiller}^  and  200  prisoners. 

After  repeated  applications  to  General 
Halleck,  his  immediate  superior,  he  was 
allowed,  in  February,  1S62,  to  move  up  the 
Tennessee  River  against  Fort  Henry,  in 
conjunction  with  a  naval  force.  The  gun- 
boats silenced  the  fort,  and  Grant  immedi- 
ately made  preparations  to  attack  Fort 
Donelson,  about  twelve  miles  distant,  on 
the  Cumberland  River.  Without  waiting 
for  orders  he  moved  his  troops  there,  and 
with  15,000  men  began  the  siege.  The 
fort,  garrisoned  with  21,000  men,  was  a 
strong  one,  but  after  hard  fighting  on  three 
successive  days  Grant  forced  an  "  Uncon- 
ditional Surrender"  (an  alliteration  upon 
the  initials  of  his  name).  The  prize  he  capt- 
ured consisted  of  sixty-five  cannon,  17,600 
small  arms  and  14,623  soldiers.  About  4,- 
000  of  the  garrison  had  escaped  in  the  night, 
and  2,500  were  killed  or  wounded.  Grant's 
entire  loss  was  less  than  2,000.  This  was  the 
first  important  success  won  by  the  national 
troops  during  the  war,  and  its  strategic  re- 
sults were  marked,  as  the  entire  States  of 
Kentucky  and  Tennessee  at  once  fell  into  the 
National  hands.  Our  hero  was  made  a 
Major-General  of  Volunteers  and  placed  in 
command  of  the  District  of  West  Ten- 
nessee. 

In  March,  1862,  he  was  ordered  to  move 
up  the  Tennessee  River  toward  Corinth, 
where  the  Confederates  were  concentrat- 
ing a  large  army  ;    but  he  was  directed  not 


to  attack.  His  forces,  now  numbering  38,- 
000,  were  accordingly  encamped  near  Shi- 
loh,  or  Pittsburg  Landing,  to  await  the 
arrival  of  General  Buell  with  40,000  more; 
but  April  6  the  Confederates  came  out  from 
Corinth  50,000  strong  and  attacked  Grant 
violently,  hoping  to  overwhelm  him  before 
Buell  could  arrive  ;  5,000  of  his  troops  were 
beyond  supporting  distance,  so  that  he  was 
largely  outnumbered  and  forced  back  to  the 
river,  where,  however,  he  held  out  until 
dark,  when  the  head  of  Buell's  column 
came  upon  the  field.  The  next  day  the 
Confederates  were  driven  back  to  Corinth, 
nineteen  miles.  The  loss  was  heavy  on 
both  sides ;  Grant,  being  senior  in  rank  to 
Buell,  commanded  on  both  days.  Two 
days  afterward  Halleck  arrived  at  the  front 
and  assumed  command  of  the  army,  Grant 
remaining  at  the  head  of  the  right  wing  and 
the  reserve.  On  May  30  Corinth  was 
evacuated  by  the  Confederates.  In  July 
Halleck  was  made  General-in-Chief,  and 
Grant  succeeded  him  in  command  of  the 
Department  of  the  Tennessee.  September 
19  the  battle  of  luka  was  fought,  where, 
owing  to  Rosecrans's  fault,  only  an  incom- 
plete victory  was  obtained. 

Next,  Grant,  with  30,000  men,  moved 
down  into  Mississippi  and  threatened  Vicks- 
burg,  while  Sherman,  with  40,000  men,  was 
sent  by  way  of  the  river  to  attack  that  place 
in  front;  but,  owing  to  Colonel  Murphy's 
surrendering  Holly  Springs  to  the  Con- 
federates, Grant  was  so  weakened  that  he 
had  to  retire  to  Corinth,  and  then  Sherman 
failed  to  sustain  his  intended  attack. 

In  January,  1863,  General  Grant  took 
command  in  person  of  all  the  troops  in  the 
Mississippi  Valley,  and  spent  several  months 
in  fruitless  attempts  to  compel  the  surrender 
or  evacuation  of  Vicksburg;  but  July  4, 
following,  the  place  surrendered,  with  31,- 
600  men  and  172  cannon,  and  the  Mississippi 
River  thus  fell  permanently  into  the  hands 
of  the  Government.      Grant  was    made  a 


PRESIDENTS     OF     THE     UNITED    STATES. 


Major-General  in  the  regular  army,  and  in 
October  following  he  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Division  of  the  Mississippi. 
The  same  month  he  went  to  Chattanooga 
and  saved  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland 
from  starvation,  and  drove  Bragg  from  that 
part  of  the  country.  This  victory  over- 
threw the  last  important  hostile  force  west 
of  the  AUeghanies  and  opened  the  way  for 
the  National  armies  into  Georgia  and  Sher- 
man's march  to  the  sea. 

The  remarkable  series  of  successes  which 
Grant  had  now  achieved  pointed  him  out 
as  the  appropriate  leader  of  the  National 
armies,  and  accordingly,  in  February,  1864, 
the  rank  of  Lieutenant-General  was  created 
for  him  by  Congress,  and  on  March  17  he 
assumed  command  of  the  armies  of  the 
United  States.  Planning  the  grand  final 
campaign,  he  sent  Sherman  into  Georgia, 
Sigel  into  the  valley  of  Virginia,  and  Butler 
to  capture  Richmond,  while  he  fought  his 
own  way  from  the  Rapidan  to  the  James. 
The  costly  but  victorious  battles  of  the 
Wilderness,  Spottsylvania,  North  Anna  and 
Cold  Harbor  were  fought,  more  for  the 
purpose  of  annihilating  Lee  than  to  capture 
any  particular  point.  In  June,  1864,  the 
siege  of  Richmond  was  begun.  Sherman, 
meanwhile,  was  marching  and  fighting  daily 
in  Georgia  and  steadily  advancing  toward 
Atlanta ;  but  Sigel  had  been  defeated  in  the 
valley  of  Virginia,  and,  was  superseded  by 
Hunter.  Lee  sent  Early  to  threaten  the  Na- 
tional capital ;  whereupon  Grant  gathered 
up  a  force  which  he  placed  under  Sheridan, 
and  that  commander  rapidly  drove  Early, 
inasuccessionof  battles,  through  the  valley 
of  Virginia  and  destroyed  his  army  as  an 
organized  force.  The  siege  of  Richmond 
went  on,  and  Grant  made  numerous  attacks, 
but  was  only  partially  successful.  The 
people  of  the  North  grew  impatient,  and 
even  the  Government  advised  him  to 
abandon  the  attempt  to  take  Richmond  or 
crush  the  Confederacy  in  that  way ;  but  he 


never  wavered.  He  resolved  to  "  fight  it 
out  on  that  line,  if  it  took  all  summer." 

By  September  Sherman  had  made  his 
way  to  Atlanta,  and  Grant  then  sent  him 
on  his  famous  "  march  to  the  sea,"  a  route 
which  the  chief  had  designed  six  months 
before.  He  made  Sherman's  success  possi- 
ble, not  only  by  holding  Lee  in  front  of 
Richmond,  but  also  by  sending  reinforce- 
ments to  Thomas,  who  then  drew  off  and 
defeated  the  only  army  which  could  have 
confronted  Sherman.  Thus  the  latter  was 
left  unopposed,  and,  with  Thomas  and  Sheri- 
dan, was  used  in  the  furtherance  of  Grant's 
plans.  Each  executed  his  part  in  the  great 
design  and  contributed  his  share  to  the  re- 
sult at  which  Grant  was  aiming.  Sherman 
finally  reached  Savannah,  Schofield  beat 
the  enemy  at  Franklin,  Thomas  at  Nash- 
ville, and  Sheridan  wherever  he  met  him  ; 
and  all  this  while  General  Grant  was  hold- 
ing Lee,  with  the  principal  Confederate 
army,  near  Richmond,  as  it  were  chained 
and  helpless.  Then  Schofield  was  brought 
from  the  West,  and  Fort  Fisher  and  Wil- 
mington were  captured  on  the  sea-coast,  so 
as  to  afford  him  a  foothold  ;  from  here  he 
was  sent  into  the  interior  of  North  Caro- 
lina, and  Sherman  was  ordered  to  move 
northward  to  join  him.  When  all  this  was 
effected,  and  Sheridan  could  find  no  one  else 
to  fight  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  Grant 
brought  the  cavalry  leader  to  the  front  of 
Richmond,  and,  making  a  last  effort,  drove 
Lee  from  his  entrenchments  and  captured 
Richmond. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  final  campaign 
Lee  had  collected  73,000  fighting  men  in 
the  lines  at  Richmond,  besides  the  local 
militia  and  the  gunboat  crews,  amounting 
to  5,000  more.  Including  Sheridan's  force 
Grant  had  1 10,000  men  in  the  works  before 
Petersburg  and  Richmond.  Petersburg  fell 
on  the  2d  of  April,  and  Richmond  on  the 
3d,  and  Lee  fled  in  the  direction  of  L3Mich- 
burg.      Grant  pursued   with    remorseless 


CTLISSES    S.    GRANT. 


energy,  only  stopping  to  strike  fresh  blows, 
and  Lee  at  last  found  himself  not  only  out- 
fought but  also  out-marched  and  out-gen- 
eraled.  Being  completely  surrounded,  he 
surrendered  on  the  9th  of  April,  1865,  at 
Appomattox  Court-House,  in  the  open  field, 
with  27,000  men,  all  that  remained  of  his 
army.  This  act  virtuall}'  ended  the  war. 
Thus,  in  ten  days  Grant  had  captured 
Petersburg  and  Richmond,  fought,  by  his 
subordinates,  the  battles  of  Five  Forks  and 
Sailor's  Creek,  besides  numerous  smaller 
ones,  captured  20,000  men  in  actual  battle, 
and  received  the  surrender  of  27,000  more 
at  Appomattox,  absolutely  annihilating  an 
army  of  70,000  soldiers. 

General  Grant  returned  at  once  to  Wash- 
ington to  superintend  the  disbandment  of 
the  armies,  but  this  pleasurable  work  was 
scarcely  begun  when  President  Lincoln  was 
assassinated.  It  had  doubtless  been  in- 
tended to  inflict  the  same  fate  upon  Grant ; 
but  he,  fortunately,  on  account  of  leaving 
Washington  early  in  the  evening,  declined 
an  invitation  to  accompany  the  President 
to  the  theater  where  the  murder  was  com- 
mitted. This  event  made  Andrew  Johnson 
President,  but  left  Grant  by  far  the  most 
conspicuous  figure  in  the  public  life  of  the 
country.  He  became  the  object  of  an  en- 
thusiasm greater  than  had  ever  been  known 
in  America.  Every  possible  honor  was 
heaped  upon  him ;  the  grade  of  General 
was  created  for  him  by  Congress;  houses 
were  presented  to  him  by  citizens ;  towns 
were  illuminated  on  his  entrance  into  them  ; 
and,  to  cap  the  climax,  when  he  made  his 
tour  around  the  world,  "all  nations  did  him 
honor"  as  they  had  never  before  honored 
a  foreigner. 

The  General,  as  Commander-in-Chief, 
was  placed  in  an  embarrassing  position  by 
the  opposition  of  President  Johnson  to  the 
measures  of  Congress ;  but  he  directly  man- 
ifested his  characteristic  loyalty  by  obeying 
Congress  rather  than  the  disaffected  Presi- 


dent, although  for  a  short  time  he  had 
served  in  his  cabinet  as  Secretary  of  War. 

Of  course,  everybody  thought  of  General 
Grant  as  the  next  President  of  the  United 
States,  and  he  was  accordingly  elected  as 
such  in  1868  "by  a  large  majority,"  and 
four  years  later  re-elected  by  a  much  larger 
majority  —  the  most  overwhelming  ever 
given  by  the  people  of  this  country.  His  first 
administration  was  distinguished  by  a  ces- 
sation of  the  strifes  which  sprang  from  the 
war,  by  a  large  reduction  of  the  National 
debt,  and  by  a  settlement  of  the  difficulties 
with  England  which  had  grown  out  of  the 
depredations  committed  by  privateers  fit- 
ted out  in  England  during  the  war.  This 
last  settlement  was  made  by  the  famous 
"Geneva  arbitration,"  which  saved  to  this 
Government  $1 5,000,000,  but,  more  than  all, 
prevented  a  war  with  England.  "  Let  us 
have  peace,"  was  Grant's  motto.  And  this 
is  the  most  appropriate  place  to  remark 
that  above  all  Presidents  whom  this  Gov- 
ernment has  ever  had,  General  Grant  was 
the  most  non-partisan.  He  regarded  the 
Executive  office  as  purely  and  exclusively 
executive  of  the  laws  of  Congress,  irrespect- 
ive of  "  politics."  But  every  great  man 
has  jealous,  bitter  enemies,  a  fact  Grant 
was  well  aware  of. 

After  the  close  of  his  Presidency,  our 
General  made  his  famous  tour  around  the 
world,  already  referred  to,  and  soon  after- 
ward, in  company  with  Ferdinand  Ward, 
of  New  York  City,  he  engaged  in  banking 
and  stock  brokerage,  which  business  was 
made  disastrous  to  Grant,  as  well  as  to  him- 
self, by  his  rascality.  By  this  time  an  in- 
curable cancer  of  the  tongue  developed 
itself  in  the  person  of  the  afflicted  ex- 
President,  which  ended  his  unrequited  life 
July  23,  1885.  Thus  passed  away  from 
earth's  turmoils  the  man,  the  General,  who 
was  as  truly  the  "  father  of  this  regenerated 
country"  as  was  Washington  the  father  of 
the  infant  nation. 


PRESIDENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


UTHERFORD  BIRCH- 
ARD  HAYES,  the  nine- 
teenth President  of 
the  United  States, 
i877-'8i,  was  born  in 
Delaware,  Ohio,  Oc- 
tober 4,  1822.  His 
anccstiy  can  be  traced  as  far 
back  as  1280,  when  Hayes  and 
Rutherford  were  two  Scottish 
chieftains  fighting  side  by  side 
with  Baliol,  William  Wallace 
and  Robert  Bruce.  Both  fami- 
lies belonged  to  the  nobility, 
owned  extensive  estates  and  had 
a  large  following.  The  Hayes 
family  had,  for  a  coat  of-arms,  a 
shield,  barred  and  surmounted  by  a  flying 
eagle.  There  was  a  circle  of  stars  about 
the  eagle  and  above  the  shield,  while  on  a 
scroll  underneath  the  shield  was  inscribed 
the  motto,  "  Recte."  Misfortune  overtaking 
the  family,  George  Hayes  left  Scotland  in 
1680,  and  settled  in  Windsor,  Connecticut. 
He  was  an  industrious  worker  in  wood  and 
iron,  having  a  mechanical  genius  and  a  cul- 
tivated mind.  His  son  George  was  born 
in  Windsor  and  remained  there  during  his 
life. 

Daniel  Hayes,  son  of  the  latter,  married 
Sarah  Lee,  and   lived   in    Simsbury,   Con- 


necticut. Ezekiel,  son  of  Daniel,  was  born 
in  1724,  and  was  a  manufacturer  of  scythes 
at  Bradford,  Connecticut.  Rutherford 
Hayes,  son  of  Ezekiel  and  grandfather  of 
President  Hayes,  was  born  in  New  Haven, 
in  August,  1756.  He  was  a  famous  black- 
smith and  tavern-keeper.  He  immigrated  to 
Vermont  at  an  unknown  date,  settling  in 
Brattleboro  where  he  established  a  hotel. 
Here  his  son  Rutherford,  father  of  Presi- 
dent Hayes,  was  born.  In  September,  1813, 
he  married  Sophia  Birchard,  of  Wilming- 
ton, Vermont,  whose  ancestry  on  the  male 
side  is  traced  back  to  1635,  to  John  Birch- 
ard, one  of  the  principal  founders  of  Nor- 
wich. Both  of  her  grandfathers  were 
soldiers  in  the  Revolutionary  war. 

The  father  of  President  Hayes  was  of  a 
mechanical  turn,  and  could  mend  a  plow, 
knit  a  stocking,  or  do  almost  anything  that 
he  might  undertake.  He  was  prosperous 
in  business,  a  member  of  the  church  and 
active  in  all  the  benevolent  enterprises  of 
the  town.  After  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812 
he  immigrated  to  Ohio,  and  purchased  a 
farm  near  the  present  town  of  Delaware. 
His  family  then  consisted  of  his  wife  and 
two  children,  and  an  orphan  girl  whom  he 
had  adopted. 

It  was  in  1817  that  the  family  arrived  at 
Delaware.     Instead    of    settling   upon  his 


s 


RUTHERFORD    B.    HAYES. 


loS 


farm,  Mr.  Hayes  concluded  to  enter  into 
business  in  the  village.  He  purchased  an 
interest  in  a  distillery,  a  business  then  as  re- 
spectable as  it  was  profitable.  His  capital 
and  recognized  ability  assured  him  the 
highest  social  position  in  the  communitj-. 
He  died  July  22,  1822,  less  than  three 
months  before  the  birth  of  the  son  that  was 
<l<-stined  to  fill  the  office  of  President  of  the 
United  States. 

Mrs.  Hayes  at  this  period  was  very  weak, 
and  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was  so  feeble 
at  birth  that  he  was  not  expected  to  live 
beyond  a  month'  or  two  at  most.  As  the 
months  went  by  he  grew  weaker  and  weaker 
so  that  the  neighbors  were  in  the  habit  of 
inquiring  from  time  to  time  "  if  Mrs. 
Hayes's  baby  died  last  night."  On  one  oc- 
casion a  neighbor,  who  was  on  friendly 
terms  with  the  family,  after  alluding  to  the 
boy's  big  head  and  the  mother's  assiduous 
care  of  him,  said  to  her,  in  a  bantering  way, 
"That's  right!  Stick  to  him.  You  have 
got  him  along  so  far,  and  I  shouldn't  won- 
der if  he  would  really  come  to  something 
yet."  "  You  need  not  laugh,"  said  Mrs. 
Hayes,  "  you  wait  and  see.  You  can't  tell 
but  I  shall  make  him  President  of  the 
United  States  yet." 

The  boy  lived,  in  spite  of  the  universal 
predictions  of  his  speedy  death;  and  when, 
in  1825,  his  elder  brother  was  drowned,  he 
became,  if  possible,  still  dearer  to  his  mother. 
He  was  seven  years  old  before  he  was 
placed  in  school.  His  education,  however, 
was  not  neglected.  His  sports  were  almost 
wholly  within  doors,  his  playmates  being 
his  sister  and  her  associates.  These  circum- 
stances tended,  no  doubt,  to  foster  that 
gentleness  of  disposition  and  that  delicate 
consideration  for  the  feelings  of  others 
which  are  marked  traits  of  his  character. 
At  school  he  was  ardently  devoted  to  his 
studies,  obedient  to  the  teacher,  and  care- 
ful to  avoid  the  quarrels  in  which  man)^  of 
his   schoolmates   were  involved.     He  was 


always  waiting  at  the  school-house  door 
when  it  opened  in  the  morning,  and  never 
late  in  returning  to  his  seat  at  recess.  His 
sister  Fannie  was  his  constant  companion, 
and  their  affection  for  each  other  excited 
the  admiration  of  their  friends. 

In  1838  young  Hayes  entered  Kenyon 
College  and  graduated  in  1842.  He'  then 
began  the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of 
Thomas  Sparrow  at  Columbus.  His  health 
was  now  well  established,  his  figure  robust, 
his  mind  vigorous  and  alert.  In  a  short 
time  he  determined  to  enter  the  law  school 
at  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  where  for 
two  years  he  pursued  his  studies  with  great 
diligence. 

In  184s  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at 
Marietta,  Ohio,  and  shortly  afterward  went 
into  piactice  as  an  attorney-at-law  with 
Ralph  P.  Buckland,  of  Fremont.  Here  he 
remained  three  years,  acquiring  but  limited 
practice,  and  apparently  unambitious  of 
distinction  in  his  profession.  His  bachelor 
uncle,  Sardis  Birchard,  who  had  always 
manifested  great  interest  in  his  nephew  and 
rendered  him  assistance  in  boyhood,  was 
now  a  wealth)^  banker,  and  it  was  under- 
stood that  the  young  man  would  be  his 
heir.  It  is  possible  that  this  expectation 
may  have  made  Mr.  Hayes  more  indifferent 
to  the  attainment  of  wealth  than  he  would 
otherwise  have  been,  but  he  was  led  into  no 
extravagance  or  vices  on  this  account. 

In  1849  he  removed  to  Cincinnati  where 
his  ambition  found  new  stimulus.  Two 
events  occurring  at  this  period  had  a  pow- 
erful influence  upon  his  subsequent  life. 
One  of  them  was  his  marriage  to  Miss 
Lucy  Ware  Webb,  daughter  of  Dr.  James 
Webb,  of  Cincinnati;  the  other  was  his 
introduction  to  the  Cincinnati  Literary 
Club,  a  body  embracing  such  men  as  Chief 
Justice  Salmon  P.  Chase,  General  John 
Pope  and  Governor  Edward  F.  Noyes. 
The  marriage  was  a  fortunate  one  as  every- 
body knows.     Not  one  of  all  the  wives  of 


PRESIDENTS     OF     THE     VS'ITED    STATES. 


our  Presidents  -.vas  more  universally  ad- 
mired, reverenced  and  beloved  than  is  Mrs. 
Hayes,  and  no  one  has  done  more  than  she 
to  reflect  honor  upon  American  woman- 
hood. 

In  1856  Mr.  Hayes  was  nominated  to  the 
office  of  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas,  but  declined  to  accept  the  nomina- 
tion. Two  years  later  he  was  chosen  to  the 
office  of  City  Solicitor. 

In  1861,  when  the  Rebellion  broke  out, 
he  was  eager  to  take  up  arms  in  the  defense 
of  his  country.  His  military  life  was 
bright  and  illustrious.  June  7,  1861,  he 
was  appointed  Major  of  the  Twenty-third 
Ohio  Infantry.  In  July  the  regiment  was 
sent  to  Virginia.  October  15,  1 861,  he  was 
made  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  his  regiment, 
and  in  August,  1862,  was  promoted  Colonel 
of  the  Seventy-ninth  Ohio  Regiment,  but 
refused  to  leave  his  old  comrades.  He  was 
wounded  at  the  battle  of  South  Mountain, 
and  suffered  severely,  being  unable  to  enter 
upon  active  duty  for  several  weeks.  No- 
vember 30,  1862,  he  rejoined  his  regiment  as 
its  Colonel,  having  been  promoted  Octo- 
ber 15. 

December  25,  1862,  he  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Kanawha  division,  and  for 
meritorious  service  in  several  battles  was 
promoted  Brigadier-General.  He  was  also 
brevetted  Major-General  for  distinguished 


services  in  1864.  He  was  wounded  four 
times,  and  five  horses  were  shot  from 
under  him. 

Mr.  Hayes  was  first  a  Whig  in  politics, 
and  was  among  the  first  to  unite  with  the 
Free-Soil  and  Republican  parties.  In  1864 
he  was  elected  to  Congress  from  che  Sec- 
ond Ohio  District,  which  had  always  been 
Democratic,  receiving  a  majority  of  3,098. 
In  1866  he  was  renominated  for  Congress 
and  was  a  second  time  elected.  In  1867  he 
was  elected  Governor  over  Allen  G.  Thur- 
man,  the  Democratic  candidate,  and  re- 
elected in  1869.  In  1874  Sardis  Birchard 
died,  leaving  his  large  estate  to  General 
Hayes. 

In  1876  he  was  nominated  for  the  Presi- 
dency. His  letter  of  acceptance  excited 
the  admiration  of  the  whole  country.  He 
resigned  the  office  of  Governor  and  retired 
to  his  home  in  Fremont  to  await  the  result 
of  the  canvass.  After  a  hard,  long  contest 
he  was  inaugurated  March  5,  1877.  His 
Presidency  was  characterized  by  compro- 
mises with  all  parties,  in  order  to  please  as 
man}'  as  possible.  The  close  of  his  Presi- 
dential term  in  1881  was  the  close  of  his 
public  life,  and  since  then  he  has  remained 
at  his  iiome  in  Fremont,  Ohio,  in  Jefferso- 
nian  retirement  from  public  notice,  in  stink- 
ing contrast  with  most  others  of  the  world's 
notables. 


-\: 


yAA/ES    A.     GARFIELD. 


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sis:^3^^^535^5ELij^i^ic-£.i^3A^.ri33n.^i^r^^s^r^i^ 


vrvrv^b^^i 


AMES  A.  GARFIELD, 
twentieth  President  of 
the  United  States,  1881, 
was  born  November  19, 
1 83 1,  in  the  wild  woods 
o  f  Cuyahoga  County, 
Ohio.  His  parents  were 
Abram  and  EUza  (Ballou) 
Garfield,  who  were  of  New 
•  England  ancestry.  The 
senior  Garfield  was  an  in- 
dustrious farmer,  as  the 
rapid  improvements  which 
appeared  on  his  place  at- 
tested. The  residence  was 
the  familiar  pioneer  log  cabin, 
and  the  household  comprised  the  parents 
and  their  children — Mehetable,  Thomas, 
Mary  and  James  A.  In  May,  1833,  the 
father  died,  and  the  care  of  the  house- 
hold consequently  devolved  upon  young 
Thomas,  to  whom  James  was  greatly  in- 
debted for  the  educational  and  other  ad- 
vantages he  enjo3-ed.  He  now  lives  in 
Michigan,  and  the  two  sisters  live  in  Solon, 
Ohio,  near  their  birthplace. 

As  the  subject  of  our  sketch  grew  up,  he, 
too,  was  industrious,  both  in  mental  aad 
physical  labor.  He  worked  upon  the  farm, 
or  at  carpentering,  or  chopped  wood,  or  at 
any  other  odd  job  that  would  aid  in  support 
of  the  family,  and  in  the  meantime  made  the 


most  of  his  books.  Ever  afterward  he  was 
never  ashamed  of  his  humble  origin,  nor  for- 
got the  friends  of  his  youth.  The  poorest 
laborer  was  sure  of  his  sympathy,  and  he 
always  exhibited  the  character  of  a  modest 
gentleman. 

Until  he  was  about  sixteen  years  of  age, 
James's  highest  ambition  was  to  be  a  lake 
captain.  To  this  his  mother  was  strongly 
opposed,  but  she  finally  consented  to  his 
going  to  Cleveland  to  carry  out  his  long- 
cherished  design,  with  the  understanding, 
however,  that  he  should  Vxy  to  obtain  some 
other  kind  of  employment.  He  walked  all 
the  way  to  Cleveland,  and  this  was  his  first 
visit  to  the  city.  After  making  many  ap- 
plications for  v/ork,  including  labor  on 
board  a  lake  vessel,  but  all  in  vain,  he 
finally  engaged  as  a  driver  for  his  cousin, 
Amos  Letcher,  on  the  Ohio  &  Pennsyl- 
vania  Canal.  In  a  short  time,  however,  he 
quit  this  and  returned  home.  He  then  at- 
tended the  seminary  at  Chester  for  about 
three  years,  and  next  he  entered  Hiram  In- 
stitute, a  school  started  in  1850  by  the 
Disciples  of  Christ,  of  which  church  he  was 
a  member.  In  order  to  pa}'  his  way  he 
assumed  the  duties  of  janitor,  and  at  tunes 
taught  school.  He  soon  completed  Ihe  cur- 
riculum there,  and  then  entered  Williams 
College,  at  which  he  graduated  in  1856, 
taking  one  of  the  highest  honors  of  his  class. 


PRESIDENTS     OF    THE     UN/TED    STATES. 


Afterward  he  returned  to  Hiram  as  Presi- 
dent. In  his  youthful  and  therefore  zealous 
piety,  he  exercised  his  talents  occasionally 
as  a  preacher  of  the  Gospel.  He  was  a 
man  of  strong  moral  and  religious  convic- 
tions, and  as  soon  as  he  began  to  look  into 
politics,  he  saw  innumerable  points  that 
could  be  improved.  He  also  studied  law, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1859. 
November  11,  1858,  iNIr.  Garfield  married 
Miss  Lucretia  Rudolph,  who  ever  after- 
ward proved  a  worthy  consort  in  all  the 
stages  of  her  husband's  career.  They  had 
seven  children,  five  of  whom  are  still  living. 

It  was  in  1859  that  Garfield  made  his 
first  political  speeches,  in  Hiram  and  the 
neighboring  villages,  and  three  years  later 
he  began  to  speak  at  county  mass-meetings, 
being  received  everywhere  with  popular 
favor.  He  was  elected  to  the  State  Senate 
this  year,  taking  his  seat  in  January,  i860. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  of  the 
Rebellion  in  1861,  Mr.  Garfield  resolved  to 
fight  as  he  had  talked,  and  accordingly  he 
enlisted  to  defend  the  old  flag,  receiving 
his  commission  as  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  tlie 
Forty-second  Regiment  of  the  Ohio  Volun- 
teer Infantr}',  August  14,  that  year,  rle 
was  immediately  thrown  into  active  service, 
and  before  he  had  ever  seen  a  gun  fired  in 
action  he  was  placed  in  command  of  four 
regiments  of  infantry  and  eight  companies 
of  cavalry,  charged  with  the  work  of  driv- 
ing the  Confederates,  headed  by  Humphrey 
Marshall,  from  his  native  State,  Kentucky. 
This  task  was  speedily  accomplished,  al- 
though against  great  odds.  On  account  of 
his  success,  F'resident  Lincoln  commissioned 
him  Brigadier-General,  January  11,  1862; 
and,  as  he  had  been  the  youngest  man  in 
the  Ohio  Senate  two  years  before,  so  now 
he  was  the  youngest  General  in  the  army. 
He  was  witii  General  Buell's  army  at  Shi- 
loh,  also  in  its  operations  around  Corinth 
and  its  march  through  Alabama.  Next,  he 
was  detailed  as  a  member  of  the  general 


court-martial  for  the  trial  of  General  Fitz- 
John  Porter,  and  then  ordered  to  report  to 
General  Rosecrans,  when  he  was  assigned 
to  the  position  of  Chief  of  Staff.  His  mili- 
tary history  closed  with  his  brilliant  ser- 
vices at  Chickamauga,  where  he  won  the 
stars  of  Major-General. 

In  the  fall  of  1862,  without  any  effort  on 
his  part,  he  was  elected  as  a  Representative 
to  Congress,  from  that  section  of  Ohio 
which  had  been  represented  for  sixty  years 
mainly  by  two  men — Elisha  Whittlesey  and 
Joshua  R.  Giddings.  Again,  he  was  the 
youngest  member  of  that  bod}',  and  con- 
tinued there  by  successive  re-elections,  as 
Representative  or  Senator,  until  he  was 
elected  President  in  1880.  During  his  life 
in  Congress  he  compiled  and  published  by 
his  speeches,  there  and  elsewhere,  more 
information  on  the  issues  of  the  day,  espe- 
cially on  one  side,  than  any  other  member. 

June  8,  18S0,  at  the  National  Republican 
Convention  held  in  Chicago,  General  Gar- 
field was  nominated  for  the  Presidencj",  in 
preference  to  the  old  war-horses,  Blaine 
and  Grant ;  and  although  many  of  the  Re- 
publican party  felt  sore  over  the  failure  of 
their  respective  heroes  to  obtain  the  nomi- 
nation, General  Garfield  was  elected  by  a 
fair  popular  majority.  He  was  duly  in- 
augurated, but  on  July  2  following,  before 
he  had  fairly  got  started  in  his  administra- 
tion, he  was  fatally  shot  by  a  half-demented 
assassin.  After  very  painful  and  protracted 
suffering,  he  died  September  19,  1881,  la- 
mented by  all  the  American  people.  Never 
before  in  the  history  of  this  countrj-  had 
anything  occurred  which  so  nearly  froze 
the  blood  of  the  Nation,  for  the  moment,  as 
the  awful  act  of  Guiteau,  the  murderer. 
He  was  duly  tried,  convicted  and  put  to 
death  on  the  gallows. 

The  lamented  Garfield  was  succeeded  by 
the  Vice-President,  General  Arthur,  who 
seemed  to  endeavor  to  carry  out  the  policy 
inaugurated  by  his  predecessor. 


^L-Ly\ 


CHESTER    A.    ARTHUR. 


I 


ESTER  ALLEN 
ARTHUR,  the  twcn- 
hist  Chief  Execu- 
tne  of  this  growing 
icpublic,  i88i-'5,  was 
bom  in  Franklin 
C  o  u  n  1 3' ,  Vermont, 
Octobei  5  1830,  the  eldest  of  a 
famih  of  two  sons  and  five 
daiiThtei';.  His  father,  Rev. 
Di  Willi  im  Arthur,  a  Baptist 
clergyman,  immigrated  to  this 
country  from  County  Antrim, 
Ireland,  in  his  eighteenth  year, 
and  died  in  1875,  in  Newton- 
ville,  near  Albany,  New  York, 
after  serving  many  years  as  a  successful 
minister.  Chester  A.  was  educated  at  that 
old,  conservative  institution.  Union  Col- 
lege, at  Schenectady,  New  York,  where  he 
excelled  in  all  his  studies.  He  graduated 
there,  with  honor,  and  then  struck  out  in 
life  for  himself  by  teaching  school  for  about 
two  years  in  his  native  State. 

At  the  expiration  of  that  time  young 
Arthur,  with  $500  in  his  purse,  went  to  the 
city  of  New  York  and  entered  the  law  office 
of  ex-Judge  E.  D.  Culver  as  a  student.  In 
due  time  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  when 
he  formed  a  partnership  with  his  intimate 


friend  and  old  room-mate,  Henry  D.  Gar. 
diner,  with  the  intention  of  practicing  law 
at  some  point  in  the  West ;  but  after  spend- 
ing about  three  months  in  the  Western- 
States,  in  search  of  an  eligible  place,  they 
returned  to  New  York  City,  leased  a  room, 
exhibited  a  sign  of  their  business  and  al- 
most immediately  enjoyed  a  paying  patron- 
age. 

At  this  stage  of  his  career  Mr.  Arthur's 
business  prospects  were  so  encouraging 
that  he  concluded  to  take  a  wife,  and  ac- 
cordingly he  married  the  daughter  of  Lieu- 
tenant Herndon,  of  the  United  States  Navy, 
who  had  been  lost  at  sea.  To  the  widow 
of  the  latter  Congress  voted  a  gold  medal, 
in  recognition  of  the  Lieutenant's  bravery 
during  the  occasion  in  which  he  lost  his 
life.  Mrs.  Artnur  died  shortly  before  her 
husband's  nomination  to  the  Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving  two  children. 

Mr.  Arthur  obtained  considerable  celeb- 
rity as  an  attorney  in  the  famous  Lemmon 
suit,  which  was  brought  to  recover  posses- 
sion of  eight  slaves,  who  had  been  declared 
free  by  the  Superior  Court  of  New  York 
Cit}'.  The  noted  Charles  O'Conor,  who 
was  nominated  by  the  "  Straight  Demo- 
crats" in  1872  for  the  L^nited  States  Presi- 
dency, was  retained  b\-  Jonathan  G.  Lcm- 


114 


PRESIDENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


mon,  of  Virginia,  to  recover  the  negroes, 
but  he  lost  the  suit.  In  this  case,  however, 
Mr.  Arthur  was  assisted  by  William  M. 
Evarts,  now  United  States  Senator.  Soon 
afterward,  in  1856,  a  respectable  colored 
woman  was  ejected  from  a  street  car  in 
New  York  City.  Mr.  Arthur  sued  the  car 
company  in  her  behalf  and  recovered  $500 
damages.  Immediately  afterward  all  the 
car  companies  in  the  city  issued  orders  to 
their  employes  to  admit  colored  persons 
upon  their  cars. 

Mr.  Arthur's  political  doctrines,  as  well 
as  his  practice  as  a  law3'er,  raised  him  to 
prominence  in  the  party  of  freedom ;  and 
accordingly  he  was  sent  as  a  delegate  to 
the  first  National  Republican  Convention. 
Soon  afterward  he  was  appointed  Judge 
Advocate  for  the  Second  Brigade  of  the 
State  of  New  York,  and  then  Engineer-in- 
Chief  on  Governor  Morgan's  staff.  In  1861, 
the  first  year  of  the  war,  he  was  made  In- 
spector-General, and  next,  Quartermaster- 
(xeneral,  in  both  which  offices  he  rendered 
great  service  to  the  Government.  After 
the  close  of  Governor  Morgan's  term  he 
resumed  the  practice  of  law,  forming  first  a 
partnership  with  Mr.  Ransom,  and  subse- 
quently adding  Mr.  Phelps  to  the  firm. 
Each  of  these  gentlemen  were  able  law3'ers. 

November  21,  1872,  General  Arthur  was 
appointed  Collector  of  the  Port  of  New 
York  by  President  Grant,  and  he  held  the 
office  until  July  20,  1878. 

The  next  event  of  prominence  in  General 
Arthur's  career  was  his  nomination  to  the 
Vice-Presidency  of  the  United  States,  under 
the  influence  of  Roscoe  Conkling,  at  the 
National  Republican  Convention  held  at 
Chicago  in  June,  1880,  when  James  A.  Gar- 
field was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  ticket. 
Both  the  convention  and  the  campaign  that 
followed  were  noisy  and  exciting.  The 
friends  of  Grant,  constituting  nearly  half 


the  convention,  were  exceedingly  persist- 
ent, and  were  sorely  disappomted  over 
their  defeat.  At  the  head  of  the  Demo- 
cratic ticket  was  placed  a  very  strong  and 
popular  man  ;  yet  Garfield  and  Arthur  were 
elected  by  a  respectable  plurality  of  the 
popular  vote.  The  4th  of  March  following, 
these  gentlemen  were  accordingly  inaugu- 
rated ;  but  within  four  months  the  assassin's 
bullet  made  a  fatal  wound  in  the  person  of 
General  Garfield,  whose  life  terminated 
September  19,  1881,  when  General  Arthur, 
ex  officio,  was  obliged  io  take  the  chief 
reins  of  government.  Some  misgivings 
were  entertained  by  many  in  this  event,  as 
Mr.  Arthur  was  thought  to  represent  espe 
cially  the  Grant  and  Conkling  wing  of  the 
Republican  party ;  but  President  Arthur 
had  both  the  ability  and  the  good  sense  to 
allay  all  fears,  and  he  gave  the  restless, 
critical  American  people  as  good  an  ad- 
ministration as  they  had  ever  been  blessed 
with.  Neither  selfishness  nor  low  parti- 
sanism  ever  characterized  any  feature  of 
his  public  service.  He  ever  maintained  a 
high  sense  of  every  individual  right  as  well 
as  of  the  Nation's  honor.  Indeed,  he  stood 
so  high  that  his  successor,  President  Cleve- 
land, though  of  opposing  politics,  expressed 
a  wish  in  his  inaugural  address  that  he 
could  only  satisfy  the  people  with  as  good 
an  administration. 

But  the  day  of  civil  service  reform  had 
come  in  so  far,  and  the  corresponding  re- 
action against  "  third-termism"  had  en- 
croached so  far  even  upon  "second-term" 
service,  that  the  Republican  party  saw  fit 
in  1884  to  nominate  another  man  for  Presi- 
dent. Only  by  this  means  was  General 
Arthur's  tenure  of  office  closed  at  Wash- 
ington. On  his  retirement  from  the  Presi- 
dency, March,  1885,  lie  engaged  in  the 
practice  of  law  at  New  York  City,  where  he 
died  November  18,  1886. 


^^  ^.^^   <r>i^^^--f 


alio  VER    CI.  E  VEL  A  ND. 


^S^ 


^. 


i'^> 


ROVER  CLEVE- 
LAND, the  twenty- 
second  President  of  the 
I'liited  States,  1885—, 
was  born  in  Caldwell, 
Essex  County,  New 
Jersey,  March  18, 
The  house  in  which  he 
was  boin,  a  small  two-story 
•^$jfX^-  ■  wooden  building,  is  still  stand- 
^^Se^^^-^  ^"rt-  ^^  ^^'-^s  the  parsonage  of 
the  Presbyterian  church,  of 
which  his  lather,  Richard 
Cleveland,  at  the  time  was 
pastor.  The  family  is  of  New 
England  origin,  and  for  two  centuries  has 
contributed  to  the  professions  and  to  busi- 
ness, men  who  have  reflected  honor  on  the 
name.  Aaron  Cleveland,  Grover  Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather,  was  born  in 
Massachusetts,  but  subsequently  moved  to 
Philadelphia,  where  he  became  an  intimate 
friend  of  Benjamin  Franklin,  at  whose 
house  he  died.  He  left  a  large  family  of 
children,  who  in  time  married  and  settled 
in  different  parts  of  New  England.  A 
grandson  was  one  of  the  small  American 
force  that  fought  the  British  at  Bunker 
Hill.  He  served  with  gallantry  through- 
out the  Revolution  and  was  honorably 
discharged  at  its  close  as  a  Lieutenant  in 
the  Continental  army.  Another  grandson, 
William  Cleveland  (a  son  of  a  second  Aaron 


Cleveland,  who  was  distinguished  as  a 
writer  and  member  of  the  Connecticut 
Legislature)  was  Grover  Cleveland's  grand- 
father. William  Cleveland  became  a  silver- 
smith in  Norwich,  Connecticut.  He  ac- 
quired by  industry  some  property  and  sent 
his  son,  Richard  Cleveland,  the  father  of 
Grover  Cleveland,  to  Yale  College,  where 
he  graduated  in  1824.  During  a  year  spent 
in  teaching  at  Baltimore,  Maryland,  after 
graduation,  he  met  and  fell  in  love  with  a 
Miss  Annie  Neale,  daughter  of  a  wealthy 
Baltimore  book  publisher,  of  Irish  birth. 
He  was  earning  his  own  way  in  the  world 
at  the  time  and  was  unable  to  marry;  but 
in  three  years  he  completed  a  course  of 
preparation  for  the  ministry,  secured  a 
church  in  Windham,  Connecticut,  and 
married  Annie  Neale.  Subsequently  he 
moved  to  Portsmouth,  Virginia,  where  he 
preached  for  nearly  two  years,  when  he 
was  summoned  to  Caldwell,  New  Jersey, 
where  was  born  Grover  Cleveland. 

When  he  was  three  years  old  the  family 
moved  to  Fayetteville,  Onondaga  County, 
New  York.  Here  Grover  Cleveland  lived 
until  he  was  fourteen  years  old,  the  rugged, 
healthful  life  of  a  countr}'  bo}-.  His  frank, 
generous  manner  made  him  a  favorite 
among  his  companions,  and  their  respect 
was  won  by  the  good  qualities  in  the  germ 
which  his  manhood  developed.  He  at- 
tended the  district  school  of  the  village  and 


PRESIDENTS    OF    THE     UNITED    STATES. 


was  for  a  short  time  at  the  academy.  His 
lather,  however,  belie%'ed  that  boys  should 
be  taught  to  labor  at  an  early  age,  and  be- 
fore he  had  completed  the  course  of  study 
at  the  academy  he  began  to  work  in  the 
village  store  at  $50  for  the  first  year,  and  the 
promise  of  $100  for  the  second  year.  His 
work  was  well  done  and  the  promised  in- 
crease of  pay  was  granted  the  second  year. 

Meanwhile  his  father  and  family  had 
moved  to  Clinton,  the  seat  of  Hamilton 
College,  where  his  father  acted  as  agent  to 
the  Presbyterian  Board  of  Home  Missions, 
preaching  in  the  churches  of  the  vicinit}'. 
Hither  Grover  came  at  his  father's  request 
shortly  after  the  beginning  of  his  second 
year  at  the  Fayetteville  store,  and  resumed 
his  studies  at  the  Clinton  Academy.  After 
three  years  spent  in  this  town,  the  Rev. 
Richard  Cleveland  was  called  to  the  vil- 
lage church  of  Holland  Patent.  He  had 
jireached  here  only  a  month  when  he  was 
suddenly  stricken  down  and  died  without 
an  hour's  warning.  The  death  of  the  father 
left  the  family  in  straitened  circumstances, 
as  Richard  Cleveland  had  spent  all  his 
salary  of  %\,ooo  per  year,  which  was  not 
required  for  the  necessary  expenses  of  liv- 
ing, upon  the  education  of  his  children,  of 
whom  there  were  nine,  Grover  being  the 
fifth.  Grover  was  hoping  to  enter  Hamil- 
ton College,  but  the  death  of  his  father 
made  it  necessary  for  him  to  earn  his  own 
livelihood.  For  the  first  year  (1853-4)  ^e 
acted  as  assistant  teacher  and  bookkeeper  in 
the  Institution  for  the  Blind  in  New  York 
City,  of  which  the  late  Augustus  Schell  was 
for  many  years  the  patron.  In  the  winter 
of  1854  he  returned  to  Holland  Patent 
where  the  generous  people  of  that  place, 
Fayetteville  and  Clinton,  had  purchased  a 
home  for  his  mother,  and  in  the  following 
spring,  borrowing  S-'5,  he  set  out  for  the 
West  to  earn  his  living. 

Reaching  Buffalo  he  paid  a  hasty  visit  to 
an   uncle,    Lewis  F.  Allen,  a    well-known 


stock  farmer,  living  at  Black  Rock,  a  few 
miles  distant.  He  communicated  his  plans 
to  Mr.  Allen,  who  discouraged  the  idea  of 
the  West,  and  finally  induced  the  enthusi- 
astic boy  of  seventeen  to  remain  with  him 
and  help  him  prepare  a  catalogue  of  blooded 
short-horn  cattle,  known  as  "  Allen's  Amer- 
ican Herd  Book,"  a  publication  familiar  to 
all  breeders  of  cattle.  In  August,  1855,  he 
entered  the  law  office  of  Rogers,  Bowen 
ct  Rogers,  at  Buffalo,  and  after  serving  a 
few  months  without  pay,  was  paid  $4  a 
week — an  amount  barely  sufficient  to  meet 
the  necessary  expenses  of  his  board  in  the 
family  of  a  fellow-student  in  Buffalo,  with 
whom  he  took  lodgings.  Life  at  this  time 
with  Grover  Cleveland  was  a  stern  battle 
with  the  world.  He  took  his  breakfast  by 
candle-light  with  the  drovers,  and  went  at 
once  to  the  office  where  the  whole  day  was 
spent  in  work  and  study.  Usually  he  re- 
turned again  at  night  to  resume  reading 
which  had  been  interrupted  by  the  duties 
of  the  day.  Gradually  his  employers  came 
to  recognize  the  ability,  trustworthiness 
and  capacity  for  hard  work  in  their  yoimg 
employe,  and  by  the  time  he  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  (1859)  he  stood  high  in  their  con- 
fidence. A  year  later  he  was  made  confi- 
dential and  managing  clerk,  and  in  the 
course  of  three  3'ears  more  his  salary  had 
been  raised  to  $1,000.  In  1863  he  was  ap- 
pointed assistant  district  attorney  of  Erie 
Count}'  by  the  district  attorney,  the  Hon. 
C.  C.  Torrance. 

Since  his  first  vote  had  been  cast  in  1858 
he  had  been  a  staunch  Democrat,  and  until 
he  was  chosen  Governor  he  always  made 
it  his  duty,  rain  or  shine,  to  stand  at  the 
polls  and  give  out  ballots  to  Democratic 
voters.  During  the  first  year  of  his  term 
as  assistant  district  attorne}',  the  Democrats 
desired  especially  to  carry  the  Board  of  Su- 
pervisors. The  old  Second  Ward  in  which 
he  lived  was  Republican-  ordinarily  by  250 
majority,  but  at  the  urgent  request  of  the 


!-<     jI^SMSSSSi 


GRO  VEli     CL  E  VELA  ND. 


party  Grover  Cleveland  consented  to  be 
the  Democratic  candidate  for  Supervisor, 
and  came  within  thirteen  votes  of  an  elec- 
tion. The  three  years  spent  in  the  district 
attorney's  office  were  devoted  to  assiduous 
labor  and  the  extension  of  his  professional 
attainments.  He  then  formed  a  law  part- 
nership with  the  late  Isaac  V.  Vanderpoel, 
ex-State  Treasurer,  under  the  firm  name 
of  Vanderpoel  &  Cleveland.  Here  the  bulk 
of  the  work  devolved  on  Cleveland's  shoul- 
ders, and  he  soon  won  a  good  standing  at 
the  bar  of  Erie  County.  In  i86g  Mr. 
Cleveland  formed  a  partnership  with  ex- 
Senator  A.  P.  Laning  and  ex-Assistant 
United  States  District  Attorney  Oscar  Fol- 
som,  under  the  firm  name  of  Laning,  Cleve- 
land &  Folsom.  During  these  years  he 
began  to  earn  a  moderate  professional  in- 
come; but  the  larger  portion  of  it  was  sent 
to  his  mother  and  sisters  at  Holland  Patent 
to  whose  support  he  had  contributed  ever 
since  i860.  He  served  as  sheriff  of  Erie 
County,  i87o-'4,  and  then  resumed  the 
practice  of  law,  associating  himself  with  the 
Hon.  Lyman  K.  Bass  and  Wilson  S.  Bissell. 


The  firm  was  strong  and  popular,  and  soon 
commanded  a  large  and  lucrative  practice. 
Ill  health  forced  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Bass 
in  1879,  and  the  firm  became  Cleveland  & 
Bissell.  In  1881  Mr.  George  J.  Sicard  was 
added  to  the  firm. 

In  the  autumn  election  of  1881  he  was 
elected  mayor  of  Buffalo  by  a  majority  of 
over  3,500 — the  largest  majority  ever  given 
a  candidate  for  mayor — and  the  Democratic 
city  ticket  was  successful,  although  the 
Republicans  carried  Buffalo  by  over  1,000 
majority  for  their  State  ticket.  Grover 
Cleveland's  administration  as  mayor  fully 
justified  the  confidence  reposed  in  him  b}' 
the  people  of  Buffalo,  evidenced  by  the 
great  vote  he  received. 

The  Democratic  State  Convention  me( 
at  Syracuse,  September  22, 1882,  and  nomi- 
nated  Grover  Cleveland  for  Governor 
on  the  third  ballot  and  Cleveland  was 
elected  by  192,000  majoritv.  In  the  fall  of 
1884  he  was  elected  President  of  the  United 
States  by  about  1,000  popular  majority, 
in  New  York  State,  and  he  was  accordingly 
inaugurated  the  4th  of  March  following. 


u^ 


HISTORY  OF  INDIANA. 


^'^b^^^e^'^^t^:^?^^,^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


w%'^mmm  mmmmw^wm^ 


PREHISTORIC    RACES. 


CIENTISTS  have  as- 
cribed  to  the  Mound 
Builders  varied  origins, 
and  though  their  diver- 
gence of  opinion  may  for 
a  time  seem  incompati- 
ble with  a  thorough  in- 
^Cotigation  of  the  subject,  and 
tend  to  a  confusion  of  ideas,  no 
doubt  wliatever  can  exist  as  to 
the  comparative  accuracy  of 
conclusions  arrived  at  by  some 
of  them.  That  this  continent  is 
co-existent  with  the  world  of 
the  ancients  cannot  be  ques- 
tioned; the  results  of  all  scien- 
tific investigations,  down  to  the  present  time, 
combine  to  establish  the  fact  of  the  co-exist- 
ence of  the  two  continents.  Historians  and 
learned  men  differ  as  to  the  origin  of  the  first 
inhabitants  of  the  New  World;  the  general 
conclusions  arrived  at  are,  that  the  ancients 
came  from  the  east  by  way  of  Behring's 
Strait,  subsequent  to  the  confusion  of  tongues 
and  dispersion  of  the  inhabitants  at  the  time 
of  the  construction  of  the  Tower  of  Babel, 
1757  A.  M.  The  ancient  mounds  and  earth- 
works scattered  over  the  entire  continent  tend 


to  confirm  the  theory  that  the  Mound  Build- 
ers were  people  who  had  been  engaged  in 
raising  elevations  prior  to  their  advent  upon 
this  continent.  They  possessed  religious 
orders  corresponding,  in  external  show,  at 
least,  with  the  Essenes  or  Theraputse  of  the 
pre-Christian  and  Christian  epochs,  and  to 
the  reformed  Therapntte,  or  monks,  of  the 
present. 

Every  memento  of  their  coming  and  their 
stay  which  has  descended  to  us  is  an  evidence 
of  their  civilized  condition. 

The  free  copper  found  within  the  tumuli, 
the  open  veins  of  the  Superior  and  Iron 
Mountain  copper  mines,  with  all  the  imple- 
ments of  ancient  mining,  such  as  ladders, 
levers,  chisels  and  hammer-heads,  discovered 
by  the  explorers  of  the  Northwest  and  the 
Mississippi,  are  conclusive  proofs  that  these 
prehistoric  people  were  highly  civilized,  and 
that  many  flourishing  colonies  were  spread 
throughout  the  Mississippi  Valley. 

Within  the  last  few  years  great  advances 
have  been  made  toward  the  discovery  of  an- 
tiquities, whether  pertaining  to  remains  of 
organic  or  inorganic  nature.  Together  with 
many  small  but  telling  relics  of  the  early 
inhabitants  of  the  country,  the  fossils  of  pre- 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


historic  animals  have  been  uneartlied  from 
end  to  end  of  this  continent,  many  of  which 
are  remains  of  enormous  animals  long  since 
extinct.  Many  writers  who  have  devoted 
their  lives  to  the  investigation  of  the  origin 
of  the  ancient  inhabitants  of  this  continent, 
and  from  whence  they  came,  have  fixed  a 
period  of  a  second  immigration  a  few  centu- 
ries prior  to  the  Christian  era,  and,  imlike 
the  first  expeditions,  to  have  traversed  North- 
eastern Asia  to  its  Arctic  confines,  then  east 
to  Behring's  Strait,  thus  reaching  the  New 
World  by  the  same  route  as  the  first  immi- 
grants, and,  after  many  years'  residence  in  the 
North,  pushed  southward  and  commingled 
with  and  soon  acquired  the  characteristics  of 
the  descendants  of  the  first  colonists. 

The  Esquimaux  of  North  America,  the 
Sanioieds  of  Asia  and  the  Laplanders  of  Eu- 
rope are  supposed  to  be  of  the  same  family; 
and  this  supposition  is  strengthened  by  the 
affinity  which  exists  in  their  languages.  The 
researches  of  Humboldt  have  traced  the  Mex- 
icans to  the  vicinity  of  Behring's  Strait; 
whence  it  is  conjectured  that  they,  as  well  as 
the  Peruvians  and  other  tribes,  came  origi- 
nally from  Asia. 

Since  this  theory  is  accepted  by  most  anti- 
quarians, there  is  every  i-eason  to  believe  that 
from  the  discovery  of  what  jnay  be  termed 
an  overland  route  to  what  was  then  consid- 
ered an  eastern  extension  of  that  country, 
that  the  immigration  increased  annually  until 
the  new  continent  became  densely  populated. 
The  ruins  of  ancient  cities  discovered  in  Mex- 
ico and  South  America  prove  that  this  conti- 
nent v>'as  densely  populated  by  a  civilized  peo- 
ple prior  to  the  Indian  or  the  Caucasian  races. 

The  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  and  indeed 
the  country  from  the  trap  rocks  of  the  Great 
Lakes  southeast  to  the  Gulf  and  southwest 
to  Mexico,  abound  in  monumental  evidences 
of  a  race  of  people  much  further  advanced 


in  civilization  than  the  Montezumas  of  the 
sixteenth  century. 

The  remains  of  walls  and  fortifications 
found  in  Ohio  and  Indiana,  the  earth-works 
of  Yincennes  and  throughout  the  valley  of 
the  Wabash,  the  mounds  scattered  over  the 
several  Southern  States,  also  in  Illinois,  Min- 
nesota and  Wisconsin,  are  evidences  of  t!ie 
advancement  of  the  people  of  that  day  toward 
a  comparative  knowledge  of  man  and  cosmol- . 
ogy.  At  the  mouth  of  Fourteen-mile  Creek, 
in  Clark  County,  Indiana,  there  stands  one  of 
these  old  monuments,  known  as  the  "  Stone 
Fort."  It  is  an  unmistakable  heir-loom  of  a 
great  and  ancient  people,  and  must  have 
formed  one  of  their  most  important  posts. 

In  Posey  County,  on  the  Wabash,  ten  miles 
from  its  junction  with  the  Ohio  River,  is 
another  remarkable  evidence  of  the  great 
numbers  once  inhabiting  that  country.  This 
is  known  as  the  "  Bone  Bank,"  on  account  of 
the  human  bones  continually  washed  out  from 
the  river  bank.  This  process  of  unearthing 
the  ancient  remains  has  been  going  on  since 
the  remembrance  of  the  earliest  white  settler, 
and  various  relics  of  artistic  wares  are  found 
in  that  portion  of  Indiana.  Another  great 
circular  earth- work  is  found  near  New  Wash- 
ington, and  a  stone  fort  near  the  village  of 
Deputy. 

Yigo,  Jasper,  Sullivan,  Switzerland  and 
Ohio  counties  can  boast  of  a  liberal  endow- 
ment of  works  of  antiquity,  and  the  entire 
State  of  Indiana  abounds  with  numerous  rel- 
ics of  the  handiwork  of  the  extinct  race. 
Many  of  the  ancient  and  curiously  devised 
implements  and  wares  are  to  be  seen  in  the 
State  Museum  at  Indianapolis. 

The  origin  of  the  red  men,  or  American 
Indians,  is  a  subject  which  interests  all  read- 
ers. It  is  a  favorite  with  the  ethnologist, 
even  as  it  is  one  of  deep  concern  to  the  ordi- 
nary reader. 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


Tho  difference  of  opinion  concerning  our 
aboriginals,  among  aiitliors  M'ho  Lave  made  a 
profound  study  of  races,  is  both  curious  and 
interesting. 

Blunienbach  treats  tiiein  as  a  distinct  vari- 
ety of  the  human  family.  Dr.  Latham  ranks 
them  among  the  Mongolidfe.  Morton,  Nott 
and  Glidden  claim  for  the  red  men  a  distinct 
origin. 

Dr.  Robert  Brown,  our  latest  authority, 
gives  them  as  of  Asiatic  origin,  which  is  cer- 
tainly well  sustained  by  all  evidence  which 
has  thus  far  been  discovered  bearing  upon  the 
question. 

Differences  arising  among  communities 
produced  dissensions,  which  tended  to  form 
factions  and  tribes,  which  culminated  in  wars 
and  gradual  descent  from  a  state  of  civiliza- 
tion to  that  of  barbarism. 

The  art  of  hunting  not  only  supplied  the 
Indian  with  food,  but,  like  that  of  war,  was 
a  means  of  gratifying  his  love  of  distinction. 
The  male  children,  as  soon  as  they  acquired 
sufficient  age  and  strength,  were  furnished 
with  a  bow  and  arrow,  and  taught  to  shoot 
birds  and  other  small  game. 

Their  general  councils  were  composed  of 
the  chiefs  and  old  men.  When  in  council 
they  usually  sat  in  concentric  circles  around 
the  speaker,  and  each  individual,  notwith- 
standing the  iiery  passions  that  rankled  within, 
preserved  an  exterior  as  immovable  as  if  cast 
in  bronze.  Laws  governing  their  councils 
were  as  strictly  enforced  and  observed  as  are 
those  of  similar  bodies  among  modern  civil- 
ized and  enlightened  races. 

The  dwellings  of  the  Indians  were  of  the 
simplest  and  rudest  character. 

The  dwellings  of  the  chiefs  were  some- 
times more  spacious,  and  constructed  with 
greater  care,  but  of  the  same  materials,  which 
were  generally  the  barks  of  trees. 

Though  principally  depending  on  hunting 


for  food,  they  also  cultivated  small  patches  of 
corn,  the  labor  being  performed  by  the  women, 
their  condition  being  little  better  than  slaves. 

EXPLORATIONS    BY    TUE    WHITES. 

The  State  of  Indiana  is  bounded  on  the 
east  by  the  meridian  line  which  forms  also 
the  western  boundary  of  Ohio,  extending  due 
north  from  the  mouth  of  tho  Great  Miami 
River;  on  the  south  by  the  Ohio  River,  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Wabash;  on  the  west  by  a  line  drawn 
along  the  middle  of  the  Wabash  River  from 
its  mouth  to  a  point  where  a  due  north  line 
from  the  town  of  Yincennes  would  last  touch 
the  shore  of  said  river,  and  thence  directly 
north  to  Lake  Michigan;  and  on  the  north 
by  said  lake  and  an  east  and  west  line  ten 
miles  north  of  the  extreme  south  end  of  the 
lake,  and  extending  to  its  intersection  with 
the  aforesaid  meridian,  the  west  boundary  of 
Ohio.  These  boundaries  include  an  area  of 
33,809  square  miles,  lying  between  37°  47' 
and  41°  50'  north  latitude,  and  between  7° 
45'  and  11°  1'  west  longitude  from  Wash- 
ington. 

After  the  discovery  of  America  by  Colum- 
bus, in  1492,  more  than  150  years  passed 
before  any  portion  of  the  territory  now  com- 
prised within  the  above  limits  was  explored 
by  Europeans.  Colonies  were  established  by 
rival  European  powers  in  Florida,  Virginia 
and  Nova  Scotia,  but  not  until  1670-'72  did 
the  first  white  travelers  venture  as  far  into 
the  Northwest  as  Indiana  or  Lake  Michigan. 

These  explorers  were  Frenchmen  by  the 
names  of  Claude  Allouez  and  Claude  Dablon, 
who  probably  visited  that  portion  of  the  State 
north  of  the  Kankakee  River.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year  M.  Joliet,  an  agent  of  the  French 
Colonial  Government,  accompanied  by  James 
Marquette,  a  Catholic  missionary,  made  an 
exploring  trip  as  far  westward  as  the  Missis 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


sippi,  the  banks  of  wliicli  they  reached  June 
17,  1673. 

In  1682  La  Salle  explored  the  West,  but 
it  is  not  known  that  he  entered  the  region 
now  embraced  within  the  State  of  Indiana. 
He  took  formal  possession  of  all  the  Missis- 
sippi region  in  the  name  of  Louis,  King  of 
France,  and  called  the  country  Louisiana, 
which  included  what  is  now  the  State  of 
Indiana.  At  the  same  time  Spain  claimed 
all  the  country  in  the  region  of  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico,  thus  the  two  countries  became  com- 
petitors for  the  extension  of  domain,  and 
soon  caused  the  several  Indian  tribes  (who 
were  actually  in  possession  of  the  country) 
to  take  sides,  and  a  continual  state  of  warfare 
was  the  result.  The  Great  Miami  Confed- 
eracy ot  Indians,  the  Miamis  proper  (an- 
ciently the  Twightwees),  being  the  eastern 
and  most  powerful  tribe,  their  country  ex- 
tended from  the  Scioto  River  west  to  the 
Illinois  Hi  ver.  These  Indians  were  frequently 
visited  by  fur  traders  and  missionaries  from 
both  Catholic  and  Protestant  creeds.  The 
Five  Nations,  so  called,  were  tribes  farther 
east,  and  not  connected  with  Indiana  history. 

The  first  settlement  made  by  the  white 
man  in  the  territory  of  the  present  State  of 
Indiana  was  on  tlie  bank  of  the  river  then 
known  as  tlie  Ouabache,  the  name  given  it 
by  the  French  explorers,  now  the  river 
Wabash.  Francis  Moi-gan  de  Vinsenne,  who 
served  in  a  military  regiment  (French)  in 
Canada  as  early  as  1720,  and  on  the  lakes  in 
1725,  first  made  his  advent  at  Vincennes, 
possibly  as  early  as  1732.  Records  show 
him  there  January  5,  1735  He  -was  killed 
in  a  war  with  the  Chickasaw  Indians  in  1736. 
The  town  which  he  founded  bore  his  name, 
Vinsenne,  until  1749,  when  it  was  changed 
to  Vincennes. 

Post  Vincennes  was  certainly  occupied 
prior  to  the  date  given  by  Vinsenne,  as  a 


letter  from  Father  Marest,  dated  at  Kas- 
kaskia,  November  9,  1712,  reads  as  follows: 
"  The  French  have  established  a  fort  upon  the 
river  Wabash,  and  want  a  missionary,  and 
Father  Mermet  has  been  sent  to  them,"  Mcr- 
met  was  therefore  the  first  preacher  of  Chris- 
tianity stationed  in  this  part  of  the  world. 
Vincennes  has  ever  been  a  stronghold  of 
Catholicism.  Contemporaneous  with  the 
church  at  Vincennes  was  a  missionary  work 
among  the  Ouiatenons,  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Wea  River,  which  was  of  but  sliort 
duration. 

NATIONAL    POLICIES. 

The  wars  in  which  France  and  England 
were  .engaged,  from  1680  to  1697,  retarded 
the  growth  of  the  colonies  of  those  nations 
in  North  America.  The  English,  jealous  of 
the  French,  resorted  to  all  available  means  to 
extend  their  domain  westward,  the  French 
equally  active  in  pressing  their  claims  east- 
ward and  south.  Both  sides  succeeded  in 
securing  savage  allies,  and  for  many  years 
the  pioneer  settlers  were  harrassed  and  cruelly 
murdered  by  the  Indians  who  were  serving 
the  purposes  of  one  or  the  other  contending 
nations. 

France  continued  her  effort  to  connect 
Canada  with  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  by  a  chain 
of  trading-posts  and  colonies,  which  increased 
the  Jealousy  of  England  and  laid  the  founda- 
tion for  the  French  and  Indian  M-ar. 

This  war  was  terminated  in  1763  by  a 
treaty  at  Paris,  by  which  France  ceded  'to 
Great  Britain  all  of  North  America  east  of 
the  Mississippi  except  New  Orleans  and  the 
island  on  which  it  is  situated. 

The  British  policy,  after  getting  entire 
control  of  the  Indiana  territory,  was  still 
unfavorable  to  its  growth  in  population.  In 
1765  the  total  number  of  French  families 
within  the  limits  of  the  Northwestern  Terri- 


Bistort  of  Indiana. 


tory  did  not  exceed  600.  These  were  iu 
Bettlements  about  Detroit,  along  the  river 
Wabash,  and  the  neigliborhood  of  Fort  Char- 
tres  on  the  Mississippi. 

Of  these  families,  eighty-five  resided  at 
Post  Vincennes,  fourteen  at  Fort  Ouiatenon, 
on  the  AYabash,  and  ten  at  the  confluence  of 
tlie  St.  Mary  and  St.  Joseph  rivers. 

The  colonial  policy  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment opposed  any  measures  which  might 
strengthen  settlements  in  the  interior  of  this 
country,  lest  they  become  self-supporting  and 
independent  of  tlie  mother  country. 

Thomas  Jefferson,  the  shrewd  statesman 
and  then  Governor  of  Virginia,  saw  from  the 
first  that  actual  occupation  of  western  lands 
was  the  only  way  to  keep  them  out  of  the 
hands  of  foreigners  and  Indians. 

He  accordingly  engaged  a  scientific  corps, 
and  sent  them  to  the  Mississippi  to  ascertain 
the  point  on  that  river  intersected  by  latitude 
36°  30',  the  southern  limit  of  the  State,  and 
to  measure  its  distance  to  the  Ohio.  He 
entrusted  the  military  operations  in  that 
quarter  to  General  Clark,  with  instructions 
to  select  a  strong  position  near  the  point 
named,  and  erect  a  fort,  and  garrison  the  same, 
for  protecting  the  settlers,  and  to  extend  his 
conqiiests  northward  to  the  lakes.  Conform- 
ing to  instructions,  General  Clark  erected 
"  Fort  Jefferson,"  on  the  Mississippi,  a  few 
miles  above  the  southern  limit. 

The  result  of  these  operations  was  the 
addition  to  Virginia  of  the  vast  Northwestern 
Territory.  The  simple  fact  that  a  chain  of 
forts  was  established  by  the  Americans  iu 
this  vast  region,  convinced  the  British  Com- 
missioners that  we  had  entitled  ourselves  to 
the  land. 

During  this  time  other  minor  events  were 
transpiring  outside  the  territory  in  question, 
wliich  subsequently  promoted  the  early  set- 
tling of  portions  of  Indiana. 


On  February  11,  1781,  a  wagoner  named 
Irvin  Hinton  was  sent  from  Louisville,  Ken- 
tucky, to  Ilarrodsburg  for  a  load  of  provi- 
sions. 

Two  young  men,  Richard  Rue  and  George 
Holman,  aged  respectively  nineteen  and  six- 
teen years,  accompanied  Hinton  as  guards. 
When  eight  miles  from  Louisville  they  were 
surprised  and  captured  by  the  renegade  white 
man,  Simon  Girty,  and  twelve  Indian  war- 
riors. They  were  marched  hurriedly  for 
three  days  through  deep  snow,  when  they 
reached  the  Indian  village  of  Wa-proc-ca- 
nat-ta.  Hinton  was  burned  at  the  stake.  Rue 
and  Holman  were  adopted  in  the  trilie,  and 
remained  three  years,  when  Rue  made  his 
escape,  and  Holman,  about  the  same  time, 
was  ransomed  by  relatives  in  Kentucky.  The 
two  men  were  the  first  white  men  to  settle 
in  Wayne  County,  Indiana,  where  they  lived 
to  a  good  old  age,  and  died  at  their  homes 
two  miles  south  of  Richmond. 

EXPEDITIONS      OF       COLONEL       GEORGE       ROGERS 
CLARK. 

In  the  spring  of  1776  Colonel  George 
Rogers  Clark,  a  native  of  Virginia,  who 
resided  in  Kentucky  at  the  above  date,  con- 
ceived a  plan  of  opening  up  and  more  rapidly 
settling  the  great  Northwest.  That  portion 
of  the  West  called  Kentucky  was  occupied  by 
Henderson  &  Co.,  who  pretended  to  own  the 
land,  and  held  it  at  a  high  price.  Colonel 
Clark  wished  to  test  the  validity  of  their 
claim,  and  adjust  the  government  of  the 
country  so  as  to  encourage  Immigration.  He 
accordingly  called  a  meeting  of  the  citizens 
at  Harrodstown,  to  assemble  June  6,  1776, 
and  consider  the  claims  of  the  company,  and 
consult  with  reference  to  the  interest  of  the 
country. 

The  meeting  was  held  on  the  day  ap- 
pointed, and  delegates  elected  to  confer  with 


lILSTOnr    OF    INDIANA. 


the  State  uf  Virginia  as  to  the  propriety  of 
attaching  the  new  country  as  a  county  to 
that  State. 

Many  causes  prevented  a  consummation 
of  this  object  until  1778.  Virginia  was 
favorable  to  the  enterprise,  but  would  not 
take  action  as  a  State;  but  Governor  Henry 
and  a  few  other  Virginia  gentlemen  assisted 
Colonel  Clark  all  tliey  could.  Accordingly 
Clark  organized  his  expedition.  He  took  in 
stores  at  Pittsburg  and  Wheeling,  and  pro- 
ceeded down  the  Ohio  to  the  "  falls,"  where 
he  constructed  some  light  fortifications. 

At  this  time  Post  Vincennes  comprised 
about  400  militia,  and  it  was  a  daring  under- 
taking for  Colonel  Clark,  M-ith  his  small  force, 
to  go  up  against  it  and  Kaskaskia,  as  he  had 
planned.  Some  of  his  men,  becoming  alarmed 
at  the  situation,  deserted  him. 

He  conducted  himself  so  as  to  gain  the 
sympathy  of  the  French,  and  through  them 
the  Indians  to  some  extent,  as  both  these 
people  were  very  bitter  against  the  British, 
who  had  possession  of  the  lake  region. 

From  the  nature  of  the  situation  Clark 
concluded  to  take  Kaskaskia  first,  which  he 
did,  and  succeeded  by  kindness  in  winning 
them  to  his  standard.  It  was  difficult,  how- 
ever, for  him  to  induce  the  French  to  accept 
the  Continental  paper  in  payment  for  provi- 
sions. Colonel  Vigo,  a  Frenchman  who  had 
a  trading  establishment  there,  came  to  the 
rescue,  and  prevailed  upon  the  people  to  ac- 
cept the  paper.  Colonel  Vigo  sold  coffee  at 
$1  a  pound,  and  other  necessaries  of  life  at 
an  equally  reasonable  price. 

The  post  at  Vincennes,  defended  by  Fort 
Sackville,  was  the  next  and  all-important 
position  to  possess.  Father  Gibault,  of  Kas- 
kaskia, who  also  had  charge  of  the  church 
at  Vincennes,  being  friendly  to  the  Amer- 
icans, used  his  influence  with  the  people  of 
the  garrison,  and  wow  them  to  Clark's  stand- 


ard. They  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  to 
Virginia,  and  became  citizens  of  the  United 
States.  Colonel  Clark  here  concluded  treaties 
with  the  several  Indian  tribes,  and  placed 
Captain  Leonard  Helm,  an  American,  in 
command  of  Vincennes.  On  learning  the 
successful  termination  of  Clark's  exjjedition, 
the  General  Assembly  of  Virginia  declared 
all  the  settlers  west  of  the  Ohio  organized 
into  a  county  of  that  State,  to  be  known  as 
"  Illinois  '•  County ;  but  before  the  provisions 
of  the  law  could  be  made  effective,  Henry 
Hamilton,  the  British  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  Detroit,  collected  an  army  of  thirty  regu- 
lars, fifty  French  volunteers  and  400  Indians, 
and  moved  upon  and  took  Post  Vincennes  in 
December,  1778.  Captain  Helm  and  a  man 
named  Henry  were  the  only  Americans  at 
the  fort,  the  only  members  of  the  garrison. 
Captain  Helm  was  taken  prisoner,  and  tlie 
French  disarmed. 

Colonel  Clark  was  at  Kaskaskia  when  he 
learned  of  the  capture  of  Vincennes,  and  de- 
termined to  retake  the  place.  He  gathered 
together  what  force  he  could  (170  men),  and 
on  the  5th  of  February  started  from  Kas- 
kaskia, and  crossed  the  river  of  that  name. 
The  weather  was  wet,  and  the  lowlands  cov- 
ered with  water.  He  had  to  resort  to  shoot- 
ing such  game  as  chanced  to  be  found  to 
furnish  provisions,  and  use  all  the  ingenuity 
and  skill  he  possessed  to  nerve  his  little  force 
to  press  forward.  He  waded  tlie  water  and 
shared  all  the  hardships  and  privations  with 
his  men.  They  reached  the  Little  Wabash 
on  the  13th.  The  river  was  overflowing  the 
lowlands  from  recent  rains.  Two  days  were 
here  consumed  in  crossing  the  stream.  The 
succeeding  days  they  marched  through  water 
much  of  the  time,  reaching  the  Big  Wabash 
on  the  night  of  the  17th.  The  18th  and 
19th  were  consumed  trying  to  cross  tlie  river. 
Finally    canoes  were    constructed,  and   the 


,_™___,': 

?;;!!^^.!!"'^'!![ 


=^^i 


BiStOnt    OF    INDtAHA. 


entire  iorco  crossed  the  main  stream,  but  to 
iind  the  lowlands  under  water  and  consider- 
able ice  formed  from  recent  cold.  His  men 
mutinied  and  refused  to  proceed.  All  the 
persuasions  of  Clark  had  no  effect  upon  the 
half-starved,  and  half-frozen,  soldiers. 

In  one  company  was  a  small  drummer  boy, 
and  also  a  Sergeant  who  stood  six  feet  two 
inches  in  socks,  and  stout  and  athletic.  He 
■was  devoted  to  Clark.  The  General  mounted 
the  little  drummer  on  the  shoulders  of  the 
Sergeant,  and  ordered  him  to  plunge  into  the 
water,  half-frozen  as  it  was.  He  did  so,  the 
little  boy  beating  the  charge  from  his  lofty 
position,  while  Clark,  sword  in  hand,  fol- 
lowed them,  giving  the  command  as  he  threw 
aside  the  floating  ice,  "  Forward."  The  efl'ect 
v.-as  electrical;  the  men  hoisted  their  guns 
above  their  heads,  and  plunged  into  the  water 
and  followed  their  determined  leader.  On 
arriving  within  two  miles  of  the  fort,  General 
Clark  halted  his  little  band,  and  sent  in  a 
letter  demanding  a  surrender,  to  which  he 
received  no  reply.  He  next  ordered  Lieu- 
tenant Bayley  with  fourteen  men  to  advance 
and  fire  on  the  fort,  while  the  main  body 
moved  in  another  direction  and  took  posses- 
sion of  the  strongest  portion  of  the  town. 
Clark  then  demanded  Hamilton's  surrender 
immediately  or  he  would  be  treated  as  a 
murderer.  Hamilton  made  reply,  indignantly 
refusing  to  surrender.  After  one  hour  more 
of  fighting,  Hamilton  proposed  a  truce  of 
three  days.  Clark's  reply  was,  that  nothing 
would  be  accepted  but  an  unconditional  sur- 
render of  Hamilton  and  the  garrison.  In 
less  than  an  hour  Clark  dictated  the  terms  of 
sui'render,  February  24,  1779. 

Of  this  expedition,  of  its  results,  of  its 
importance,  as  well  as  of  the  skill  and  bravery 
of  those  engaged  in  it,  a  volume  would  not 
suffice  for  the  details. 

This  expedition  and    its    gifrantic   results 


has  never  been  surpassed,  if  equalled,  in 
modern  times,  when  we  consider  that  by 
it  the  whole  territory  now  included  in  the 
three  great  States  of  Indiana,  Illinois  and 
Michigan  was  added  to  the  Union,  and  so 
admitted  by  the  British  Commissioners  to 
the  treaty  of  peace  in  1783.  But  for  the 
results  of  this  expedition,  our  western  bound- 
ary would  have  been  the  Ohio  instead  of  the 
Mississippi.  When  we  consider  the  vast 
area  of  territory  embracing  2,000,000  people, 
the  human  mind  is  lost  in  the  contemplation 
of  its  eflects;  and  we  can  but  wonder  that  a 
force  of  170  men,  the  whole  number  of  Clark's 
troops,  should  by  this  single  action  have  pro- 
duced such  important  results. 

General  Clark  reinstated  Captain  Helm  in 
command  of  Vincennes,  with  instructions  to 
subdue  the  marauding  Indians,  which  he  did, 
and  soon  comparative  quiet  was  restored  on 
Indiana  soil. 

The  whole  credit  of  this  conquest  belongs 
to  General  Clark  and  Colonel  Francis  Vigo. 
The  latter  was  a  Sardinian  by  birth.  He 
served  for  a  time  in  the  Spanish  army,  but 
left  the  army  and  engaged  in  trading  with  the 
Indians,  and  attained  to  great  popularity  and 
influence  among  them,  as  well  as  making 
considerable  money.  He  devoted  his  time, 
influence  and  means  in  aid  of  the  Clark 
expedition  and  the  cause  of  the  United  States. 

GOVERNMENT  OF  THE  NORTHWEST. 

Colonel  John  Todd,  Lieutenant  for  the 
County  of  Illinois,  visited  Vincennes  and 
Ivaskaskia  in  the  spring  of  1779,  and  organ- 
ized temporary  civil  government.  He  also 
proceeded  to  adjust  the  disputed  land  claim. 
With  this  view  he  organized  a  court  of  civil 
and  criminal  jurisdiction  at  Vincennes.  This 
court  was  composed  of  several  magistrates, 
and  presided  over  by  Colonel  J".  M.  P.  Legras, 
who  was  then  commander  of  the  post. 


al»B*HJaiSgK'l 


.■i^B,a,MiiM,M»«,ii„g_B»ig.i»«»»»«««»«»«Wiia»MMg«BagH*aBB=as«JgSJ! 


130 


EI8T0RT    OF    INDIANA. 


This  court,  from  precedent,  began  to  grant 
lands  to  the  French  and  American  inhabitants. 
Forty -eight  thousand  acres  had  been  disposed 
of  in  this  manner  up  to  1787,  when  the  prac- 
tice was  proliibited  by  General  Ilarmar. 

In  the  fall  of  1780  La  Balma,  a  French- 
man, made  an  attempt  to  capture  the  British 
garrison  of  Detroit  by  leading  an  expedition 
against  it  from  Kaskaskia. 

He  marched  with  his  small  force  to  the 
Britisli  trading-post  at  the  head  of  the  Mau- 
mee,  where  Fort  Wayne  now  stands,  plun- 
dered the  British  traders  and  Indians,  and 
retired.  While  in  camp  on  his  retreat,  he 
was  attacked  by  a  bandof  Miamis;  a  number 
of  his  men  were  killed,  and  the  expedition 
was  ruined.  In  this  manner  war  continued 
between  the  Americans  and  their  enemies 
until  1783,  when  the  treaty  of  Paris  was 
c'onchided,  resulting  in  the  establishment  of 
the  independence  of  the  United  States. 

Up  to  this  time  the  Indiana  territory  be- 
longed by  conquest  to  the  State  of  Virginia. 

In  January,  1783,  the  General  Assembly 
of  that  State  resolved  to  cede  the  territory  to 
the  United  States.  The  proposition  made  by 
Virginia  was  accepted  by  the  United  States, 
and  the  transfer  confirmed  early  in  1784.  The 
conditions  of  the  transfer  of  the  territory 
fo  the  United  States  were,  that  the  State  of 
Virginia  should  be  reimbursed  for  all  expen- 
ditures incurred  in  exploring  and  protecting 
settlers  in  the  territory ;  that  150,000  acres 
of  land  should  be  granted  to  General  Clark 
and  his  band  of  soldiers,  who  conquered  the 
French  and  British  and  annexed  the  terri- 
tory to  Virginia. 

After  the  above  deed  of  cession  had  been 
accepted  by  Congress,  in  the  spring  of  1784, 
tlie  matter  of  the  future  government  of  the 
territory  was  referred  to  a  committee  con- 
sisting of  Messrs.  Jefferson,  of  Virginia; 
Chase,  of  Maryland;  and  Howell,  of  Rhode 


Island;  which  committee,  among  other 
things,  reported  an  ordinance  prohibiting 
slavery  in  the  territory  after  1800,  but  this 
article  of  the  ordinance  was  rejected. 

The  ordinance  of  1787  has  an  interesting 
history.  Considerable  controversy  has  been 
indulged  in  as  to  who  is  entitled  to  the  credit 
of  framing  it.  This  undoubtedly  belongs 
to  Nathan  Dane;  and  to  Rufus  King  and 
Timothy  Pickering  belongs  the  credit  for 
the  clause  prohibiting  slavery  contained  in  it. 

Mr.  Jefferson  had  vainly  tried  to  secure  a 
system  of  government  for  the  Northwestern 
Territory  excluding  slavery  therefrom.  The 
South  invariably  voted  him  down. 

In  July,  1787,  an  organizing  act  without 
the  slavery  clause  was  pending,  which  was 
supposed  would  secure  its  passage.  Congress 
was  in  session  in  New  York.  July  5  Eev. 
Manasseli  Cutler,  of  Massachusetts,  came  to 
New  York  in  the  interest  of  some  land  spec- 
ulators in  the  Northwest  Territory.  lie  was 
a  graduate  of  Yale;  had  taken  the  degrees  of 
the  three  learned  professions — medicine,  law 
and  divinity.  As  a  scientist,  in  America 
his  name  stood  second  only  to  that  of 
Franklin. 

He  was  a  courtly  gentleman  of  the  old 
style.  He  readily  ingratiated  himself  into 
the  confidence  of  Southern  leaders.  He 
wished  to  purchase  5,500,000  acres  of  land 
in  the  new  Territory.  Jefferson  and  his  ad- 
ministration desired  to  make  a  record  on  the 
reduction  of  the  public  debt,  and  this  was  a 
rare  opportunity.  Massachusetts  representa- 
tives could  not  vote  against  Cutler's  scheme, 
ns  many  of  their  constituents  were  interested 
in  the  measure;  Southern  members  M'ere 
already  committed.  Thus  Cutler  held  the 
key  to  the  situation,  and  dictated  terms, 
which  were  as  follows: 

1.  The  exclusion  of  slavery  from  the 
Territorv  forever. 


HI8T0RT    OF    INDIANA. 


2.  Providing  one-tliirty-sixtli  of  all  the 
land  for  public  schools. 

3.  Be  it  forever  remembered  that  this 
compact  declares  that  religion,  morality  and 
knowledge  being  necessary  to  good  govern- 
ment and  the  liappiness  of  mankind,  schools 
and  the  means  of  education  shall  always  be 
encouraged. 

Dr.  Cutler  planted  himself  on  this  plat- 
form, and  would  not  yield,  stating  that 
unless  they  could  procure  the  lands  under 
desirable  conditions  and  surroundings,  they 
did  not  want  it.  July  13,  1787,  the  bill 
became  a  law.  Thus  the  great  States  of 
Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michigan  and  Wis- 
consin— a  vast  empire — were  consecrated  to 
freedom,  intelligence  and  morality. 

October  5,  1787,  Congress  elected  General 
Arthur  St.  Clair  Governor  of  the  JSTorth- 
western  Territory.  He  assumed  his  official 
duties  at  Marietta,  and  at  once  proceeded  to 
treat  with  the  Indians,  and  organize  a  Terri- 
torial government.  lie  first  organized  a 
court  at  Marietta,  consisting  of  three  judges, 
himself  being  president  of  the  court. 

The  Governor  with  the  judges  then  visited 
Kaskaskia,  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  civil 
government,  liaving  previously  instructed  Ma- 
jor Ilamtramck,  at  Vincennes,  to  present  the 
policy  of  the  new  administration  to  the  sev- 
eral Indian  tribes,  and  ascertain  their  feelings 
in  regard  to  acquiescing  in  the  new  order  of 
things.  They  received  the  messenger  with 
cool  indifference,  whicli,  when  reported  to  the 
Governor,  convinced  him  that  nothing  short 
of  military  force  would  command  compliance 
with  the  civil  law.  He  at  once  proceeded  to 
Fort  Washington,  to  consult  with  General 
Harmar  as  to  future  action.  In  the  mean- 
time he  intrusted  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Territory,  "Winthrop  Sargent,  the  settlement 
of  tlie  disputed  land  claims,  who  found  it  an 
arduous  task,  and  in  his  report  states  that 


he  found  the  records  had  been  so  falsified, 
vouchers  destroyed,  and  other  crookedness, 
as  to  make  it  impossible  to  get  at  a  just 
settlement,  which  proves  that  the  abuse  of 
public  trust  is  not  a  very  recent  discovery. 

The  General  Court  in  1790,  acting  Gov- 
ernor Sargent  presiding,  passed  stringent 
laws  prohibiting  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liq- 
uors to  Indians,  and  also  to  soldiers  within 
ten  miles  of  any  military  post;  also  prohib- 
iting any  games  of  chance  within  the  Terri- 
tory. 

Winthrop  Sargent's  administration  was 
highly  eulogized  by  the  citizens.  lie  had 
succeeded  in  settling  the  disputed  land  ques- 
tion satisfactory  to  all  concerned,  had  estab- 
lished in  good  order  the  machinery  of  a  free, 
wise  and  good  government.  In  the  same  ad- 
dress Major  Hamtramck  also  received  a  fair 
share  of  praise  for  his  judicious  management 
of  public  affairs. 

The  consultation  of  Governor  St.  Clair  and 
General  Harmar,  at  Fort  Washington,  ended 
in  deciding  to  raise  a  large  military  force 
and  thoroughly  chastise  the  Indians  about 
the  head  of  the  Wabash.  Accordingly  Vir- 
ginia and  Pennsylvania  were  called  upon  for 
troops,  and  1,800  men  were  mustered  at  Fort 
Steuben,  and,  with  the  garrison  of  that  fort, 
joined  the  forces  at  Vincennes  under  Major 
Ilamtramck,  who  proceeded  up  the  Wabash 
as  far  as  the  Vermillion  River,  destroying 
villages,  but  without  finding  an  enemy  to 
oppose  him. 

General  Harmar,  with  1,150  men,  marched 
from  Fort  Washington  to  the  Maumee,  and 
began  punishing  the  Indians,  but  with  little 
success.  The  expedition  marched  from  Fort 
Washington  September  30,  and  returned  to 
that  place  November  4,  having  lost  during 
the  expedition  183  men  killed  and  thirty- 
one  wounded. 

General  Harmar's  defeat   alarmed  as  well 


'.; 


■■■■■■■■■"■■■■■■■a 


133 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


as  aroused  the  citizens  in  the  frontier  counties 
of  Virginia.  They  reasoned  that  the  sav- 
ages' success  would  invite  an  invasion  of 
frontier  Virginia. 

A  memorial  to  this  eft'ect  M'as  presented 
before  the  State  General  Assembly.  This 
'memorial  caused  the  Legislature  to  authorize 
tlie  Governor  to  use  such  means  as  he  might 
deera  necessary  for  defensive  operations. 

The  Governor  called  upon  the  western 
counties  of  Virginia  for  militia;  at  the  same 
time  Charles  Scott  was  appointed  Brigadier- 
General  of  the  Iventuchy  militia,  now  pre- 
paring for  defending  their  frontier. 

The  proceedings  of  the  Virginia  Legisla- 
ture reaching  Congress,  that  body  at  once 
constituted  a  board  of  war  consisting  of  five 
men.  March  9,  1791,  General  Knox,  Secre- 
tary of  War,  wrote  to  General  Scott  recom- 
mending an  expedition  against  the  Indians 
on  the  AVabash. 

General  Scott  moved  into  the  Indian  set- 
tlements, reached  the  Wabash;  the  Indians 
principally  fled  before  his  forces.  He  de- 
stroyed many  villages,  killed  thirty-two  war- 
riors and  took  fifty-eight  prisoners;  the 
wretched  condition  of  his  hpj'scs  prevented 
further  pursuit. 

March  3,  1791,  Congress  invested  Govern- 
or St.Clair  with  the  command  of  8,000  troops, 
and  he  was  instructed  by  the  Secretary  of 
War  to  march  to  the  Miami  village  and  es- 
tablish a  strong  and  permanent  military  post 
there.  The  Secretary  of  War  gave  him  strict 
orders,  that  after  establishing  a  permanent 
base  at  tlie  Miami  village,  he  seek  the  enemy 
Mith  all  his  available  force  and  make  them 
feel  the  eftects  of  the  superiority  of  the  whites. 

Previous  to  marching  a  strong  force  to  the 
]\nami  town,  Governor  St.  Clair,  June  25, 
1791,  authorized  General  Wilkinson,  with 
500  mounted  men,  to  move  against  the  In- 
dians on    the  Wabash.     General  Wilkinson 


reported  the  results  of  this  expedition  as  fol- 
lows: "  I  have  destroyed  the  chief  town  of 
the  Ouiatenon  nation,  and  have  made  prisoners 
of  the  sons  and  sisters  of  the  King;  I  have 
burned  a  Kickapoo  village,  and  cut  down 
400  acres  of  corn  in  the  milk." 

EXPEDITIONS  OF  ST.  CLAIR  AND  WAYNE. 

The  Indians  had  been  seriously  damaged 
by  Harmar,  Scott  and  Wilkinson,  but  were 
far  from  subdued.  The  British  along  the 
Canada  frontier  gave  them  much  encourage- 
ment to  continue  the  warfare. 

In  September,  1791,  St.  Clair  moved  from 
Fort  Washington  with  a  force  of  2,000  men 
and  a  number  of  pieces  of  artillery,  and  No- 
vember 3  he  reached  the  headwaters  of  the 
Wabash,  where  Fort  Recovery  was  afterward 
erected,  and  here  the  army  camped,  consist- 
ing of  1,400  effective  men ;  on  the  morning 
of  November  4  the  army  advanced  and  en- 
gaged the  Indians  1,200  strong. 

The  Americans  were  disastrously  defeated, 
having  thirty-nine  officers  and  539  men 
killed  and  missing,  twenty-two  officers  and 
232  men  wounded.  Several  pieces  of  artil- 
lery and  all  their  provisions  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  Indians;  estimated  loss  in  prop- 
erty, S32,000. 

Although  no  particular  Llame  was  attached 
to  Governor  St.  Clair  for  the  loss  in  his  ex- 
pedition, yet  he  resigned  the  office  of  Major- 
General,  and  was  succeeded  by  Anthony 
Wayne,  a  distinguished  officer  of  the  Revo- 
lutionary war. 

General  Wayne  organized  his  forces  at 
Pittsburg,  and  in  October,  1793,  moved  west- 
ward from  that  jioint  at  the  head  of  an  army 
of  3,600  men. 

He  proposed  an  offensive  campaign.  The 
Indians,  instigated  by  the  British,  insisted 
that  the  Ohio  River  should  be  the  boundary 
between   their  lands   and   the    lands    of  the 


HISTORY    OF    1X1)1  AS. 


133 


United  States,  and  were  sure  tliey  could 
niaintain  that  line. 

General  Scott,  of  Kentucky,  joined  General 
Wayne  with  1,600  mounted  men.  They 
erected  Fort  Defiance  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Auglaize  Eiver.  August  15  the  army 
moved  toward  the  British  fort,  near  the 
rapids  of  the  Maumee,  where,  on  the  morn- 
ing of  August  20,  they  defeated  2,000 
Indians  and  British  almost  within  range  of 
the  guns  of  the  fort.  About  900  American 
troops  were  actually  engaged.  The  Ameri- 
cans lost  thirty-three  killed  and  100  wound- 
ed, tlie  enemy's  loss  being  more  than  double. 
AVayne  remained  in  that  region  for  three 
days,  destroying  villages  and  crops,  then  re- 
turned to  Fort  Defiance,  destroying  every- 
thing pertaining  to  Indian  subsistence  for 
many  n;iles  on  cacli  side  of  his  route. 

September  14,  1794,  General  Wayne 
moved  his  army  in  the  direction  of  tlie  de- 
serted Miami  villages  at  the  confluence  of 
St.  Joseph's  and  St.  Mary's  rivers,  arriving 
October  17,  and  on  the  following  day  the 
site  of  Fort  Wayne  was  selected.  The  fort  was 
completed  November  22,  and  garrisoned  by 
a  strong  detachment  of  infantry  and  artillery 
commanded  by  Colonel  John  F.  Hamtramck, 
who  gave  to  the  new  fort  the  name  of  Fort 
Wayne.  General  Wayne  soon  after  con- 
cluded a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Indians  at 
Greenville,  in  1795. 

ORGANIZATION    OF    INDIANA    TEEEITOEY. 

On  the  final  success  of  American  arms  and 
diplomacy  in  1796,  the  principal  town  within 
the  present  State  of  Indiana  was  Vincennes, 
which  comprised  fifty  houses,  presenting  a 
thrifty  appearance.  Besides  Yincennes  there 
was  a  small  settlement  near  where  Law- 
renceburg  now  stands.  There  were  several 
other  small  settlements  and  trading-posts  in 
the  present  limits  of  Indiana,  and  the  num- 


ber of  civilized  inhabitants  in  the  Territory 
was  estimated  at  4,875. 

The  Territory  of  Indiana  was  organized  by 
act  of  Congress,  May  7,  1800,  the  material 
features  of  the  ordinance  of  1787  remaining 
in  force,  and  the  inhabitants  were  invested 
with  all  the  rights  and  advantages  granted 
and  secured  by  that  ordinance. 

The  seat  of  government  was  fixed  at  Yin- 
cennes. May  13,  1800,  William  Henry  Har- 
rison, a  native  of  Yirginia,  was  appointed 
Governor,  and  John  Gibson,  of  Pennsylvania, 
Secretary  of  the  Territory ;  soon  after  Will- 
iam Clark,  Henry  Yanderburg  and  John 
Griffin  were  appointed  Territorial  Judges. 

Governor  Harrison  arrived  at  Yincennes 
January  10,  1801,  when  he  called  together 
the  Judges  of  the  Territory  to  pass  such  laws 
as  were  deemed  necessary  for  the  new  govern- 
ment.    This  session  began  March  3, 1801. 

From  this  time  to  1810,  the  principal  sub- 
jects which  attracted  the  citizens  of  Indiana 
were  land  speculations,  the  question  of  Afri- 
can slavery,  and  the  hostile  views  and  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Shawnee  chief,  Tecumseh, 
and  his  brother,  the  Prophet. 

Up  to  this  time  the  Sixth  Article  of  the 
ordinance  of  1787,  prohibiting  slavery,  had 
been  somewhat  neglected,  and  many  French 
settlers  still  held  slaves;  many  slaves  were 
removed  to  the  slave-holding  States.  A  ses- 
sion of  delegates,  elected  by  a  popular  vote, 
petitioned  Congress  to  revoke  the  Sixth  Ar- 
ticle of  the  ordinance  of  1787.  Congress 
failed  to  grant  this,  as  well  as  many  other 
similar  petitions.  When  it  appeared  from  the 
result  of  a  popular  vote  in  the  Territory,  that  a 
majority  of  138  were  in  favor  of  organizing  a 
General  Assembly,  Governor  Harrison,  Sep- 
tember 11,  1804,  issued  a  proclamation,  and 
called  for  an  election  to  be  held  in  the  several 
counties  of  the  Territory,  January  3,  1805, 
to  choose  members  of  a  House  of  Represent- 


Hl.sTOiil-   0/   lNt)lANA. 


\\\ 


ativcs,  who  should  meet  at  Yincennes  Feb- 
ruary 1.  The  delegates  were  elected,  and 
assembled  at  the  place  and  date  named,  and 
perfected  plans  for  Territorial  organization, 
and  selected  five  men  who  should  constitute 
the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Territory. 

The  first  General  Assembly,  or  Legisla- 
ture, met  at  Vincennes  July  29,  1805.  Tlie 
members  constituting  this  body  were  Jesse 
B.  Thomas,  of  Dearborn  County;  Davis 
Floyd,  of  Clark  County;  Benjamin  Park 
and  John  Johnson,  of  Knox  County;  Shad- 
rach  Bond  and  William  Biggs,  of  St.  Clair 
County,  and  George  Fisher,  of  Piandolph 
County. 

July  30  the  Governor  delivered  his  first 
message  to  the  Council  and  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. Benjamin  Park,  who  came  from 
New  Jersey  to  Indiana  in  1801,  was  the  first 
delegate  elected  to  Congress. 

The  Western  Sun  was  the  first  newspaper 
published  in  Indiana,  first  issued  at  Vin- 
cennes in  1803,  by  Elihu  Stout,  of  Kentucky, 
and  first  called  the  Indiana  Gazette,  and 
changed  to  the  Sun  July  4,  1804. 

The  total  population  of  Indiana  in  ISIO 
was  24,520.  There  were  33  grist-mills,  14 
saw-mills,  3  horse-mills,  18  tanneries,  28 
distilleries,  3  powder-mills,  1,256  looms, 
1,350  spinning  wheels.  Value  of  woolen, 
cotton,  liemp  and  flaxen  cloths,  $159,052;  of 
cotton  and  woolen  spun  in  mills,  $150,000; 
of  nails,  30,000  pounds,  $4,000;  of  leather, 
tanned,  $9,300;  of  distillery  products,  35,950 
gallons,  $16,230;  of  gunpowder,  3,600  pounds, 
$1,800;  of  wine  from  grapes,  96  barrels, 
.  $6,000,  and  50,000  pmnds  of  maple  sugar. 
During  the  year  1810,  a  commission  was 
engaged  straightening  out  the  confused  con- 
dition of  laud  titles.  In  making  their  report 
they,  as  did  the  previous  commissioners, 
made  complaints  of  frauds  and  abuses  by 
oificials  connected  with  the  land  department. 


The  Territory  of  Indiana  was  divided  in 
1809,  when  the  Territory  of  Illinois  was 
erected,  to  comprise  all  that  part  of  Indiana 
Territory  west  of  the  Wabash  River,  and  a 
direct  line  drawn  from  that  river  and  Vin- 
cennes due  north  to  the  territorial  line  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  Canada.  For 
the  first  half  century  from  the  settlement  of 
Vincennes  the  place  grew  slowly. 

Tlie  commandants  and  priests  governed 
with  almost  absolute  power;  the  whites  lived 
in  peace  with  the  Indians. 

The  necessaries  of  life  were  easily  pro- 
cured ;  tliere  was  nothing  to  stimulate  energy 
or  progi-ess.  In  such  a  state  of  society  there 
was  no  demand  for  learning  and  science;  few 
could  read,  and  still  fewer  could  write;  they 
were  void  of  public  spirit,  enterprise  or 
ingenuity. 

OOVEENOK    HARBISON    AND    THE    INDIANS. 

Immediately  after  the  organization  of  In- 
diana Territory,  Governor  Harrison  directed 
his  attention  to  settling  the  land  claims  of 
Indians.  He  entered  into  several  treaties 
with  the  Indians,  whereby,  at  the  close  of 
1805,  the  United  States  had  obtained  46,000 
square  miles  of  territory. 

In  1807  the  Territorial  statutes  were  re- 
vised. Under  the  new  code,  the  crimes  of 
treason,  murder,  arson  and  horse-stealing 
were  made  punishable  by  death;  burglary, 
robbery,  hog-stealing  and  bigamy  were  punish- 
able by  whipping,  fine  and  imprisonment. 

The  Governor,  in  his  message  to  the  Leg- 
islature in  1806,  expressed  himself  as  believ- 
ing the  peace  then  existing  between  tlie 
whites  and  the  Indians  was  permanent.  At 
the  same  time  he  alluded  to  the  probability 
of  a  disturbance  in  consequence  of  enforce- 
ment of  law  as  applying  to  tlie  Indians. 

Altliough  treaties  with  the  Indians  defined 
boundary  lines,  the   whites   did   not  strictly 


1 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


observe  them.  They  trespassed  on  the  In- 
dian's reserved  rights,  and  thus  gave  hira  just 
groTinds  for  his  continuous  complaints  from 
1805  to  1810.  This  agitated  feeling  of  the 
Indians  was  utilized  by  Law-le-was-i-kaw,  a 
brother  of  Tecnmseh,  of  the  Shawnee  tribe. 

He  was  a  warrior  of  great  renown,  as  well 
as  an  orator,  and  had  an  unlimited  influence 
among  the  several  Indian  tribes. 

He  used  all  means  to  concentrate  the  com- 
bined Indian  strength  to  annihilate  the 
whites.  Governor  Harrison,  realizing  the 
progress  this  Prophet  was  making  toward 
opening  hostilities,  and  hoping  by  timely 
action  to  check  the  movement,  he,  early  in 
1808,  sent  a  speech  to  the  Shawnees  in 
which  he  advised  the  people  against  being 
led  into  danger  and  destruction  by  the 
Prophet,  and  informed  them  that  warlike 
demonstrations  must  be  stopped. 

Governor.  Harrison,  Tecnmseh  and  the 
Prophet  held  several  meetings,  the  Governor 
charging  them  as  being  friends  of  the  British, 
they  denying  the  charge  and  protesting 
against  the  farther  appropriation  of  their 
lands. 

Governor  Harrison,  in  direct  opposition  to 
their  protest,  continued  to  extinguish  Indian 
titles  to  lands. 

While  the  Indians  were  combining  to  pre- 
vent any  further  transfer  of  lands  to  the 
whites,  the  British  were  actively  preparing 
to  use  them  in  a  war  against  the  Americans. 

Governor  Harrison,  anticipating  their  de- 
signs, invited  Tecnmseh  to  a  council,  to  talk 
over  grievances  and  try  to  settle  all  differ- 
ences without  resort  to  arms. 

Accordingly,  August  12,  1810,  Tecumseh, 
with  seventy  warriors,  marched  to  the  Gov- 
ernor's house,  where  several  days  were  spent 
without  any  satisfactory  settlement.  On  the 
20th,  Tecumseh  delivered  his  celebrated 
speech,  in  which  he  gave  the  Governor  the 


alternative  of  returning  their  lands  or  meet- 
ing them  in  battle.  In  his  message  to  the 
Legislature  of  1810,  the  Governor  reviewed 
the  dangerous  attitude  of  the  Indians  toward 
the  whites  as  expressed  by  Tecumseh.  In 
the  same  message  he  also  urged  the  establish- 
ment of  a  system  of  education. 

In  1811  the  British  agent  for  Indian  af- 
fairs adopted  measures  calculated  to  secure 
the  Indians'  support  in  a  war  which  at  this 
time  seemed  inevitable. 

In  the  meantime  Governor  Harrison  used 
all  available  means  to  counteract  the  British 
influence,  as  well  as  that  of  Tecumseh  and  the 
Prophet,  with  the  Indians,  but  without  suc- 
cess. 

The  threatening  storm  continued  to  gather, 
receiving  increased  force  from  various  causes, 
until  the  Governor,  seeing  war  was  the  last 
resort,  and  near  at  hand,  ordered  Colonel 
Boyd's  regiment  to  move  to  Vincennes,  where 
a  military  organization  was  about  ready  to 
take  the  field. 

The  Governor,  at  the  head  of  this  expedi- 
tion, marched  from  Vincennes  September  26, 
and  encamped  October  3  near  where  Terre 
Haute  now  stands.  Here  they  completed  a 
fort  on  the  28th,  which  was  called  Ftirt  Har- 
rison. This  fort  was  garrisoned  with  a  small 
number  of  men  under  Lieutenant  Miller. 

Governor  Harrison,  with  the  main  army, 
910  men,  marched  to  the  Prophet's  town  on 
the  29th,  where  a  conference  was  opened,  and 
the  Indians  plead  for  time  to  treat  for  peace; 
the  Governor  gave  them  until  the  following 
day,  and  retired  a  short  distance;  from  the 
town  and  encamped  for  the  night.  The  In- 
dians seemed  only  to  be  parleying  in  order  to 
gain  advantage,  and  on  the  morning  of  No- 
vember 7,  at  4  o'clock,  made  a  desperate 
charge  into  the  camp  of  the  Americans.  For 
a  few  moments  all  seemed  lost,  but  the  troops 
soon  realizing  their  desperate  situation,  fought 


with  a  determination  equal  to  savages.  The 
Americans  soon  routed  their  savage  assail- 
ants, and  thus  ended  the  famous  battle  of 
Tippecanoe,  victoriously  to  the  whites  and 
honorably  to  General  Harrison. 

The  Americans  lost  in  this  battle  thirty- 
seven  killed  and  twenty-five  mortally  wound- 
ed, and  126  wounded.  The  Indians  left 
thirty -eight  killed  on  the  field,  and  their  faith 
in  the  Prophet  was  in  a  measure  destroyed. 
November  8  General  Harrison  destroyed  the 
Prophet's  town,  and  reached  Vincennes  on 
the  18th,  where  the  army  was  disbanded. 

The  battle  of  Tippecanoe  secured  peace 
but  for  a  short  time.  The  British  continued 
their  aggression  until  the  United  States  de- 
clared war  against  them.  Tecumseh  had  fled 
to  Canada,  and  now,  in  concert  with  the  Brit- 
ish, began  inroads  upon  the  Americans. 
Events  of  minor  importance  we  pass  here. 

In  September,  1812,  Indians  assembled  in 
large  numbers  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Wayne 
with  the  purpose  of  capturing  the  garrison. 
Chief  Logan,  of  the  Shawnee  tribe,  a  friend 
to  the  whites,  succeeded  in  entering  the  fort 
and  informing  the  little  garrison  that  General 
Harrison  was  coming  with  a  force  to  their 
relief,  which  nerved  them  to  resist  the  furious 
savage  assaults. 

September  6,  1812,  Harrison  moved  with 
his  army  to  the  relief  of  Fort  Wayne.  Sep- 
tember 9  Harrison,  with  3,500  men,  camped 
near  the  fort,  expecting  a  battle  the  follow- 
ing day.  The  morning  of  the  10th  disclosed 
the  fact  that  the  enemy  had  learned  of  the 
strong  force  approaching  and  had  disappeared 
during  the  previous  night. 

Simultaneous  with  the  attack  on  Fort 
Wayne  the  Indians  also  besieged  Fort  Har- 
rison, then  commanded  by  Zachariali  Taylor, 
and  succeeded  in  destroying  considerable 
property  and  getting  away  M-ith  all  the  stock. 
About  the  same  time  the  Indians  massacred 


the  inhabitants  at  the  settlement  of  Pidgeon 
Hoost. 

The  war  now  being  thoroughly  inaugurated, 
hostilities  continued  throughout  the  North- 
west between  the  Americans  and  the  British 
and  Indians  combined.  Engagements  of 
greater  or  less  magnitude  were  of  almost 
daily  occurrence,  the  victory  alternating  in 
the  favor  of  one  or  the  other  party. 

The  Americans,  however,  continued  to  hold 
the  territory  and  gradually  press  back  the 
enemy  and  diminish  his  numbers  as  well  as 
his  zeal. 

Thus  the  war  of  1812  was  waged  until  De- 
cember 24,  1814,  when  a  treaty  of  peace  was 
signed  by  England  and  the  United  States  at 
Ghent,  which  terminated  hostile  operations 
in  America  and  restored  to  the  Indiana  set- 
tlers peace  and  quiet,  and  opened  the  gates 
for  immigration  to  the  great  and  growing 
State  of  Indiana  as  well  as  the  entire  North- 
west. 

CIVIL    MATTERS. 

The  Legislature,  in  session  at  A'incennes 
February,  1813,  changed  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment from  Vincennes  to  Corydon.  The  same 
year  Thomas  Posey,  who  was  at  the  time 
Senator  in  Congress,  was  appointed  Governor 
of  Indiana  to  succeed  Governor  Harrison, 
who  was  then  commanding  the  army  in  the 
field.  The  Legislature  passed  several  laws 
necessary  for  the  welfare  of  the  settlement, 
and  General  Harrison  being  generally  suc- 
cessful in  forcing  the  Indians  back  from  the 
settlements,  hope  revived,  and  the  tide  of  im- 
migration began  again  to  flow.  The  total 
white  population  in  Indiana  in  1815  was  es- 
timated at  63,897. 

GENERAL    REVIEW. 

Notwithstanding  the  many  rights  and 
privileges  bestowed  upon  tlie  people  of  the 
Northwestern  Territory  by  the  ordinance  of 


nisTonr  of  Indiana. 


1787.  they  were  far  from  eiijo^-iiig  a  full 
form  of  republican  government.  A  freehold 
estate  of  500  acres  of  land  was  a  necessary 
(junlification  o  become  a  member  of  the 
Legislative  Council.  Each  member  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  Wiis  required  to 
possess  200  acres  of  land;  no  man  could  cast 
a  vote  for  a  Representative  but  such  as  owned 
iifty  acres  of  land.  The  Governor  was  in- 
vested with  the  power  of  appointing  all  civil 
and  militia  officers,  judges,  clerks,  county 
treasurers,  county  surveyors,  justices,  etc. 
He  had  the  power  to  apportion  the  Repre- 
sentatives in  the  several  counties,  and  to 
convene  and  adjourn  the  Legislature  at  his 
pleasure,  and  prevent  the  passage  of  any 
Territorial  law. 

In  1809  Congress  passed  an  act  empow- 
ering the  people  of  Indiana  to  elect  their 
Legislative  Council  by  a  popular  vote;  and 
in  1811  Congress  abolished  property  qualifi- 
cation of  voters,  and  declared  that  every  free 
white  male  person  who  had  attained  to  the 
age  of  twenty-one  years,  and  paid  a  tax, 
should  exercise  the  right  of  franchise. 

The  Legislature  of  1814  divided  the  Terri- 
tory into  three  judicial  circuits.  The  Gov- 
ernor was  empowered  to  appoint  judges  for 
the  same,  whose  compensation  should  be 
S~00  jier  annum. 

The  same  year  charters  were  granted  to 
two  banking  institutions,  the  Farmers'  and 
Mechanics'  Bank  of  Madison,  authorized  cap- 
ital 8750,000,  and  the  Bank  of  Vincennes, 
$500,000. 

OKGANIZATION    OF    THE    STATE. 

The  last  Territorial  Legislature  convened 
at  Corydon,  in  December,  1815,  and  on  the 
14th  adopted  a  memorial  to  Congress,  pray- 
ing for  authority  to  adopt  a  Constitution 
and  State  Government.  Mr.  Jennings,  their 
delegate  in  Congress,  laid  the  matter  before 


that  body  on  the  28th;  and  April  19,  1810, 
the  President  approved  the  bill  creating  the 
State  of  Indiana.  The  following  May  an 
election  was  held  for  a  Constitutional  Con- 
vention, which  met  at  Corydon  June  15  to 
29,  John  Jennings  presiding,  and  "William 
Hendricks  acting  as  secretary. 

The  people's  representatives  in  this  As- 
sembly were  an  able  body  of  men,  and  the 
Constitution  which  they  formed  for  Indiana 
in  1816  was  not  inferior  to  any  of  the  State 
constitutions  which  were  existing  at  that 
time. 

The  first  State  election  was  held  the  first 
Monday  of  August,  1816,  and  Jonathan  Jen- 
nings was  elected  Governor,  Christopher 
Harrison,  Lieutenant-Governor,  and  William 
Hendricks  .was  elected  Representative  to 
Congress. 

The  first  State  General  Assembly  began 
its  session  at  Corydon  November  4,  1816, 
John  Paul,  Chairman  of  the  Senate,  and  Isaac 
Blackford,  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. 

This  session  of  the  Legislature  elected 
James  Noble  and  Waller  Taylor  to  the  Sen- 
ate of  the  United  States;  Robert  A.  New, 
Secretary  of  State;  W.  II.  Lilley,  Auditor  of 
State,  and  Daniel  C.  Lane,  State  Treasurer. 

The  close  of  the  war,  1814,  was  followed 
by  a  rush  of  immigrants  to  the  new  State, 
and  in  1820  the  State  had  more  than  doubled 
her  population,  having  at  this  time  147,178. 
The  period  of  1825-'30  was  a  prosperous 
time  for  the  young  State.  Immigration  con- 
tinued rapid,  the  crops  were  generally  good, 
and  the  hopes  of  the  people  raised  higher 
than  ever  before. 

In  1830  there  still  remained  two  tribes  of 
Indians  in  the  State  of  Indiana,  the  Miamis 
and  Pottawatomies,  who  were  much 
to   being  removed  to   new  territory.     This 
state  of  discontent  was  used  by  the  celebrated 


BISTORT    OF    INDIANA. 


warrior,  Black  Hawk,  who,  hoping  to  receive 
aid  from  the  discontented  tribes,  invaded 
the  frontier  and  slaughtered  many  citizens. 
Others  fled  from  their  homes,  and  a  vast 
amount  of  property  was  destroyed,  This 
was  in  1832,  and  known  as  the  Black  Ilawk 
war. 

The  invaders  were  driven  away  with  severe 
punishment,  and  when  those  who  had  aban- 
doned their  homes  were  assured  that  the 
Miamis  and  Pottawatomies  did  not  contem- 
plate joining  the  invaders,  they  returned  and 
again  resumed  their  peaceful  avocations. 

In  1837-'38  all  the  Indians  were  removed 
from  Indiana  west  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
very  soon  land  speculations  assumed  large 
proportions  in  the  new  State,  and  many  ruses 
were  resorted  to  to  bull  and  bear  the  market. 
Among  other  means  taken  to  keep  out  specu- 
lators was  a  regular  Indian  scare  in  1827. 

In  1814  a  society  of  Germans,  under  Fred- 
erick Eappe,  founded  a  settlement  on  the 
Wabash,  tifty  miles  above  its  mouth,  and 
gave  to  the  place  the  name  of  Harmony.  In 
1825  the  town  and  a  large  quantity  of  land 
adjoining  was  purchased  by  Robert  Owen, 
father  of  David  Dale  Owen,  State  Geologist, 
and  of  Robert  Dale  Owen,  of  later  notoriety. 
Robert  Owen  was  a  radical  philosopher,  from 
Scotland. 

INDIANA    IN    THE    MEXICAN    WAE. 

During  the  administration  of  Governor 
Whitcomb,  the  United  States  became  in- 
volved in  the  war  with  Mexico,  and  Indiana 
was  prompt  in  furnishing  her  quota  of  vol- 
unteers. 

The  soldiers  of  Indiana  who  served  in  this 
war  were  five  regiments,  First,  Second, 
Third,  Fourth  and  Fifth.  Companies  of  the 
the  three  first-named  regiments  served  at 
times  with  Illinois,  New  York  and  South 
Carolina  troops,  under  General  Shields.    The 


other  regiments,  under  Colonels  Gorman  and 
Lane,  were  under  other  commanders. 

The  Fourth  Regiment  comprised  ten  com- 
panies; was  organized  at  Jefl'ersonville,  by 
Captain  K.  C.^Gatlin,  June  5,  1847,  and 
elected  Major  Willis  A.  Gorman,  of  the 
Third  Regiment,  Colonel;  Ebenezer  Du 
mont,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  W.  McCoy, 
Major.  They  were  assigned  to  General  Lane's 
command,  and  the  Indiana  volunteers  made 
themselves  a  bright  record  in  all  the  engage- 
ments of  the  Mexican  war. 

INDIANA    IN    THE    WAR    FOR    THE    UNION. 

The  fall  of  Fort  Sumter  was  a  signal  for  an 
uprising  of  the  people,  and  the  State  of  In- 
diana M-as  among  the  first  to  respond  to  the 
summons  of  patriotism,  and  register  itself  on 
the  national  roll  of  honor.  Fortunately  for  the 
State,  she  had  a  Governor  at  the  time  whose 
patriotism  has  seldom  been  equaled  and 
never  excelled.  Governor  Oliver  P.  Morton, 
immediately  upon  receiving  the  news  of  the 
fall  of  Sumter,  telegraphed  President  Lin- 
coln, tendering  10,000  troops  in  the  name  ot 
Indiana  for  the  defense  of  the  Union. 

The  President  had  called  upon  the  several 
States  for  75,000  men;  Indiana's  quota  was 
4,683.  Governor  Morton  called  for  six  regi- 
ments April  16,  1861. 

Hon.  Lewis  Wallace,  of  Mexican  war  fame, 
was  appointed  Adjutant-General;  Colonel 
Thomas  Morris,  Quartermaster-General,  and 
Isaiah  Mansur,  of  Indianapolis,  Commissary- 
General.  Governor  Morton  was  also  busy  ar- 
ranging the  finances  of  the  State,  so  as  to 
support  the  military  necessities,  and  to  his 
appeals  to  public  patriotism  he  received 
prompt  and  liberal  financial  aid  from  public- 
spirited  citizens  throughout  the  State.  On 
the  20th  of  April  Major  T.  J.  Wood  arrived 
from  Washington,  to  receive  the  troops  then 
organized,  and  Governor  Morton  telegraphed 


BISTORT    OF    INDIANA. 


the  President  that  he  could  place  six  regi- 
ments of  infantry  at  the  disposal  of  the  Gov- 
ernment; failing  to  receive  a  reply,  the 
Legislature,  then  in  extra  session,  April  27, 
organized  six  new  regiments  for  three 
months  service,  and  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  the  first  six  regiments  were  already 
mustered  into  the  general  service,  were 
known  as  "  The  First  Brigade  Indiana  Vol- 
unteers," and  were  numbered  respectively: 
Sixth  Eegiment,  Colonel  T.  T.  Crittenden; 
Seventh  Regiment,  Colonel  Ebenezer  Du- 
mont;  Eighth  Eegiment,  Colonel  W.  P.  Ben- 
ton; Ninth  Eegiment,  Colonel  E.  H.  Milroy; 
Tenth  Eegiment,  Colonel  T.  T.  Eeynolds; 
Eleventh  Eegiment,  Colonel  Lewis  Wallace. 
The  idea  of  these  numbers  was  suggested 
from  the  fact  that  Indiana  was  represented 
in  the  Mexican  war  by  one  brigade  of  five 
regiments,  and  to  observe  consecutiveness 
the  regiments  comprised  in  the  first  division 
of  volunteers  were  thus  numbered,  and  the 
entire  force  placed  under  the  command  of 
Brigadier-General  T.  A.  Morris,  with  the 
following  stafi":  John  Love,  Major;  Cyrus 
C.  Hines,  Aid-de-camp,  and  J.  A.  Stein, 
Assistant  Adjutant-General.  They  rendered 
valuable  service  in  the  field,  returned  to  In- 
dianapolis July  29,  and  the  six  regiments, 
with  the  surplus  volunteers,  now  formed  a 
division  of  seven  regiments.  All  organized 
for  three  years,  between  the  20th  of  August 
and  20th  of  September,  with  the  exception 
of  the  Twelfth,  which  was  accepted  for  one 
year,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  John  M. 
Wallace,  and  reorgaiiized  May,  1862,  for 
three  years,  under  Colonel  W.  H.  Link.  The 
Thirteenth  Eegiment,  Colonel  Jeremiah  Sul- 
livan, was  mustered  into  service  in  1861, 
and  assigned  to  General  McClellan's  com- 
mand. 

The   Fourteenth    Eegiment   organized    in 
1861,    for   one  year,  and   reorganized    soon 


thereafter  for  three  years,  commanded  by 
Colonel  Kimball. 

The  Fifteenth  Eegiment  organized  June 
14,  1861,  at  LaFayette,  under  Colonel  G.  D. 
Wagner.  On  the  promotion  of  Colonel 
Wagner,  Lieutenant-Colonel  G.  A.  Wood  be- 
came Colonel  of  the  regiment  in  November, 
1862. 

The  Sixteenth  Eegiment  organized,  under 
P.  A.  Ilackleman,  of  Eichmond,  for  one 
year.  Colonel  Hackleman  was  killed  at  the 
battle  of  luka.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas 
J.  Lucas  succeeded  to  the  command.  The 
regiment  M-as  discharged  in  Washington,  D. 
C,  in  May,  1862;  reorganized  at  Indianapo- 
lis May  27,  1862,  for  three  years,  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  active  military  operations 
until  the  close  of  the  war. 

The  Seventeenth  Eegiment  was  organized 
at  Indianapolis  June  12,  1861,  under  Colonel 
Hascall,  who  was  promoted  to  Brigadier- 
General  in  March,  1862,  when  the  command 
devolved  on  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  T. 
Wilder. 

The  Eighteenth  Eegiment  was  organized 
at  Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  Thomas  Pat- 
terson, August  16,  1861,  and  served  under 
General  Pope. 

The  Nineteenth  Eegiment  organized  at 
Indianapolis  July  29,  1861,  and  was  assigned 
to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  under  Colonel 
Solomon  Meridith.  It  was  consolidated  with 
the  Twentieth  Eegiment  October,  1864,  under 
Colonel  William  Orr,  formerly  its  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel. 

The  Twentieth  Eegiment  organized  at  La 
Fayette,  for  three  years  service,  in  July,  1861, 
and  was  principally  engaged  along  the  coast. 

The  Twenty-first  Eegiment  was  organized, 
under  Colonel  I.  W.  McMillan,  July  24, 1861. 
This  was  the  first  regiment  to  enter  New  Or- 
leans, and  made  itself  a  lasting  name  by  its 
various  valuable  services. 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


The  Twenty-second  Eegiraent,  under  Col- 
onel Jetf.  C.  Davis,  joined  General  Fremont's 
Corps,  at  St.  Louis,  on  the  17th  of  August, 
1861,  and  performed  gallant  deeds  under  Gen- 
eral Sherman  in  the  South. 

The  Twenty-third  Battalion  was  organized, 
xinder  Colonel  W.  L.  Sanderson,  at  New  Al- 
bany, July  29,  1861.  From  its  unfortunate 
marine  experiences  before  Fort  Henry  to 
Bentonville  it  M-on  unusual  honors. 

The  Twenty-fourth  Battalion  was  organ- 
ized, under  Colonel  Alvin  P.  Hovey,  at  Vin- 
cennes,  July  31,  1861,  and  assigned  to 
Fremont's  command. 

The  Twenty-fifth  Regiment  was  organized 
at  Evansville,  for  three  years,  under  Colonel 
J.  C.  Yeach,  August  26,  1861,  and  was  en- 
gaged in  eighteen  battles  during  its  term. 

The  Twenty-sixth  Battalion  was  organized 
at  Indianapolis,  under  W.  M.  Wheatley,  Sep- 
tember 7,  1861,  and  served  under  Fremont, 
Grant,  Heron  and  Smith. 

The  Twenty-seventh  Regiment,  under  Col- 
onel Silas  Colgrove,  joined  General  Banks 
September  15,  1861,  and  was  with  General 
Sherman  on  the  famous  march  to  the  sea. 

The  Twenty-eighth  Regiment,  or  First 
Cavalrj',  was  organized  at  Evansville  August 
20,  1861,  under  Colonel  Conrad  Baker,  and 
performed  good  service  in  the  Virginias. 

The  Twenty-ninth  Battalion,  of  La  Porte, 
under  Colonel  J.  F.  Miller,  was  organized  in 
October,  1861,  and  M'as  under  Rousseau, 
McCook,  Rosecrans  and  others.  Colonel 
Miller  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Brig- 
adier-General, and  Lieutenant-Colonel  D.  M. 
Dunn  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the 
regiment. 

The  Thirtieth  Regiment,  of  Fort  "Wayne, 
under  Colonel  Silas  S.  Bass,  joined  General 
Rousseau  October  9,  1861.  The  Colonel  re- 
ceived a  mortal  wound  at  Shiloh,  and  died 
a  few  days  after.     Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  B. 


Dodge  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the 
regiment. 

The  Thirty-first  Regiment  organized  at 
Terre  Haute,  under  Colonel  Charles  Cruft,  in 
September,  1861,  and  served  in  Kentucky 
and  the  South. 

The  Thirty-second  Regiment  of  German 
Infantry,  under  Colonel  August  Willich,  or- 
ganized at  Indianapolis  August  24,  1861,  and 
served  with  distinction.  Colonel  Willich  was 
promoted  to  Brigadier-General,  and  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Henry  Yon  Trebra  succeeded  to 
the  command  of  the  regiment. 

The  Thirty-third  Regiment,  of  Indianapo- 
lis,was  organized,  under  Colonel  John  Coburn, 
September  16,  1861,  and  won  a  series  of  dis- 
tinctions throughout  the  war. 

The  Tliirty-fourth  Battalion  organized  at 
Anderson,  under  Colonel  Ashbury  Steele, 
September  16, 1861,  and  gained  a  lasting  rep- 
utation for  gallantry  during  the  M-ar. 

The  Thirty-fifth,  or  First  Irish  Regiment, 
oi'ganized  at  Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  John 
C.  Walker,  December  11,  1861.  On  the  22d 
of  May,  1862,  it  was  joined  by  the  Sixty- 
first,  or  Second  Irish  Regiment,  when  Colonel 
Mullen  became  Lientenant-Colonel  of  the 
Thirty-fifth,  and  soon  after  its  Colonel. 

Tiie  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  was  organized, 
under  Colonel  William  Grose,  at  Richmond, 
September  16, 1861,  and  assigned  to  the  army 
of  the  Ohio. 

TheThirty-seventh  Battalion  was  organized 
at  Lawrenceburg,  September  18,  1861,  Col- 
onel George  W.  Ilazzard  commanding,  and 
was  with  General  Sherman  to  the  sea. 

The  Thirty-eighth  Regiment  was  organized 
at  New  Albany,  under  Colonel  Benjamin  F. 
Scribner,  September  18,  1861. 

The  Thirty-ninth  Regiment,  or  Eighth 
Cavalry,  was  organized  as  an  infantry 
regiment,  under  Colonel  T.  J.  Harrison, 
at    Indianapolis,    August     28,     1861.      In 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


1863  it  was  reorganized  as  a  cavalry  reg- 
iment. 

The  Fortieth  Eegiment  was  organized  at 
La  Fayette,  under  Colonel  W.  C.  Wilson, 
December  30,  1861,  and  subsequently  com- 
manded by  Colonel  J.  W.  Blake,  and  again 
by  Colonel  Henry  Learning,  and  saw  service 
with  Buell's  army. 

The  Forty-first  Eegiment,  or  Second  Cav- 
alry, the  tirst  complete  regiment  of  horse 
raised  in  the  State,  was  organized  at  Indian- 
apolis, under  Colonel  John  A.  Bridgland, 
September  3,  1861;  was  with  General  Sher- 
man through  Georgia,  and  with  General 
"Wilson  in  Alabama. 

The  Forty-second  Regiment  was  organized 
at  Evansville,  under  Colonel  J.  G.  Jones, 
October  9,  1861,  and  participated  in  the 
Sherman  campaign. 

The  Forty-third  Battalion  was  organized  at 
Terre  Haute,  under  Colonel  George  K.  Steele, 
September  27,  1861,  and  assigned  to  Pope's 
army;  was  the  first  regiment  to  enter  Mem- 
phis, and  was  with  Commodore  Foote  at  the 
reduction  of  Fort  Pillow. 

The  Forty-fourth  Regiment  was  organized 
at  Fort  Wayne,  under  Colonel  Hugh  B. 
Reed,  October  24,  1861,  and  attached  to 
General  Cruft's  Brigade. 

The  Forty-fifth,  or  Third  Cavalry,  was  at 
difterent  periods,  1861-'62,  under  Colonel 
Scott  Carter  and  George  H.  Chapman. 

The  Forty-sixth  Regiment  organized  at 
Logansport,  under  Colonel  Graham  N.  Fitch, 
in  February,  1862,  and  was  assigned  to  Gen- 
eral Pope's  army,  and  served  under  Generals 
Sherman,  Grant  and  others. 

The  Forty-seventh  Regiment  was  organized 
at  Anderson,  under  Colonel  I.  R.  Slack,  early 
in  October,  1862,  and  was  assigned  to  Gen- 
eral Buell's  army,  thence  to  General  Pope's. 
In  December,  1864,  Colonel  Slack  was 
promoted  to  Brigadier-General,  and  Colonel 


J.  A.  McLaughton  succeeded  to  the  command 
of  the  regiment. 

The  Forty-eighth  Regiment  was  organized 
at  Goshen,  under  Colonel  Norman  Eddy, 
December,  6  1861,  and  made  itself  a  bright 
name  at  the  battle  of  Corinth. 

The  Forty-ninth  Regiment  organized  at 
Jeffersonville,  under  Colonel  J.  W.  Ray, 
November  21,  1861,  and  first  saw  active  ser- 
vice in  Kentucky. 

The  Fiftieth  Regiment,  under  Colonel 
Cyrus  L.  Dunham,  was  organized  at  Sey- 
mour in  September,  1861,  and  entered  the 
service  in  Kentucky. 

The  Fifty-first  Regiment,  under  Colonel 
Abel  D.  Streight,  was  organized  at  Indian- 
apolis December  14,  1861,  and  immediately 
began  service  with  General  Buell. 

The  Fifty-second  Regiment  was  partially 
raised  at  Rushville,  and  completed  at  Indian- 
apolis by  consolidating  with  the  Railway 
Brigade,  or  Fifty-sixth  Regiment,  February 
2,  1862,  and  served  in  the  several  campaigns 
in  the  South. 

The  Fifty- third  Battalion  was  raised  at 
New  Albany,  with  the  addition  of  recruits 
from  Rockport,  and  made  itself  an  endurable 
name  under  Colonel  W.  Q.  Gresham. 

The  Fifty-fourth  Regiment  organized  at 
Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  D.  J.  Rose,  for 
three  months,  June  10, 1862,  and  was  assigned 
to  General  Kirby  Smith's  command. 

The  Fifty-fifth  Regiment  organized  for 
three  months,  under  Colonel  J.  R.  Malion, 
June  16,  1862. 

The  Fifty-sixth  Regiment,  referred  to  in 
the  sketch  of  the  Fifty-second,  was  designed 
to  be  composed  of  railroad  men,  under  Col- 
onel J.  M.  Smith,  but  owing  to  many  railroad 
men  having  joined  other  commands,  Colonel 
Smith's  volunteers  were  incorporated  with 
the  Fifty-second,  and  this  number  left  blank 
in  the  army  list. 


The  Fifty-seventli  Battalion  was  organized 
by  two  ministers  of  tlie  gospel,  the  Eev.  I.  W. 
T.  McMullen  and  Eev.  F.  A.  Hardin,  of 
Kichmond,  Indiana,  November  18,  1861, 
Colonel  McMullen  commanding.  The  regi- 
ment was  severally  commanded  by  Colonels 
Cyrus  C.  Haynes,  G.  W.  Leonard,  Willis 
Blanch  and  John  S.  McGrath. 

The  Fifty-eiglith  Kegiraent  was  organized 
at  Princeton,  under  Colonel  Henry  M.  Carr, 
in  October,  1861,  and  assigned  to  General 
Buell's  command. 

The  Fifty-ninth  Battalion  was  organized 
under  Colonel  Jesse  I.  Alexander,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1862,  and  assigned  to  General  Pope's 
command. 

The  Sixtieth  Eegiment  Avas  partially  or- 
ganized at  Evansville,  under  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Eichard  Owen,  in  November,  1861, 
and  perfected  its  organization  at  Camp  Mor- 
ton in  March,  1862,  and  immediately  entered 
the  service  in  Kentucky. 

The  Sixty-first  Eegiment  was  partially 
organized  in  December,  1861,  under  Colonel 
B.  F.  Mullen.  Li  May,  1862,  it  was  incor- 
porated with  the  Thirty-fifth  Eegiment. 

The  Sixty-second  Eegiment,  raised  under 
Colonel  William  Jones,  of  Eockport,  was 
consolidated  with  the  Fifty -third  Eegi- 
ment. 

The  Sixty-third  Eegiment,  of  Covington, 
under  Colonel  James  McManomy,  was  par- 
tially raised  in  December,  1861,  and  im- 
mediately entered  upon  active  duty.  Its 
organization  was  completed  at  Indianapolis, 
February,  1862,  by  six  new  companies. 

The  Sixty-fourth  Eegiment  was  organized 
as  an  artillery  corps.  The  War  Department 
prohibiting  consolidating  batteries,  put  a  stop 
to  the  movement.  Subsequently  an  infantry 
regiment  bearing  the  same  number  was 
raised. 

The  Sixty-fifth  Eegiment,  under  Colonel 


J.  W,  Foster,  completed  its  organization  at 
Evansville,  August,  1862. 

The  Sixty-sixth  Eegiment  organized  at 
New  Albany,  under  Colonel  Eoger  Martin, 
August  19,  18.62,  and  entered  the  service 
immediately  in  Kentucky. 

The  Sixty-seventh  Eegiment  was  organ- 
ized in  the  Third  Congressional  District, 
under  Colonel  Frank  Emerson,  and  report. "1 
for  service  at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  in  Au- 
gust, 1862. 

The  Sixty-eighth  Eegiment  organized  at 
Greenburg,  under  Major  Benjamin  C.  Slia\\ , 
and  entered  the  service  August- 19,  ISf. ,', 
under  Colonel  Edward  A.  King,  with  Maj-r 
Shaw  as  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The  Sixty-ninth  Eegiment  was  organi:;<'i 
at  Eichmond,  under  Colonel  A. Bickle;  v.  : 
taken    prisoners    at    Eichmond,    Kentucl;;  : 
when  exchanged  they  reorganized  in   ISd'J, 
Colonel  T.  W.  Bennett  commanding. 

The  Seventieth  Eegiment  was  organized 
at  Indianapolis,  August  12,  1862,  under 
Colonel  B.  Harrison,  and  at  once  marched  to 
the  front  in  Kentucky. 

The  Seventy-first,  or  Sixth  Cavalry,  was 
an  unfortunate  regiment,  organized  at  Terre 
Haute,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Melville  D. 
Topping,  August  18,  1862.  At  the  battle 
near  Eichmond,  Kentucky,  Colonel  Topping 
and  Major  Conklin,  together  with  213  men, 
were  killed;  347  taken  prisoners;  only  225 
escaped.  The  regiment  was  reorganized  un-' 
der  Colonel  I.  Bittle,  and  was  captured  by 
the  Confederate  General  Morgan  on  the  28th 
of  December,  same  year. 

The  Seventy-second  Eegiment  organized 
at  La  Fayette,  under  Colonel  Miller,  August 
17, 1862,  and  entered  the  service  in  Kentucky. 

The  Seventy-third  Eegiment,  under  Colo- 
nel Gilbert  Hathaway,  was  organized  at 
South  Bend,  August  16,  1862,  and  saw  ser 
vice  under  Generals  Eosecrans  and  Granger. 


Ui STORY    OF    INDIANA. 


Tlio  Seventj-fourtli  Regiment  was  par- 
tially organized  at  Fort  Wayne,  and  com- 
pleted at  Indianapolis,  August  22,  1862,  and 
repaired  to  Kentucky,  under  command  of 
Colonel  Charles  W.  Chapman. 

The  Seventy-fifth  Regiment  was  organized 
within  the  Eleventh  Congressional  District, 
and  marched  to  the  front,  under  Colonel  I. 
W.  Petit,  August  21,  1862. 

The  Seventy-sixth  Battalion  was  organized 
for  thirty  days'  service  in  Jiily,  1862,  under 
Colonel  James  Gavin,  of  Newburg. 

The  Seventy-seventh,  or  Fourth  Cavalry, 
was  organized  at  Indianapolis,  August,  1862, 
under  Colonel  Isaac  P.  Gray,  and  carved  its 
way  to  fame  in  over  twenty  battle-fields. 

The  Seventy-ninth  Regiment  organized  at 
Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  Fred.  Ivnefler, 
September  2,  1862,  and  performed  gallant 
service  until  the  close  of  the  war. 

The  Eightieth  Regiment  was  organized 
within  the  First  Congressional  District,  un- 
der Colonel  C.  Denby,  August  8,  1862,  and 
left  Indianapolis  immediately  for  the  front. 

The  Eighty-first  Regiment,  under  Colonel 
W.  "W".  Caldwell,  organized  at  New  Albany, 
August  29,  1862,  and  was  assigned  to  Gen- 
eral Buell's  command. 

The  Eighty-second  Regiment,  under  Colo- 
nel Morton  C.  Hunter,  organized  at  Madison, 
August  30,  1862,  and  immediately  moved  to 
the  front. 

The  Eighty-third  Regiment,  under  Colo- 
nel Ben.  J.  Spooner,  organized  at  Lawrence- 
burg,  Sejjtember,  1862,  and  began  duty  on 
the  Mississippi. 

The  Eighty-fourth  Regiment  organized  at 
Richmond,  Indiana,  September  8, 1862,  Colo- 
nel Nelson  Trusler  commanding,  and  entered 
the  field  in  Kentucky. 

The  Eighty-fifth  Regiment  organized  under 
Colonel  John  P.  Bayard,  at  Terra  Haute, 
September  2,  1862.  and  with  Coburn's  Bri- 


gade surrendered  to  the  rebel  General  For- 
rest in  March,  1863. 

The  Eighty-sixth  Regiment  left  La  Fayette 
for  Kentucky  under  Colonel  Orville  S.  Ham- 
ilton August  26,  1862. 

The  Eighty-seventh  Regiment  organized 
at  South  Bend,  under  Colonels  Kline  G. 
Sherlock  and  N.  Gleason,  and  left  Indianap- 
oplis  for  the  front  August  31,  1862,  and  was 
with  General  Sherman  through  Georgia. 

The  Eighty-eighth  Regiment  organized 
within  the  Fourth  Congressional  District, 
under  Colonel  George  Humphrey,  and  moved 
to  the  front  August  29,  1862,  and  was  pres- 
ent with  General  Sherman  at  the  surrender 
of  General  Johnston's  army. 

The  Eighty-ninth  Regiment  organized 
within  the  Eleventh  Congressional  District, 
under  Charles  D.  Murray,  August  28,  1862. 

The  Ninetieth  Regiment,  or  Fifth  Cavalry, 
organized  at  Indianapolis,  under  Colonel 
Felix  W.  Graham,  August  to  November, 
1862,  assembled  at  Louisville  in  March,  1863, 
and  participated  in  twenty-two  engagements 
during  its  term  of  service. 

The  Ninety-first  Battalion,  under  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel John  Mehringer,  organized  in 
October,  1862,  at  Evansville,  and  proceeded 
at  once  to  the  front. 

The  Ninety -second  Regiment  failed  to  or- 
ganize. 

The  Ninety-third  Regiment,  under  Col- 
onel De  "Witt  C.  Thomas,  organized  at  Mad- 
ison October  20,  1862,  and  joined  General 
Sherman's  command. 

The  Ninety-fourth  and  Ninety-fifth  Regi- 
ments were  only  partially  raised,  and  the 
companies  were  incorporated  with  other  regi- 
ments. 

The  Ninety-sixth  Regiment  could  bring 
together  but  three  companies,  which  were  in- 
corporated with  the  Ninety-ninth  at  South 
Bend,  and  the  number  left  blank. 


I 


;«; 


^^»g»g»«Mw*'M"Bi"i»«»ai"'^"'Hga5 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


The  Kinety-seventh  Kegiment  organized 
at  Terra  Haute,  under  Colonel  Kobert  F.  Cat- 
tersoii,  September  20, 1861,  and  took  position 
at  the  front  near  Memphis. 

The  Ninety-eighth  Eegiment  failed  to  or- 
ganize, and  the  two  companies  raised  were 
consolidated  with  the  One  Hundredth  Regi- 
ment at  Fort  Wayne. 

The  JSTinety-ninth  Battalion  organized  in 
the  Ninth  Congressional  District,  under  Col- 
onel Alex.  Fawler,  October  21,  1862,  and 
operated  with  the  Sixteenth  Army  Corps. 

The  One  Hundredth  Regiment  organized 
at  Fort  "Wayne,  under  Colonel  Sanford  J. 
Stoughton,  and  joined  the  army  of  the  Ten- 
nessee November  26,  1862. 

The  One  Hundred  and  First  Regiment 
was  organized  at  Wabash,  under  Colonel 
William  Garver,  September  7,  1862,  and  im- 
mediately began  active  duty  in  Kentucky. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Second  Regiment 
organized,  under  Colonel  Benjamin  F.  Gregry, 
at  Indianapolis,  early  in  S\\\j,  1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Third  Regiment 
comprised  seven  companies  from  the  counties 
of  Hendricks,  Marion  and  Wayne,  under  Col- 
onel Lawrence  S.  Shuler. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Regiment 
was  recruited  from  members  of  the  Legion 
of  Decatur,  La  Fayette,  Madison,  Marion  and 
Rush  counties,  under  Colonel  James  Gavin. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Regiment  was 
formed  from  tlie  Legion  and  Minute  Men, 
furnished  by  Hancock,  Union,  Randolph, 
Putnam,  Wayne,  Clinton  and  Madison  coun- 
ties, under  Colonel  Sherlock. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Sixth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  Isaac  P.  Gray,  was  organized 
from  the  counties  of  Wayne,  Randolph,  Han- 
cock, Howard  and  Marion. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Regiment 
was  organized  in  Indianapolis,  under  Colonel 
De  Witt  C.  Ruggs. 


The  One  Hundred  and  Eighth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  W.C.Wilson,  was  formed  from 
the  counties  of  Tippecanoe,  Hancock,  Car- 
roll, Montgomery  and  Wayne. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Ninth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  J.  R.  Malion,  was  composed  of 
companies  from  La  Porte,  Hamilton,  Miami 
and  Randolph  counties,  Indiana,  and  from 
Coles  County,  Illinois. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Tenth  Regiment 
was  composed  of  companies  from  the  counties 
of  Henry,  Madisun,  Delaware,  Cass  and  Mon- 
roe ;  tliis  regiment  was  not  called  into  the  field. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  Regiment, 
from  Montgomery,  La  Fayette,  Rush,  Miami, 
Monroe,  Delaware  and  Hamilton  counties, 
under  Colonel  Robert  Canover,  was  not  called 
out. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  Hiram  F.  Brax,  was  formed 
from  the  counties  of  Lawrence,  Washington, 
Monroe  and  Orange. 

The  One  Iliindred  and  Thirteenth  Regi- 
ment, from  the  counties  of  Daviess,  Martin, 
Washington  and  Monroe,  was  commanded  by 
Colonel  George  W.  Burge. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fourteenth  Regi- 
ment, under  Colonel  Lambertson,  was  wholly 
organized  in  Jolmson  County. 

These  twelve  last-named  regiments  were 
organized  to  ineet  an  emergency,  caused  by 
the  invasion  of  Indiana  by  the  rebel  General 
John  Morgan,  and  disbanded  when  he  was 
captured. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  J.  R.  Mahon,  was  organized  at 
Indianapolis  August  17,  1863. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Sixteenth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  Charles  Wise,  organized  Au- 
gust, 1863,  and  served  in  Kentucky. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Seventeenth  Regi-- 
ment,  under  Colonel  Thomas  J.  Brady,  or- 
ganized at  Indianapolis  September  17,  1863. 


T^!^^'^^:zZ'^^'z^'^^!!^^^i^t!^^i^^i^'^^^z\ 


ni STORY    OF    INDIANA. 


Tlie  One  Hundred  and  Eigliteeuth  Eegi- 
ment,  under  Colonel  George  W.  Jackson, 
organized  September  3,  1863. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Nineteenth  Eegi- 
ment,  or  Seventh  Cavalry,  Avas  organized, 
under  Colonel  John  P.  C.  Shanks,  in  October, 
1SG3;  made  an  endurable  name  on  many 
fields  of  battle.  Many  of  this  regiment  lost 
their  lives  on  the  ill-fated  steamer  Sultana. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twentieth  Eegi- 
ment  was  organized  in  April,  1864,  and 
formed  a  portion  of  Erigadier-General  Ho- 
vey's  command. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-first  Eegi- 
ment,  or  Ninth  Cavalry,  was  organized  at 
Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  George  W.Jack- 
son; this  regiment  also  lost  a  number  of  men 
on  the  steamer  Sultana. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-second 
Eegiment  failing  to  organize,  this  number 
became  blank. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-third  Eegi- 
ment, uhder  Colonel  John  C.  McQuiston, 
perfected  an  organization  in  March,  1864, 
and  did  good  service. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
Eegiment,  under  Colonel  James  Burgess, 
organized  at  Eichmond  March  10,  1864,  and 
served  under  General  Sherman. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  Eegi- 
ment, or  Tenth  Cavalry,  under  Colonel  T.  M. 
Pace,  completed  its  organization  at  Columbus, 
May,  1863,  and  immediately  moved  to  the 
front.  This  regiment  lost  a  number  of  men 
on  the  steamer  Sultana. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-sixth  Eegi- 
ment, or  Eleventli  Cavalry,  organized  at 
Indianapolis,  nnder  Colonel  Eobert  E.  Stew- 
iirt,  in  March,  1864,  and  entered  the  field  in 
Tennessee. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-Seventh 
Eegiment,  or  Twelfth  Cavalry,  under  Colonel 
Edward  Anderson,  organized  at  Kendallville 


in  April,  1864,  and  served  in  Georgia  and 
Alabama. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth 
Eegiment  organized  at  Michigan  City,  under 
Colonel  E.  P.  De  Hart,  March  18,  1864,  and 
served  under  General  Sherman  in  his  famous 
campaign. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-ninth  Eegi- 
ment organized  at  Michigan  City,  nnder  Col- 
onel Charles  Case,  in  April,  1864,  and  shared 
in  the  fortunes  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-eighth. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirtieth  Eegiment 
organized  at  Kokomo,  under  Colonel  C.  S. 
Parish,  March  12,  1864,  and  served  with  the 
Twenty-third  Army  Corps. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-first  Eegi- 
ment, or  Thirteenth  Cavalry,  moved  from 
Indianapolis  to  the  front,  under  Colonel  G. 
M.  L.  Johnson,  April  30,  1864. 

April,  1864,  Governor  Morton  called  for 
volunteers  to  serve  one  hundred  days.  In 
response  to  this  call: 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-second  Eegi- 
ment, under  Colonel  S.  C.  Yance,  moved 
from  Indianapolis  to  the  front  May  18, 1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-third  Eegi- 
ment moved  from  Eichmond  to  the  front 
May  17,  1864,  under  Colonel  E.  N.  Hudson. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-fourth  Eegi- 
ment, under  Colonel  James  Gavin,  moved 
from  Indianapolis  to  the  front  May  25, 1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-fifth  Eegi- 
ment, composed  of  companies  from  Bedford, 
Noblesville  and  Goshen,  and  seven  companies 
from  the  First  Congressional  District,  entered 
the  field,  under  Colonel  W.  C.  Wilson,  May 
25,  1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-sixth  Eegi- 
ment, from  the  First  Congressional  District, 
moved  to  the  front,  nnder  Colonel  J.  W. 
Foster,  May  24,  1864. 

The    One    Hundred    and    Thirty-seventh 


EISTOBT    OF    INDIANA. 


Eegiment,  under  Colonel  E.  J.  Kobinson, 
moved  to  the  front  May  28,  1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-eiglith  Regi- 
ment perfected  its  organization  at  Indian- 
apolis, under  Colonel  J.  II.  Shannon,  May 
27,  1864,  and  marched  immediately  to  the 
front. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-ninth  Regi- 
ment was  composed  of  companies  from  various 
counties,  and  entered  the  field,  under  Colonel 
George  Ilumphrev,  in  June,  1864. 

All  these  regiments  gained  distinction  on 
many  fields  of  battle. 

Under  the  President's  call  of  1864: 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fortieth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  Thomas  J.  Brady,  proceeded 
to  the  South  November  16,  1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-first  Regi- 
ment failing  to  organize,  its  few  companies 
were  incorporated  in  Colonel  Brady's  com- 
mand. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-second  Regi- 
ment moved  to  the  front  from  Fort  Wayne, 
under  Colonel  I.  M.  Comparet,  in  November, 
1864. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-third  Regi- 
ment reported  at  Nashville,  under  Colonel  J. 
T.  Grill,  February  21,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fourth  Regi- 
ment, under  Colonel  G.  W.  Riddle,  reported 
at  Harper's  Ferry  in  March,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fifth  Regi- 
ment, from  Indianapolis,  under  Colonel  W. 
A.  Adams,  joined  General  Steadman  at  Chat- 
tanooga, February  23, 1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-sixth  Regi- 
ment, under  Colonel  M.  C.  "Welch,  left  In- 
dianapolis March  11,  1865,  for  the  Shenan- 
doah Valley. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-seventh  Reg- 
ment,  under  Colonel  Milton  Peden,  moved 
from  Indianapolis  to  the  front  March  13, 
1865. 


The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-eighth  Regi- 
ment, under  Colonel  N.  R.  Ruckle,  left  the 
State  Capital  for  Nashville  February  28, 1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Forty-ninth  Regi- 
ment left  Indianapolis  for  Tennessee,  under 
Colonel  W.  H.  Fairbanks,  March  8,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fiftieth  Regiment, 
under  Colonel  M.  B.  Taylor,  reported  for 
duty  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  March  17, 
1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-first  Regi- 
ment arrived  at  Nashville,  under  Colonel  J. 
Ilealy,  March  9, 1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-second  Regi- 
ment organized  at  Indianapolis,  under  Col- 
onel W.  W,  Griswold,  and  left  for  Harper's 
Ferry  March  18,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-third  Regi- 
ment organized  at  Indianapolis,  under  Col- 
onel O.  H.  P.  Carey,  and  reported  immedi- 
ately at  Louisville  for  duty. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-fourth  Regi- 
ment left  Indianapolis  for  West  Virginia, 
under  Major  Simpson,  April  28,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-fifth  Regi- 
ment, recruited  throughout  the  State,  were 
assigned  to  the  Ninth  Army  Corps  in  April, 
1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-sixth  Bat- 
talion, under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  M. 
Smith,  moved  for  the  Shenandoah  Valley 
xipril  27,  1865. 

All  these  regiments  made  a  fine  record  in 
the  field. 

The  Twenty-eighth  Regiment  of  Colored 
Troops  was  recruited  throughout  the  State  of 
Indiana,  and  placed  under  command  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles  S.  Russell,  who  was 
subsequently  Colonel  of  the  regiment.  The 
regiment  lost  heavily  at  the  "Crater,"  Peters- 
burg, but  was  recruited,  and  continued  to  do 
good  service. 

The  First  Batterv  was  organized  at  Evans- 


i^»iP«"^«'J"g' 


niSTOET    OF    INDIANA 


ville,  under  Captain  Martin  Klauss,  August 
16,  1861,  and  immediately  joined  General 
Fremont's  army;  in  1864  Lawrence  Jacoby 
was  promoted  to  the  captaincy  of  the  battery. 

The  Second  Battery,  under  Captain  D.  G. 
Rubb,  was  organized  at  Indianapolis  August 
9, 1861.   This  battery  saw  service  in  the  West. 

The  Third  Battery,  under  Captain  W.  W. 
Fryberger,  organized  at  Connersville  August 
2-1:,  1861,  and  immediately  joined  Fremont's 
com  maud. 

The  Fourth  Battery  recruited  in  La  Porte, 
Porter  and  Lake  counties,  and  reported  to 
(ieneral  Buell  early  in  1861.  It  was  first 
commanded  by  Captain  A.  K.  Bush,  and  re- 
organized in  October,  1864,  under  Captain 
]>.  F.  Johnson. 

The  Fifth  Battery  was  furnished  by  La 
Porte,  Allen,  Whitley  and  IN'oble  counties, 
couimanded  by  Captain  Peter  Simonson,  re- 
ported at  Louisville  November  29,  1861; 
during  its  term  it  participated  in  twenty  bat- 
tles. 

The  Sixth  Battery,  under  Captain  Fred- 
erick Behr,  left  Evansville  for  the  front  Octo- 
ber 2,  1861. 

The  Seventh  Battery  was  organized  from 
various  towns:  first  under  Captain  Samuel  J. 
Harris;  succeeded  by  G.  li.  Shallow  and  O. 
H.  Morgan. 

Tlie  Eighth  Battery,  under  Captain  G.  T. 
Cochran,  arrived  at  the  front  February  26, 
1862,  and  entered  upon  its  real  duties  at 
Corinth. 

Tlie  Ninth  Battery,  under  Captain  N.  S. 
Thompson,  organized  at  Indianapolis  in  Jan- 
uary, 1862,  and  began  active  duty  at  Shiloh 
in  January,  1865;  it  lost  fifty-eight  men  by 
the  explosion  ot  a  steamer  above  Paducah. 

The  Tenth  Battery,  under  Captain  Jerome 
B.  Cox,  left  Lafayette,  for  duty  in  Kentucky, 
in  January,  1861. 

The  Eleventh  Battery  organized  at  La  Fay- 


ette, and  left  Indianapolis  for  the  front,  under 
Captain  Arnold  Sutermeister,  December  17, 
1861 ;  opened  fire  at  Shiloh. 

The  Twelfth  Battery,  from  Jeffersonville, 
perfected  organization  at  Indianapolis,  under 
Captain  G.  W.  Sterling;  reached  Nashville 
in  March,  1862.  Captain  Sterling  resigned 
in  April,  and  was  succeeded  by  Captain  James 
E.  White,  and  he  by  James  A.  Dunwoody. 

The  Thirteenth  Battery,  under  Captain 
Sewell  Coulson,  organized  at  Indianapolis 
during  the  winter  of  1861,  and  proceeded  to 
the  front  in  February,  1862. 

The  Fourteenth  Battery,  under  Captain  M. 
H.  Kidd,  left  Indianapolis  April  11,  1862, 
entering  the  field  in  Kentucky. 

The  Fifteenth  Battery,  under  Captain  I. 
C.  II.  Von  Schlin,  left  Indianapolis  for  the 
front  in  July,  1862.  The  same  year  it  was 
surrendered  with  the  garrison  at  Harper's 
Ferry,  reorganized  at  Indianapolis,  and  again 
appeared  in  tlie  field  in  March,  1862. 

The  Sixteenth  Battery  under  Captain 
Charles  A.  Naylor,  left  La  Fayette  for  the 
front  in  June,  1862,  and  joined  Pope's  com- 
mand. 

The  Seventeenth  Battery  organized  at  In- 
dianapolis, under  Captain  Milton  L.  Miner, 
May  20, 1862;  participated  in  the  Gettysburg 
battle,  and  later  in  all  the  engagements  in 
the  Shenandoah  Valley. 

The  Eighteenth  Battery,  under  Captain 
Eli  Lilly,  moved  to  the  front  in  August, 
1862,  and  joined  General  Eosecrans'  army. 

The  Nineteenth  Battery,  under  Captain  S. 
J.  Harris,  left  Indianapolis  for  Kentucky  in 
August,  1862,  and  performed  active  service 
until  the  close  of  the  war. 

The  Twentieth  Battery,  under  Captain 
Frank  A.  Kose,  left  the  State  capital  for 
the  front  in  December,  1862.  Captain  Rose 
resigned,  and  was  succeeded  by  Captain 
O  shorn. 


148 


HISTORY    OP    IN-JDTAlfA. 


The  Twenty-first  Battery,  under  Captain 
"W.  W.  Andrew,  left  the  State  capital  for 
Covington,  Kentucky,  in  September,  1862. 

The  Twenty-second  Battery  moved  from 
Indianapolis  to  tlie  front,  Tinder  Captain  B. 
F.  Denning,  December  15,  1862,  and  thi-ew 
its  first  shot  into  Atlanta,  where  Captain 
Denning  was  killed. 

The  Twenty-tliird  Battery,  under  Captain 
I.  II.  Myers,  took  a  position  at  the  front  in 
1862. 

The  Twenty-fourth  Battery,  under  Captain 
J.  A.  Simms,  moved  from  Indianapolis  to  the 
front  in  March,  1863,  and  joined  the  Army 
of  the  Tennessee. 

The  Twenty-fifth  Battery,  under  Captain 
Frederick  C.  Sturm,  reported  at  Nashville  in 
December,  1864. 

The  Twenty-sixth,  or  "  Wilder's  Battery," 
was  recrui'^ed  at  Greensburg  in  May,  1861, 
and  became  Company  "  A "  of  the  Seven- 
teenth Infantry,  with  Captain  Wilder  as  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Subsequently  it  was  converted 
into  the  "  First  Independent  Battery,"  and 
became  known  as  "  Eigby's  Battery." 

The  total  number  of  battles  in  which  the 
soldiers  of  Indiana  were  engaged  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  Union  was  308. 

The  part  which  Indiana  j^erformed  in  the 
war  to  maintain  the  union  of  the  States  is 
one  of  which  the  citizens  of  the  State  may 
well  be  proud.  In  the  number  of  troops 
furnished,  and  in  tiie  amount  of  contribu- 
tions rendered,  Indiana,  in  proportion  to 
wealth  and  population,  stands  equal  to  any 
of  her  sister  States. 

The  State  records  show  that  200,000  men 
entered  the  army;  50,000  were  organized  to 
defend  the  State  at  home;  that  the  number 
of  military  commissions  issued  to  Indiana 
soldiers  was  17,114,  making  a  total  of  267,- 
114:  men  engaged  in  military  afi'airs  during 
the  war  for  tlie  Union. 


FINANCIAL. 

In  November,  1821,  Governor  Jennings 
convened  the  Legislature  in  extra  session,  to 
provide  for  the  payment  of  interest  and  a 
part  of  the  principal  of  the  public  debt, 
amounting  to  $20,000.  The  state  of  the 
public  debt  was  indeed  embarrassing,  as  the 
bonds  executed  in  its  behalf  had  been  as- 
signed. 

This  state  of  aftairs  had  been  brought 
about  in  part  by  mismanagement  of  the 
State  bank,  and  by  speculators.  From  181G 
to  1821  the  people  liad  largely  engaged 
in  fictitious  speculations.  Numerous  banks, 
with  fictitious  capital,  were  established;  im- 
mense issues  of  paper  were  made,  and  the 
circulating  medium  of  the  country  was 
increased  four-fold  in  the  course  of  three 
years. 

This  inflation  produced  the  consequences 
which  always  follow  such  a  scheme.  Conse- 
quently the  year  1821  was  one  of  great 
financial  panic. 

In  1822  the  nev/  Governor,  William  Hen- 
dricks, took  a  hopeful  view  of  the  situation. 
In  consequence  of  good  crops  and  the  grow- 
ing immigration,  everything  seemed  more 
promising. 

In  1822-'23  the  surplus  money  was  prin- 
cijjally  invested  in  home  manufactures,  which 
gave  new  impetus  to  the  new  State.  Noah 
Noble  was  Governor  of  the  State  from  1831 
to  1837,  commencing  his  duties  amid  peculiar 
embarrassments.  The  crops  of  1832  were 
short.  Asiatic  cholera  came  sweeping  along 
the  Ohio  and  into  the  interior  of  the  State,  and 
the  Black  Hawk  war  raged  in  the  Northwest. 
All  these  at  once,  and  yet  the  work  of 
internal  improvements  was  actually  begun. 

The  State  bank  of  Indiana  was  established 
January  28,  1834.  The  act  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, by  its  own  terms,  ceased  to  be  a  law 
January  1,  1857.    At  the  time  of  organization 


BISTORT    OF    IKDtANA 


149 


the  outstanding  circulation  was  $4,208,725, 
with  a  debt,  due  principally  from  citizens  of 
the  State,  of  66,095,368. 

The  State's  interest  in  the  bank  was  pro- 
cured by  issue  of  State  bonds,  the  last  of 
which  was  payable  in  1866,  the  State  thus 
placing  as  capital  in  the  bank  $1,390,000. 

The  nominal  profits  of  the  bank  were 
$2,780,604.  This  constituted  a  sinking  fund 
for  the  payment  of  the  public  debt,  the  ex- 
penses of  the  Commissioners,  and  for  the 
cause  of  common  schools. 

In  1836  the  State  bank  was  doing  good 
service;  agricultural  products  were  abundant, 
and  markets  were  good. 

In  1843  the  State  M-as  suftering  from  over 
banking;',  inflation  of  the  currency  and  decep- 
tive speculation. 

Governor  Whitcomb,  lS43-'49,  succeeded 
well  in  maintaining  the  credit  of  the  State 
and  effecting  a  compromise  with  its  creditors, 
by  which  the  State  public  works  passed  from 
the  hands  of  the  State  to  the  creditors. 

In  1851  a  general  banking  law  was  adopted, 
which  again  revived  speculation  and  inflation, 
wliich  culminated  in  much  damage.  In  1857 
the  charter  of  the  State  bank  expired,  and 
the  large  gains  of  the  State  in  that  institu- 
tion were  directed  to  the  promotion  of  com- 
mon school  education. 

October  31,  1870,  found  the  State  in  a 
very  prosperous  condition;  there  was  a  sur- 
plus in  the  treasury  of  $373,249.  The  re- 
ceipts of  the .  year  amounted  to  $3,605,639, 
and  the  disbursements  to  $2,943,600,  leaving 
a  balance  of  $1,035,288.  The  total  debt  of 
the  State  in  November,  1871,  was  $3,937,821. 

Indiana  is  making  rapid  progress  in  the 
various  manufacturing  industries.  She  has 
one  of  the  largest  wagon  and  carriage  manu- 
factories in  the  world,  and  nearly  her  entire 
wheat  product  is  manufactured  into  flour 
within   the   State.     In   1880  the  population 


was  1,978,301,  and  the  true  valuation  of 
property  in  the  State  for  1880  was  $1,584,- 
756,802. 

IXTEENAL    IMPEOVEJIENTS. 

This  subject  began  to  be  agitated  as  early 
as  1818,  and  continued  to  increase  in  favor 
until  1830,  when  the  people  became  much 
excited  over  the  question  of  railroads. 

In  1832  the  work  of  internal  improvements 
fairly  commenced.  Public  roads  and  canals 
were  begun  during  tliis  year,  the  "Wabash  and 
Erie  Canal  being  the  largest  undertaking. 

During  the  year  1835  public  improvements 
were  pushed  vigorously.  Thirty-two  miles 
of  the  Wabash  and  Erie  Canal  were  completed 
this  year. 

During  1830  many  other  projected  works 
were  started,  and  in  1837,  when  Governor 
Wallace  took  the  executive  chair,  he  found  a 
reaction  among  the  people  in  regard  to  the 
gigantic  plans  for  public  improvements.  The 
people  feared  a  State  debt  was  being  incurred 
from  which  they  could  never  be  extricated. 

The  State  liad  borrowed  $3,827,000  for 
internal  improvements,  of  which  $1,327,000 
was  for  the  Wabash  and  Erie  Canal,  the  re- 
mainder for  other  works. 

The  State  had  annually  to  pay  $200,000 
interest  on  the  public  debt,  and  the  revenue 
derived  which  could  be  thus  applied  amounted 
to  only  $45,000  in  1838. 

In  1839  all  work  ceased  on  these  improve- 
ments, with  one  or  two  exceptions,  and  the 
contracts  were  surrendered  to  the  State,  in 
consequence  of  an  act  of  the  Legislature  pro- 
viding for  the  compensation  of  contractors 
by  the  issue  of  treasury  notes. 

In  1840  the  system  of  improvements  em- 
braced ten  different  works,  the  most  impor- 
tant of  which  was  the  Wabash  and  Erie 
Canal.  The  aggregate  length  of  the  lines 
embraced    in    this   system    v,-as  1,289  miles, 


BISTORT    OF   INDIANA. 


aiul   of  this  only  140  miles  Lad  been  com- 
pleted. 

lu  1840  the  State  debt  amounted  to  $18,- 
469,146;  her  resources  for  payment  were 
such  as  to  place  her  in  an  unfavorable  liglit 
before  the  world,  but  be  it  recorded  to  her 
credit,  she  did  not  repudiate,  as  some  other 
States  of  the  Union  have  done.  In  1850,  the 
State  having  abandoned  public  improve- 
ments, private  capital  and  enterprise  pushed 
forward  public  work,  and  although  the  caiuil 
has  served  its  day  and  age,  and  served  it  well, 
yet  Indiana  has  one  of  the  finest  systems  of 
water-ways  of  any  State  in  the  Union,  and 
her  railroad  facilities  compare  favorably  with 
the  majority  of  States,  and  far  in  advance  of 
many  of  her  elder  sisters  in  the  family  of 
States.  lu  1884  there  were  5,521  miles  of 
railroad  in  operation  in  the  State,  and  new 
roads  being  built  and  projected  where  the 
demand  justified. 


In  1869  the  development  of  mineral  re- 
sources in  the  State  attracted  considerable 
attention.  Near  Brooklyn,  twenty  miles  from 
Indianapolis,  is  a  fine  sandstone  formation, 
yielding  an  unlimited  quantity  of  the  best 
building  material.  The  limestone  formation 
at  and  surrounding  Gosport  is  of  great  va- 
riety, including  some  of  the  best  building 
stone  in  the  world. 

Men  of  enterprise  worked  hard  and  long 
to  induce  the  State  to  have  a  survey  made  to 
determine  tlio  quality  and  extent  of  the  min- 
eral resources  of  the  State. 

In  1869  Professor  Edward  T.  Cox  was  ap- 
pointed State  Geologist,  to  M'hom  the  citizens 
of  Indiana  are  indebted  for  the  exhaustive 
report  on  minerals,  and  the  agrrcultural  as 
well  as  manufacturing  resources  of  the  State. 

The  coal  measures,  says  Professor  Cox, 
cover  an  area  of  6,500  sqiiare  miles,  in  tlic 


southwestern  part  of  the  State,  and  extend 
from  Warren  County  on  the  north  to  the 
Ohio  River  on  the  south,  a  distance  of  150 
miles,  comprising  the  counties  of  Warren, 
Fountain,  Parke,  Vermillion,  Vigo,  Clay, 
Sullivan,  Greene,  Knox,  Daviess,  Martin, 
Gibson,  Pike,  Dubois,  Vanderburg,  War- 
wick, Spencer,  Perry  and  a  portion  of  Craw- 
ford, Monroe,  Putnam  and  Montgomery. 

This  coal  is  all  bituminous,  but  is  divis- 
able  into  three  well-marked  varieties;  cak- 
ing coal,  non-caking  coal,  or  block  coal,  and 
cannel  coal.  The  total  depth  of  the  seams 
or  measures  is  from  600  to  800  feet.  The 
caking  coal  is  in  the  western  portion  of  the 
area  described,  ranging  from  three  to  eleven 
feet  in  thickness.  The  block  coal  prevails  in 
the  eastern  pa;  t  of  the  field,  and  has  an  area 
of  450  square  miles;  this  coal  is  excellent  in 
its  raw  state  for  making  pig-iron. 

The  great  Indiana  coal  field  is  within  150 
miles  of  Chicago  or  Michigan  City  by  rail- 
road, from  which  ports  the  valuable  Superior 
iron  ores  are  loaded  from  vessels  that  run 
direct  from  the  ore  banks. 

Of  the  cannel  coal,  one  of  the  finest  seams 
to  be  found  in  the  country  is  in  Daviess 
County,  this  State.  Here  it  is  three  and  a 
half  feet  thick,  underlaid  by  one  and  a  half 
feet  of  block  caking  coal.  Cannel  coal  is  also 
found  in  great  abundance  in  Perry,  Greene, 
Parke  and  Fountain  counties. 

Numerous  deposits  of  bog-iron  ore  arc 
found  in  the  northern  part  of  the  State,  and 
clay  iron-stones  and  impure  carbonates  are 
found  scattered  in  the  vicinity  of  the  coal 
field.  In  some  places  the  deposits  are  oi 
considerable  commercial  value.  An  abund- 
ance of  excellent  lime  is  also  found  in  Indi- 
ana, especially  in  Huntington  County,  where 
it  is  manufactured  extensively. 

In  1884  the  number  of  bushels  of  lime 
burned   in  the  State   were  1,244,508;   lime- 


ET8T0BT    OF    INDIAlifA. 


stone  quarried  for  building  purposes,  6,012,- 
110  cubic  feet;  cement  made,  362,014 
bushels;  sandstone  quarried,  768,376  cubic 
feet;  gravel  sold,  502,115  tons;  coal  mined, 
1,722,089  tons;  value  of  mineral  products  in 
the  State  for  the  year  1884,  $2,500,000; 
value  of  manufactured  products  same  year, 
$163,851,872;  of  agricultural  products, 
$155,085,663.  Total  value  of  products  in 
the  State  for  the  year  1884,  $321,437,535. 

AGEICULTDEAL. 

In  1852  tlie  Legislature  authorized  the 
organization  of  county  and  district  agricult- 
ural societies,  and  also  established  a  State 
Eoard  of  Agriculture,  and  made  suitable  pro- 
visions for  maintaining  the  same,  the  hold- 
ing of  State  fairs,  etc. 

In  1873  suitable  buildings  were  erected  at 
Indianapolis,  for  a  State  exposition,  which 
was  formally  opened  September  10,  of  that 
year.  The  exhibits  there  displayed  showed 
that  Indiana  was  not  behind  her  sister  States 
in  agriculture  as  well  as  in  many  other  in- 
dustrial branches. 

As  stated  elsewhere  in  this  work,  the  value 
of  agricultural  products  in  the  State  for  the 
year  1884  amounted  to  $155,085,663. 

In  1842  Henry  Ward  Beecher  resided  in 
Indianapolis,  and  exercised  a  power  for  good 
aside  from  his  ministerial  work.  He  edited 
the  Indiana  Farmer  and  Gardener,  and 
through  that  medium  wielded  an  influence 
toward  organizing  a  society,  which  was  ac- 
complished that  year.  Among  Rev.  Beech- 
er's  co-laborers  were  Judge  Coburn,  Aaron 
Aldridge,  James  Sigarson,  D.  V.  CuUey, 
Eeuben  Ragan,  Stephen  Hampton,  Cornelius 
Eatlift",  Joshua  Lindley,  Abner  Pope  and 
many  others.  The  society  gave  great  en- 
couragement to  the  introduction  of  new  va- 
rieties of  fruit,  but  the  sudden  appearance  of 
noxious  insects,  and  the  want  of  shipping 


facilities,  seriously  held  in  check  the  advance 
of  horticulture  in  accordance  with  the  desires 
of  its  leaders. 

In  1860  there  was  organized  at  Indianap 
olis  the  Indiana  Pomological  Society,  with 
Reuben  Ragan  as  President,  and  William  II. 
Loomis  as  Secretary. 

From  tliis  date  interest  began  to  expand, 
but,  owing  to  the  M-ar,  but  little  was  done, 
and  in  January,  1864,  the  title  of  the  society 
was  changed  to  that  of  the  Indiana  Horticult- 
ural Society. 

The  report  of  the  society  for  1868  shows 
for  the  first  time  a  balance  in  the  treasury  of 
$61.55. 

The  society  has  had  a  steady  growth,  and 
produced  grand  results  throughout  the  State, 
the  product  of  apples  alone  in  the  State  for 
the  year  1884  being  4,181,147  bushels. 

EDUCATION. 

The  subject  of  education  is  the  all-impor- 
tant subject  to  any  and  all  communities, 
and  the  early  settlers  of  Indiana  builded 
greater  than  they  then  knew,  when  they  laid 
the  foundation  for  future  growth  of  the  edu- 
cational facilities  in  the  State. 

To  detail  the  educational  resources,  its  ac- 
complishments from  its  incipiency  to  the 
present  date,  would  require  a  number  of 
large  volumes;  but  as  space  in  this  work  will 
not  permit,  and  as  the  people  have  access  to 
annual  State  reports  of  the  school  system  in 
detail,  we  will  here  give  only  the  leading 
features  and  enormous  growth,  as  well  as 
flourishing  condition  of  Indiana's  school  sys- 
tem to  the  present  time. 

The  free-school  system  was  fully  established 
in  1852,  which  has  resulted  in  placing  Indi- 
ana in  the  lead  of  this  great  nation  in  ed- 
ucational progress.  In  1854  the  available 
common  school  fund  consisted  of  the  congres- 
sional township  fund,  the  surplus   revenue 


fund,  the  saline  fund,  the  bank  tax  fund  and 
miscellaneous  fund,  amounting  in  all  to 
82,460,600. 

This  amount  was  increased  from  various 
sources,  and  entrusted  to  the  care  of  the  sev- 
eral counties  of  the  State,  and  by  them  loaned 
to  citizens  of  the  county  in  sums  not  exceed- 
ing $300,  secured  by  real  estate. 

In  1880  the  available  school  fund  derived 
from  all  sources  amounted  to  $8,974,455.55. 

In  1884  there  were  in  the  State  children 
of  school  age,  722,846.  Number  of  white 
children  in  attendance  at  school  during  the 
year,  461,831;  number  of  colored  children  in 
school  during  the  year,  7,285;  total  attend- 
ance, 469,116 ;  number  of  teachers  employed, 
13,615,  of  whom  145  were  colored. 

And  lastly  we  are  pleased  to  say  that  In- 
diana has  a  larger  school  fund  than  any  other 
State  in  the  Union.  The  citizens  may  well 
be  proud  of  their  system  of  schools,  as  well  as 
the  judicious  management  of  its  funds,  which 
have  been  steadily  increased,  notwithstand- 
ing the  rapid  increase  of  population,  which 
has  demande(5  an  increased  expenditure  in 
various  ways,  which  have  all  been  promptly 
met,  and  the  educational  facilities  steadily 
enlarged  where  any  advancement  could  be 
made. 

In  1802  Congress  granted  lands  and  a 
charter  to  the  people  residing  at  Vinceunes, 
for  the  erection  and  maintenance  of  a  semi- 
nary of  learning;  and  five  years  thereafter  an 
act  incorporating  the  Vincennes  University 
asked  the  Legislature  to  appoint  a  Board  of 
Trustees  and  empower  them  to  sell  a  town- 
ship of  land  in  Gibson  County,  granted  by 
Congress  for  the  benefit  of  the  university. 
The  sale  of  the  land  was  slow  and  the  pro- 
ceeds small;  the  members  of  the  board  were 
apathetic,  and  failing  to  meet,  the  institution 
fell  out  of  existence  and  out  of  memory. 

In  1820  the  State  Legislature  passed  an 


act  for  a  State  University.  Bloomington 
was  selected  as  the  site  for  locating  the  insti- 
tution. The  buildings  were  completed  and 
the  institution  formally  opened  in  1825. 
The  name  was  changed  to  that  of  the  "  In- 
diana Academy,"  and  subsequentlj',  in  1828, 
to  the  "  Indiana  College."  The  institution 
prospered  until  1854,  when  it  was  destroyed 
by  fire,  and  9,000  volumes,  with  all  the 
apparatus,  were  consumed.  The  new  col- 
lege, with  its  additions,  was  completed  in 
1873,  and  the  routine  of  studies  continued. 

The  university  may  now  be  considered 
on  a  fixed  basis,  carrying  out  the  intention 
of  the  president,  who  aimed  at  scholarship 
rather  than  numbers.  The  university  re- 
ceives from  the  State  annually  $15,000,  and 
promises,  with  the  aid  of  other  public  grants 
and  private  donations,  to  vie  with  any  other 
State  university  within  the  republic. 

In  1862  Congress  passed  an  act  granting 
to  each  State  for  college  purposes  public 
lands  to  the  amount  of  30,000  acres  for  each 
Senator  and  Representative  in  Congress.  In- 
diana having  in  Congress  at  that  time  thir- 
teen members,  became  entitled  to  390,000 
acres;  but  as  there  was  no  Congress  land  in 
the  State  at  that  time,  scrip  was  instituted, 
under  the  conditions  that  the  sum  of  the 
proceeds  of  the  lands  should  be  invested  in 
Government  stocks,  or  other  equally  safe 
investment,  drawing  not  less  than  five  per 
centum  on  the  par  value  of  said  stock, 
the  principal  to  stand  undiminished.  The 
institution  to  be  thus  founded  was  to  teach 
agricultural  and  the  mechanical  arts  as  its 
leading  features.  It  was  further  provided 
by  Congress  that  should  the  principal  of  the 
fund  be  diminished  in  any  way,  it  should  be 
replaced  by  the  State  to  which  it  belongs, 
so  that  the  capital  of  the  fund  shall  remain 
forever  undiminished;  and  further,  that  in 
order  to  avail  themselves  of  the  benefits  of 


BISTORT    OF    INDIANA. 


dl 


this  act,  States  must  comply  with  the  pro- 
visos of  the  act  within  live  years  after  it 
became  a  law,  viz.,  to  erect  suitable  buildings 
for  such  school. 

March,  1865,  the  Legislature  accepted  of 
the  national  gift,  and  appointed  a  board 
of  trustees  to  sell  the  land.  The  amount 
realized  from  land  sales  was  $212,238.50, 
which  sum  was  increased  to  $400,000. 

May,  1869,  John  Purdue,  of  La  Fayette, 
offered  $150,000,  and  Tippecanoe  County 
$50,000  more,  and  the  title  of  the  institu- 
tion was  established — "Purdue  University." 

Donations  were  also  made  by  the  Battle 
Ground  Institute,  and  the  Institute  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  church. 

The  building  was  located  on  a  100-acre 
tract,  near  Cliauncey,  which  Purdue  gave  in 
addition  to  his  magnificent  donation,  and  to 
which  eighty-six  and  one  half  acres  more 
have  since  .been  added.  The  university  was 
formally  opened  March,  1874,  and  has  made 
rapid  advances  to  the  present  time. 

The  Indiana  State  Normal  School  was 
founded  at  Terre  Haute  in  1870,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  act  of  the  Legislature  of  that 
year. 

The  principal  design  of  this  institution  was 
to  prepare  thorough  and  competent  teachers 
for  teaching  the  schools  of  the  State,  and  the 
anticipations  of  its  founders  have  been  fully 
realized,  as  proven  by  the  able  corjDS  of 
teachers  annually  graduating  from  the  insti- 
tution, and  entering  upon  their  responsible 
missions  in  Indiana,  as  well  as  other  States 
of  the  Union. 

The  Northern  Indiana  Kormal  School  and 
Business  Institute,  at  Valparaiso,  was  organ- 
ized in  September,  1873.  The  school  occu- 
pied the  building  known  as  the  Valparaiso 
Male  and  Female  College  building.  This 
institution  has  had  a  wonderful  growth;  the 
first  year's  attendance  was    tliirty-five.     At 


this  time  every  State  in  the  Union  is  repre- 
sented, the  number  enrolled  being  over  3,000. 
All  branches  necessary  to  qualify  students  for 
teaching,  or  engaging  in  any  line  of  buei- 
ness,  are  taught.  The  Commercial  College 
connected  with  tlie  school  is  of  itself  a  great 
institution. 

In  addition  to  the  public  schools  and  State 
institutions  there  are  a  number  of  denomi- 
national and  private  schools,  some  of  which 
have  a  national  as  well  as  a  local  reputa- 
tion. 

Notre  Dame  University,  near  South  Bend, 
is  the  most  noted  Catholic  institution  in  the 
United  States.  It  was  founded  by  Father 
Sorin,  in  1842.  It  has  a  bell  weighing 
13,000  pounds,  the  largest  in  the  United 
States,  and  one  of  the  finest  in  the  world. 

The  Indiana  Asbury  University,  at  Green- 
castle,  Methodist,  was  founded  in  1835. 

Howard  College,  not  denominational,  is 
located  at  Kokomo;  founded  in  1869. 

Union  Christian  College,  Christian,  at 
Merom,  was  organized  in  1858. 

Moore's  Hill  College,  Methodist,  at  Moore's 
Hill,  was  founded  in  1854. 

Earlliam  College,  at  liichmond,  under 
the  management  of  the  Orthodox  Friends, 
was  founded  in  1859. 

Wabash  College,  at  Crawfordsville,  under 
Presbyterian  management,  was  founded  in 
1834. 

Concordia  College,  Lutheran,  at  Fort 
Wayne,  was  founded  in  1850. 

Hanover  College,  Presbyterian,  was  found- 
ed at  Hanover  in  1833. 

Hartsville  University,  United  Brethren, 
was  founded  at  Hartsville  in  1854. 

Northwestern  Christian  University,  Dis- 
ciples, is  located  at  Irvinton;  organized  in 
1854. 

All  these  institutions  are  in  a  flourishing 
condition. 


154 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


\\\ 


Di^ 


BENEVOLENT  AND  PENAL  INSTITCTIONS. 

By  the  year  1830  the  influx  of  paupers 
and  invalid  persons  was  so  great  as  to  demand 
legislation  tending  to  make  provisions  for 
tlie  care  of  such  persons.  The  Legislature 
was  at  first  slow  to  act  on  the  matter.  At 
the  present  time,  however,  there  is  no  State 
in  the  Union  which  can  boast  a  better  system 
of  benevolent  institutions. 

In  behalf  of  the  blind,  the  first  efibrt  was 
made  by  James  M.  Ray  in  1846.  Through 
his  eflbrts  William  H.  Churchman  came 
from  Kentucky  with  blind  pupils,  and  gave 
exhibitions  in  Mr.  Beecher's  church  in  Indi- 
anapolis. These  entertainments  were  attended 
by  members  of  the  L^islature,  and  had  the 
desired  effect.  That  body  passed  an  act  for 
founding  an  institution  for  the  blind  in  1847. 
The  buildings  occupy  a  space  of  eight  acres 
at  the  State  capital,  and  is  now  in  a  flourish- 
ing condition. 

Tlie  first  to  awaken  an  interest  in  the  State 
for  the  deaf  and  dumb  was  William  Willard, 
himself  a  mute,  who  visited  Indianapolis  in 
1843.  He  opened  a  school  for  mutes  on  his 
own  account  with  sixteen  pupils.  The  next 
year  tlie  Legislature  adopted  this  school  as  a 
a  State  institution,  and  appointed  a  board  of 
trustees  for  its  management.  The  present 
buildings  were  completed  in  1850,  situated 
east  of  the  city  of  Indianapolis.  The  grounds 
comprise  105  acres,  devoted  to  pleasure 
grounds,  agriculture,  fruits,  vegetables,  flowers 
and  pasture. 

The  question  in  regard  to  taking  action  in 
the  matter  of  providing  for  the  care  of  the 
insane,  began  to  be  agitated  in  1832-"83.  Iso 
definite  action  was  taken,  however,  until  1844, 
when  a  tax  was  levied,  and  in  1845  a  com- 
mission was  appointed  to  obtain  a  site  for  a 
building.  Said  commission  selected  Mount 
Jackson,  near  the  State  capitol. 

The   Legislature   of  1846   instructed   the 


commission  to  proceed  to  construct  a  suitable 
building.  Accordingly,  in  1847,  the  central 
building  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  $75,000. 

Other  buildings  have  been  erected  from 
time  to  time,  as  needed  to  accommodate  the 
increased  demand,  and  at  the  present  time 
Indiana  has  an  institution  for  the  insane 
equal  to  any  in  the  West. 

The  State  hospital  not  afl'ordiiig  sufficient 
accommodations  for  her  insane,  March  7, 
1883,  an  act  providing  for  the  location  and 
erection  of  "  Additional  Hospitals  for  the 
Insane  "  was  passed  by  the  Legislature,  and 
March  21  commissioners  were  appointed. 
After  careful  consideration  three  sites  were 
located,  one  at  Evansville,  one  at  Logansport 
and  one  at  Richmond,  called  respectively  the 
Southern,  Northern  and  Eastern  hospitals. 
The  Southern  Indiana  Hospital  for  Insane  is 
located  four  miles  east  of  Evansville,  and  is 
built  on  the  corridor  plan.  The  buildings 
are  situated  near  the  center  of  the  hospital 
domain,  which  consists  of  160  acres  of  highly 
improved  land.  The  structure  proper  con- 
sists of  a  central  oblong  block,  which  is  prac- 
tically the  vestibule  of  the  entire  hospital. 
From  the  first  floor  and  the  two  galleries 
above,  entrance  is  had  into  the  four  lateral 
wings.  The  total  capacity  is  162  patients. 
This  building  has  been  erected  at  a  cost  of 
$391,887.49. 

The  Korthern  Indiana  Hospital  for  the 
Insane  is  located  a  mile  and  a  half  west  of 
Logansport,  on  a  tract  of  land  including  281 
acres,  lying  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Wabash 
River,  and  is  built  on  the  pavilion  plan.  At 
the  center  of  the  ridge,  in  the  maple  grove,  is 
situated  the  administration  house.  This  is 
flanked  on  each  side  by  tire  pavilions,  ar- 
ranged in  a  straight  line,  which  are  intended 
and  designed  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
sick  and  infirm.  On  either  side  of  the  above 
named  group,  205    feet   distant,  are   located 


HISTORY    OF    INDIANA. 


1 


two  pavilions,  alike  in  every  particular,  in- 
tended for  quiet  patients.  This  hospital  has 
a  capacity  for  342  patients,  and  was  erected 
at  a  cost  of  $417,992.98. 

The  Eastern  Indiana  Hospital  for  the  In- 
sane is  located  on  a  tract  of  306  acres,  two 
miles  west  of  Richmond,  and  is  constructed 
on  the  cottage  plan.  The  buildings,  seven- 
teen in  number,  are  arranged  in  and  around 
three  sides  of  a  quadrangle,  1,000  feet  long, 
by  700  feet  broad,  near  the  center  of  the 
farm,  the  third,  or  northern  side,  being  closed 
in  by  a  grove.  The  southern  front  contains 
the  administration  house;  the  eastern  front, 
five  houses  for  female  patients,  and  the  west- 
ern front,  similar  houses  for  male  patients. 
This  hospital  has  a  capacity  of  448  patients, 
and  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  §409,867.88. 

The  first  penal  institution  established  in 
the  State,  known  as  the  State  Prison  South, 
is  located  at  Jeifersouville.  It  was  estab- 
lished in  1821,  and  was  the  only  prison  un- 
til 1859.  Before  this  prison  was  established, 
it  was  customary  to  resort  to  the  old-time 
punishment  of  the  whipping-post.  For  a 
time  the  prisoners  were  hired  to  contractors ; 
later,  they  were  employed  constructing  new 
prison  buildings,  which  stand  on  si.xteen 
acres  of  ground.  From  1857  to  1871,  they 
were  employed  manufacturing  wagons  and 
farm  implements.  In  1871  the  Southwestern 
Car  Company  leased  of  the  State  all  convicts 
capable  of  performing  labor  pertaining  to  the 
manufacture  of  cars.  This  business  ceased  to 
be  profitable  to  the  company  in  1873,  and  in 
1876  all  the  convicts  were  again  idle. 

In  1859  the  Legislature  passed  an  act 
authorizing  the  construction  of  a  State 
prison  in  the  north  part  of  the  State,  and  ap- 
propriated $50,000  for  that  purpose:  Michi- 
gan City,  on  Lake  Michigan,  was  the  site 
selected,  and  a  large  number  of  convicts  from 
the  prison  South,  were  moved  to  that  point 


and  began  the  work  which  has  produced  one 
of  the  best  prisons  in  the  country.  It  difi'ers 
widely  from  the  Southern,  in  so  much  as  its 
sanitary  condition  has  been  above  the  average 
of  similar  institutions. 

The  prison  reform  agitation,  which  in  this 
State  attained  telling  proportions  in  1869, 
caused  a  legislative  measure  to  be  brought 
forward  which  would  have  a  tendency  to 
ameliorate  the  condition  of  female  convicts. 

The  Legislature  of  1873  voted  $50,000 
for  the  erection  of  suitable  buildings,  which 
was  carried  into  effect,  and  the  building  de- 
clared ready  in  September,  1873,  located  at 
the  State  capital,  and  known  as  the  Indiana 
Heformatory  Institution  for  "Women  and 
Girls.  To  this  institution  all  female  con- 
victs in  other  prisons  in  the  State  were  im- 
mediately reinoved,  and  the  institution  is 
one  of  the  most  commendable  for  good  re- 
sults to  be  found  in  any  State. 

In  1867  the  Legislature  appropriated  $50,- 
000,  for  the  purpose  of  founding  an  institu- 
tion for  the  correction  and  reformation  of 
juvenile  offenders.  A  Board  of  Control  was 
appointed  by  the  Governor,  who  assembled 
in  Indianapolis,  April  3,  1867,  and  elected 
Charles  F.  Coffin  as  President.  Governor 
Baker  selected  the  site,  fourteen  miles  from 
Indianapolis,  near  Plainfield,  where  a  fertile 
farm  of  225  acres  was  purchased. 

January  1,  1868,  a  few  buildings  were 
ready  to  receive  occupants;  the  main  build- 
ing was  completed  in  1869.  Everything  is 
constructed  upon  modern  principles,  '  and 
with  a  view  to  health  and  comfort.  The  in- 
stitution is  in  a  prosperous  condition,  and 
the  good  eflects  of  the  training  received  there 
by  the  young  well  repays  the  tax-payers,  in 
the  way  of  improving  society  and  elevating 
the  minds  of  those  who  would  otherwise  be 
wrecked  on  life's  stream  befoi'e  attaining  to 
years  of  maturity. 


^    v..t 


'^sS^^m^^yi^A 


Prominent  Men  of  Indiana. 


■2^i^i^^i^^ 


■^^ 


i 


"^J.U/^ 


'^U^ 


OLIVER    PEIUIT   MORTON. 


LIVEE  PEERT  MOE- 
TOX,  the  War  Governor 
of  Indiana,  and  one  of 
the  most  eminent  United 
States  Senators,  was  born 
j-,,^  '2^'<>2  in  Salisbury,  Wayne 
-^  County,  til  is  State,  August  4, 
1823.  The  name,  which  is  of 
_.  ,,.  ^  English  origin,  was  originally 
'o'lSj^  Throckmorton.  When  young  Oli- 
^  iTvO"  ^^'''  ^^came  a  lad  he  attended  the 
l\^(^  academy  of  Professor  Hoshour  at 
Q_^'j\^  Centreville,  in  his  native  county, 
r"  \)  but  could  not  continue  long  there, 
as  the  family  was  too  poor  to  defray  his 
expenses.  At  the  age  of  fifteen,  therefore, 
he  was  placed  with  anolder  brother  to  learn 
the  hatter's  trade,  at  which  he  worked  four 
years.  Determining  then  to  enter  the  pro- 
fession of  law,  he  began  to  qualify  himself  by 
attending  the  Miami  University,  in  1843, 
where  he  remained  two  years.  Eeturning  to 
Centreville,  he  entered  the  study  of  law 
with  the  late  Judge  Newman.  Succeeding 
well,  he  soon  secured  for  himself  an  inde- 
pendent practice,  a  good  clientage,  and  rapidly 
I'ose  to  prominence.  In  1852  he  was  elected 
circuit  judge;  but  at  the  end  of  a  year  he 
resigned,  preferring  to  practice  as  an  advocate. 
Up  to  1854  Mr.  Morton  was  a  Democrat 
in  his  party  preferences;  but  the  repeal  of 
the   Missouri    Compromise    caused    him    to 


secede,  and  join  the  incoming  Republican 
party,  in  which  he  became  a  leader  from  its 
beginning.  lie  was  a  delegate  to  the  Pitts- 
burg Convention  in  1856,  where  he  so  ex- 
hibited his  abilities  that  at  the  next  Repub- 
lican State  Convention  he  was  nominated  for 
Governor  against  Ashbel  P.  Willard,  the 
Democratic  nominee.  His  party  being  still 
young  and  in  the  minority,  was  defeated; 
but  Mr.  Morton  came  out  of  the  contest  with 
greatly  increased   notoriety    and  popularity. 

In  1860  Judge  Morton  received  the  nomi- 
nation for  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Indiana, 
on  the  ticket  with  Henry  S.  Lane,  and  they 
were  elected;  but  only  two  days  after  their 
inauguration  Governor  Lane  was  elected  to 
the  United  States  Senate,  and  Mr.  Morton 
became  Governor.  It  was  while  filling  this 
position  that  he  did  his  best  public  work, 
and  created  for  himself  a  fame  as  lasting  as 
the  State  itself.  He  opposed  all  compromise 
with  the  Rebellion,  and  when  the  Legislature 
passed  a  joint  resolution  providing  for  the 
appointment  of  peace  commissioners,  he 
selected  men  who  were  publicly  known  to 
be  opposed  to  any  compromise. 

During  the  dark  and  tedious  days  of  the 
war,  in  1864,  Governor  Morton  defeated  Jo- 
seph E.  McDonald,  in  the  race  for  Governor, 
by  a  majority  of  20,883  votes.  The  next 
summer  lie  had  a  stroke  of  partial  paralysis, 
from  which  he  never  fully  recovered.     The 


disease  so  aifected  the  lower  part  of  his  body 
and  his  limbs,  that  he  was  never  afterward 
able  to  walk  without  the  assistance  of  canes; 
but  otherwise  he  enjoyed  a  high  degree  of 
physical  and  mental  vigor.  In  December 
following  he  made  a  voyage  to  Europe,  where 
he  consulted  eminent  physicians  and  received 
medical  treatment,  but  only  partially  recov- 
ered. In  March,  1866,  he  returned  to  the 
executive  chair  to  resume  his  official  duties. 

In  January,  1867,  Governor  Morton  was 
elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  being 
succeeded  in  his  State  duties  by  Lieutenant- 
Governor  Baker.  In  1873  Senator  Morton 
was  re-elected,  and  he  continued  a  member 
of  that  body  while  he  lived.  In  that  position 
Mr.  Morton  ranked  among  the  ablest  states- 
men, was  one  of  the  four  or  five  chiefs  of  his 
party,  and,  being  Chairman  of  the  Committee 
on  Privileges  and  Elections,  he  did  more  in 
determining  the  policy  of  the  Senate  and  of 
the  Kepublican  party  than  any  other  member 
of  the  Senate.  It  was  during  this  period  that 
the  many  vexed  questions  of  the  reconstruc- 
tion period  came  up,  and  with  reference  to  all 
of  them  he  favored  radical  and  repressive 
measures  in  dealing  with  the  rebellious  States. 

In  the  spring  of  1877  Senator  Morton 
went  to  Oregon  as  Chairman  of  a  Senate 
Committee  to  investigate  the  election  of  Sen- 
ator Grover,  of  that  State,  and  while  there  he 
delivered,  at  Salem,  the  last  political  speech 
of  his  life.  During  his  return,  by  way  of 
San  Francisco,  he  suffered  another  paralytic 
stroke,  and  he  was  brought  East  on  a  special 
car,  taken  to  the  residence  of  his  mother-in- 
law,  Mrs.  Burbanks,  at  Richmond,  this  State, 
and  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days  there, 
dying  November  1,  1877.  The  death  of  no 
man,  with  the  exception  of  that  of  President 
r>incoln,  ever  created  so  much  grief  in  Indi- 
ana as  did  that  of  Senator  Morton.  The 
lamentation,  indeed,  was  national.    The  Presi- 


dent of  the  United  States  directed  the  flags 
on  public  buildings  to  be  placed  at  half-mast, 
and  also  that  the  Government  departments 
be  closed  on  the  day  of  the  funeral.  The  re- 
mains of  the  great  statesman  were  interred 
at  the  spot  in  Crown  Hill  Cemetery  where 
he  stood  on  Soldiers'  Decoration  Day,  in 
May,  1876,  when  he  delivered  a  great  speech 
to  a  large  assemblage.  Never  before  did  so 
many  distinguished  men  attend  the  funeral 
of  a  citizen  of  Indiana. 

Personally,  Senator  Morton  was  character- 
ized by  great  tenacity  of  purpose  and  shrewd 
foresight.  Taking  his  aim,  he  ceased  not 
until  he  attained  it,  without  compromise  and 
without  conciliation,  if  not  by  the  means  first 
adopted,  then  by  another.  As  Governor  of 
Indiana  he  exhibited  wonderful  energy,  tact 
and  forethought.  He  distanced  all  other 
Governors  in  putting  troops  in  the  field,  and 
he  also  excelled  them  all  in  providing  for  their 
wants  while  there.  His  State  pride  was  in- 
tense, and  in  respect  to  tlie  general  character 
of  the  people  of  his  State  he  brought  Indiana 
"out  of  the  wilderness"  to  the  front,  since 
which  time  the  Hoosier  State  has  been  more 
favorably  known.  In  the  great  civil  war 
which  tried  the  mettle  and  patriotism  of  the 
people,  Indiana  came  to  the  front  under  his 
guidance,  yea,  to  the  forei'ront  of  the  line. 
As  a  legislator,  he  originated  and  accom- 
plished much,  being  naturally,  as  well  as  by 
self-discipline,  the  most  aggressive,  bold  and 
clear-headed  Eepublican  politician  of  his 
time.  He  was  also  well  versed  in  the  sciences, 
especially  geology;  and  even  in  theology  he 
knew  more  than  many  whose  province  it  is 
to  teach  it,  although  he  was  not  a  member  of 
any  church. 

A  statue  of  Senator  Morton  is  placed  in 
one  of  the  public  parks  at  Indianapolis  by 
the  contributions  of  a  grateful  common- 
wealth. 


?- 
^^p^ 


V 


•^-  <^  H<^^^^-AA^y.xyn2 


'TMOMAS    A.   HENDRICKS. 


l: 


nOMAS  ANDREWS 
HENDRICKS,  elected 
Vice-President  of  the 
United  States  in  1884, 
was  born  in  Musking- 
um County,  Oliio,  near 
the  city  of  Zanesville,  Septem- 
ber 7,  1819.  The  following 
spiing  the  family  moved  to 
Madison,  this  State,  and  in 
1S22  to  Shelby  County,  where 
they  opened  up  a  farm  in  a 
spaisely  settled  region  near  the 
center  of  the  county.  It  was 
here  that  Thom.as  grew  to  man- 
hood. After  the  completion  of 
his  education  at  Hanover  College  he  studied 
law  in  the  office  of  his  uncle.  Judge  Thomson, 
at  Chanibersburg,  Pennsylvania,  and  in  due 
time  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 

In  1848  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature; 
in  1850,  to  the  convention  which  framed  the 
present  Constitution  of  the  State,  being  an 
active  participant  in  the  deliberations  of  that 
body;  in  1851  and  1852,  to  Congress;  in 
1855,  was    appointed    Commissioner  of  the 


General  Land  Office,  which  he  resigned  in 
1859;  1863-'69, United  States  Senator;  1872- 
'77, Governor  of  Indiana;  and  finally,  July  12, 
1884,  he  was  nominated  by  tlie  Democratic 
National  Convention  at  Chicago  a-;  second  on 
the  ticket  with  Grover  Cleveland,  which  was 
successful  in  the  ensuing  campaign;  but  a 
few  days  before  he  should  begin  to  serve  as 
Speaker  of  the  Senate,  November,  1885,  he 
suddenly  died  at  his  home  in  Indianapolis. 

Going  back  for  particulars,  we  should  state 
that  in  1860  he  was  candidate  for  Governor 
of  Indiana  against  Henry  S.  Lane,  and  was 
defeated  by  9,757  votes,  while  the  Repub- 
lican majority  of  the  State  on  the  national 
ticket  was  23,524,  showing  his  immense 
popularity.  Again,  in  1868,  Conrad  Baker 
defeated  him  by  1,161  votes,  when  Grant's 
majority  over  Seymour  in  the  State  was 
9,579,  and  this,  too,  after  he  had  so  bitterly 
opposed  the  policy  of  Lincoln's  administration, 
and  thereby  lost  from  his  constituency  luaiiy 
Union  sympathizers.  And  finally,  in  1872, 
his  majority  for  Governor  over  General 
Thomas  M.  Brown  was  1,148;  the  same  year 
Grant's  majority  in  the  State  over  Greeley 


'M^MMllMMWgl^ ! 


PBOMISEKT    MEX    OF    IXDIANA. 


was  22,924.  Governor  Hendricks  was  the 
only  man  elected  on  his  ticket  that  year, 
excepting  Professor  Hopkins,  who  was  chosen 
to  a  non-political  office. 

In  1876  Governor  Hendricks  was  a  con- 
spicious  candidate  for  the  Presidency,  being 
the  favorite  of  the  Western  Democracy;  but 
the  East  proved  too  powerful,  and  nominated 
Tilden,  giving  Hendricks  the  second  place  on 
the  national  ticket,  thereby  strengthening  it 
greatly  in  the  "West. 

During  the  intervals  of  official  life,  Mr. 
Hendricks  practiced  law  with  eminent  suc- 
cess, being  equally  at  home  before  court  or 
jury,  and  not  easily  disturbed  by  unforeseen 
turns  in  a  case.  He  had  no  specialty  as  an 
advocate,  being  alike  efficient  in  the  civil  and 
criminal  court,  and  in  all  kinds  and  forms  of 
actions.  "When  out  of  office  his  voice  was 
frequently  heard  on  the  political  questions  of 
the  day.  Indiana  regarded  him  with  pride, 
and  among  a  large  class  he  was  looked  upon 
as  the  leader  of  the  Democracy  of  the  "West. 
His  adherents  rallied  around  him  in  1880, 
and  his  name  was  again  prominent  for  the 
Presidential  nomination,  and  might  have 
been  carried  were  it  not  for  the  opposition  of 
the  friends  of  Mr.  McDonald. 

As  his  views  on  governmental  affairs  were 
critical,  definite  and  positive,  he  had  many 
political  enemies,  but  none  of  them  have  ever 
charged  him  with  malfeasance  in  offi.ce,  or 
incompetency  in  any  of  his  public  positions. 
He  was  a  man  of  convictions,  conservative, 
eloquent  in  public  address,  careful  of  his 
utterances,  and  exceedingly  earnest. 


Mr.  Hendricks  belonged  to  a  family  noted 
in  the  history  of  Indiana.  His  uncle,  "Will- 
iam Hendricks,  was  secretary  of  the  conven- 
tion that  formed  the  first  Constitution  of  the 
State;  was  Indiana's  first  Eepresentative  in 
Congress,  her  second  Governor,  and  for  two 
full  terms  represented  it  in  the  Senate  of  the 
United  States.  A  cousin,  John  Abram  Hen- 
dricks, fell  at  the  battle  of  Pea  Eidge  while 
leading  his  regiment  against  the  enemy;  and 
another  cousin,  Thomas  Hendricks,  was 
killed  in  the  Teche  country  while  serving  in 
the  Union  army.  Mr.  Hendricks'  father  was 
an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  he 
himself  %yas  baptized  and  brought  up  under 
the  auspices  of  that  denomination.  He  never 
joined  any  church  until  1867,  when  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Protestant  Epis- 
copal church,  retaining  his  Calvinistic  views. 
In  person  Mr.  Hendricks  was  five  feet  nine 
inches  high,  weighed  about  185  pounds;  his 
eyes  gray,  hair  of  a  sandy  hue,  nose  largo 
and  prominent,  complexion  fair  and  inclined 
to  freckle,  and  his  mouth  and  chin  were 
expressive  of  determination  and  tenacity. 
He  wore  no  beard  except  a  little  near  the  ear. 
He  was  a  man  of  good  habits,  health  good, 
step  firm  and  prompt,  and  voice  resonant  and 
steady. 

After  his  nomination  for  the  Yice-Prcsi- 
dency  he  took  an  active  part  in  the  campaign, 
delivering  a  number  of  powerful  addresses, 
and  while  waiting  for  his  term  of  official 
service  to  begin,  death  ended  his  days  and 
cast  an  indescribable  shade  of  gloom  over  his 
family.  State  and  nation. 


>^' 


8CHUTLER    COLFaS. 


ffV^^ 


W  SCHUYLER  COLFAX,  ii 


^^^t/^'M»^^»####^«i'^##^'i>^'<W-«»«»^^, 


'HIS  eminent  statesman 
was  born  in  New  York 
Citj,  March  23,  1823, 
the   only   son   of  his 
widowed  inother;  was 
taught  in  the  common 
schooL  of  tlie  city,  finished  his 
education  at  a  high-school  on 
Ci'Obby  street,  and  at  ten  years 
of  age  he  had  received  all  the 
school   t''aining  he  e\er  had. 
Alter  clerking  in  a  store  for 
three  years,  he  removed  to  In- 
diana   with    his   mother   and 
V^V\^    stepfather,  Mr.  Mathews,  set- 
^  ^  tling   in   St.    Joseph  Connty. 

Here,  in  the  village  of  New  Carlisle,  the 
j^oiith  served  four  years  more  as  clerk  in 
a  store;  then,  at  the  age  of  seventeen  years, 
he  was  appointed  deputy  county  auditor, 
and  to  fulfill  his  duties  he  moved  to  the 
county  seat.  South  Bend,  where  he  remained 
a  resident  until  his  death. 

Like  almost  every  Western  citizen  of 
any  mental  activity,  young  Colfax  took 
a  practical  hold  of  political  matters  about 
as  soon  as  he  could  vote.  He  talked  and 
thought,  and  began  to  publish  his  views, 
from  time  to  time,  in  the  local  newspaper  of 
the  place.     His  peculiar  faculty  of  dealing 


fairly,  and  at  the  same  time  pleasantly,  with 
men  of  all  sorts,  his  natural  sobriety  and 
common  sense,  and  his  power  of  stating 
things  plainly  and  correctly,  made  him  a 
natural  newspaper  man.  He  was  employed 
during  several  sessions  of  the  Legislature,  to 
report  the  proceedings  of  the  Senate  for  the 
Indianapolis  Journal,  and  in  this  position 
made  many  friends.  In  1845  he  became 
proprietor  and  editor  of  the  St.  Joseph  Val- 
ley Eegister,  the  South  Bend  newspaper, 
which  then  had  but  250  subscribers;  but 
the  youthful  editor  had  hope  and  energy,  and 
after  struggling  through  many  disappoint- 
ments, including  the  loss  of  his  ofiice  by  fire, 
he  succeeded  in  making  a  comfortable  living 
out  of  the  enterprise. 

Mr-  Colfax  was  a  Whig  so  long  as  that 
party  existed.  In  1848  he  was  a  delegate  to 
the  convention  which  nominated  General 
Taylor  for  President,  and  was  one  of  the  sec- 
retaries of  that  body.  The  next  year  he  was 
a  member  of  the  State  Constitutional  Con- 
vention, being  elected  thereto  from  a  Demo- 
cratic district.  Soon  afterward  he  was 
nominated  for  the  State  Senate,  but  declined 
because  he  could  not  be  spared  from  his  busi- 
ness. His  first  nomination  for  Congress  was 
in  1851,  but  was  beaten  by  200  votes,  which 
was  less  than  the  real  Democratic  majority 


1^0 


Prominent  mmn  of  Indiana. 


in  his  district.  His  successful  competitor 
was  Dr.  Graham  N.  Fitch,  who,  along  wi^-h 
Mr.  Bright,  became  so  conspicuous  in  the 
^ujiport  of  Buchanan.  In  1852  he  was  a 
delegate  to  the  Whig  National  Convention 
that  nominated  General  Scott,  and  was  again 
secretary. 

Franklin  Pierce,  the  Democratic  nominee, 
was  elected  President,  and  during  his  term 
the  Wliig  party  was  dissolved  upon  the  issue 
of  slavery,  and,  naturally  enough,  Mr.  Colfax 
drifted  m  with  the  party  of  freedom.  So  did 
the  people  of  his  Congressional  district;  for, 
after  having  given  their  Democratic  repre- 
sentative 1,000  majority  two  years  before, 
tliey  now  nominated  and  elected  Mr.  Colfax 
to  succeed  him  by  about  2,000  majority. 

The  Congress  towhicli  he  was  thus  elected 
is  noted  for  the  tedious  struggle  in  the  elec- 
tion of  a  Speaker  of  the  House,  resulting, 
February  2,  1856,  in  the  choice  of  N.  P. 
Banks.  Mr.  Colfax,  who  was  second  in  the 
race  for  the  Speakership,  exhibited  wonderful 
parliamentary  tact  in  staving  off  the  South- 
erners, who  at  times  seemed  on  the  point  ot 
success.  As  to  parties  at  this  time,  they 
■were  considerably  broken  np,  comprising 
"Anti-Nebraska"  (Eepublican),  Democrats, 
Know-Nothings  and  nondescripts.  During 
tliis  and  the  succeeding  Congress,  to  which 
Mr.  Colfax  was  elected,  he  delivered  several 
telling  speeches,  some  of  which  were  printed 


almost  by  the  million  and  distributed  tu 
the  voters  throughout  the  North.  These 
speeches  were  full  of  solid  facts  and  figures 
with  reference  to  the  Pro-Slavery  party, 
especially  in  Kansas,  so  that,  by  a  sort  of 
play  upon  his  name,  the  people  often  re- 
ferred to  him  as  "Cold-facts." 

In  1860  Mr.  Colfax  was  elected  to  Con- 
gress the  third  time,  and  in  1862  the  fourth 
time.  In  December,  1863,  he  was  chosen 
Speaker  of  the  House,  which  position  he  re- 
tained to  the  end  of  the  term  for  which 
Lincoln  and  Johnson  were  elected,  exhib- 
iting pre-eminent  jiarliamentary  skill  and 
an  obliging  disposition.  Equally  polite  to 
all,  he  was  ever  a  gentleman  worthy  of  the 
highest  honor. 

The  favorable  notoriety  gained  by  his 
"  cold  facts  "  against  slavery,  parliamentary 
ability,  his  power  of  debate,  and  his  suavity 
of  manner,  led  the  Eepublican  party  in  IStls 
to  place  him  on  the  national  ticket,  secf.nd 
only  to  the  leading  soldier  of  the  Union, 
U.  S.  Grant.  Being  elected,  he  served  as 
President  of  the  Senate  with  characteristic 
ability  throughout  his  term.  Then,  retiring 
from  political  life,  he  devoted  the  remaining 
years  of  his  life  to  lectures  upon  miscella- 
neous topics;  and  it  was  during  a  lecturing 
tour  in  Minnesota  that  he  was  stricken  down 
v,'ith  his  final  illness.  He  died  at  Mankato, 
that  State,  January  13,  1885. 


^[f 


i 


V  - 


(7^ 


JAMES    D.    WILLIAMS. 


•>>aAMES  D.  WILLIAMS. 


m^ 


t^iSn'iSn>ii^i&i't&?(Sg>B^O 


^it'^'^Si^^i^^'mt's^mi' 


m 


ERE  ■we  have  present- 
3d  a  practical   illustra- 
tion of  the  type  of  man 
pi  educed    by   a  young 
and  vigorons  republic, 
wlucb    had,   but  a  few 
■5  ears      preceding      his 
buth,  a-^&eited,  with  justice,  and 
successful])  maintained,  her  claim 
to  assume  her  rightful  position  as 
one  of  the  nations  of  the  earth. 
James  D.Williams  was  born  in 
Pickaway  County,  Ohio,  January 
8,  1808,  soon  after  that  State  had 
assumed   her   place   among  that 
galaxy  of  stars  destined  to  become  tlie  great- 
est nation  in  the  world. 

In  cliildhood  he  removed  with  his  parents 
to  Knox  County,  Indiana,  where  he  received 
a  common-school  education,  and  grew  to 
manhood  a  tiller  of  the  soil. 

He  entered  the  theater  of  life  at  a  time 
when  the  stage  scenery  was  of  the  most 
gigantic  grandeur  ever  beheld  by  the  eye  of 
man.  Nature  in  her  stupendous  splendor 
was  around  and  about  the  young  actor,  and 
he  readily  imbibed  the  spirit  of  his  sur- 
roundings, and  was  filled  with  enthusiastic 
hope  for  tlie  future  greatness  of  the  vast  and 
beautiful  conntry,  which  but  awaited  the  call 
of  the  husbandman  to  answer  in  bountiful 


harvests  to  his  many  demands.  With  young 
Williams  the  grandeur  of  the  scene  tilled  his 
soul  with  a  hopeful  determination  to  act 
well  his  part  in  the  great  drama  before  him, 
as  the  reader  will  find  wJiile  following  him 
down  life's  pathway. 

Wlien  he  attained  to  manhood  he  engaged 
in  agricultural  pursuits  and  stock-raising,  and 
became  widely  known  as  a  practical  and  suc- 
cessful Indiana  farmer. 

He  had  closely  observed  the  passing  events 
in  tlie  clash  and  conflict  of  political  parties, 
and  his  fellow  citizens  saw  in  him  the  qual- 
ified elements  of  a  representative  man,  and 
he  was  frequently  elected  as  a  Democrat  to 
represent  his  county  in  the  Lower  House  of 
the  Legislature,  M'here  he  discharged  the 
duties  devolving  upon  him  with  marked 
ability  and  even  beyond  the  expectations  of 
his  constituents.  The  sagacity  and  ability 
with  which  he  dealt  with  public  measures 
in  the  Lower  House  opened  the  avenue  to 
higher  honors  and  more  weighty  responsi- 
bilities. 

In  1859  he  was  elected  to  the  State  Senate, 
where  he  continuously  served  his  constitu- 
ency until  1867,  maintaining  the  reputation 
he  had  gained  in  the  LoM'er  House  for  ability 
and  the  faithful  performance  of  duty,  and 
still  developing  a  capacity  for  a  wider  field 
of  operations. 


PROMINENT   MEN    OF   INDIANA. 


He  was  not  permitted  to  long  live  in  the 
home  life  which  he  so  much  enjoyed.  The 
able  and  faithful  manner  in  which  he  had 
discharged  his  duties  as  a  public  servant,  his 
common  sense  and  social  manner,  made  him 
i'riends  even  among  his  political  opponents, 
lie  bore  honors  conferred  upon  him  nobly 
but  meekly,  never  ceasing  to  gratefully  re- 
member those  to  whom  gratitude  was  due  for 
the  positions  of  honor  and  trust  to  which 
they  had  called  him. 

He  was  destined  to  spend  his  life  as  a 
public  servant.  His  fellow  citizens  again 
elected  him  to  the  State  Senate  in  1871,  and 
in  1874  he  was  again  crowned  with  higher 
honors,  and  was  elected  to  rejjresent  his  dis- 
trict in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States, 
where  he  displayed  the  same  ability  in  deal- 
ing with  public  questions  that  he  had  in  the 
legislative  body  of  his  State.  During  his 
term  in  Congress  he  served  in  tlie  impor- 
tant position  of  chairman  of  the  Committee 
on  Public  Accounts. 

He  was  a  prominent  and  leading  member 
of  the  Indiana  State  Board  of  Agriculture  for 
seventeen  years,  and  served  as  its  president 
for  three  years.  ISTo  one  citizen  of  Indiana 
was  more  deeply  interested  and  active  in  de- 
veloping and  promoting  the  agricultural  and 
other  industrial  resources  of  his  State  than 
lie.  One  leading  feature  of  his  ambition  was 
to  be  in  the  front  rank  of  progress,  and  to 
place  his  State  on  a  plane  with  the  sister 
States  of  the  prosperous  Union.  He  was 
equally  active  in  the  educational  interest  of  his 
fellow  citizens,  and  advocated  facilities  for 
diffusing  knowledge  among  the  masses,  plac- 
ing an  education  within  the  reach  of  children 
of  the  most  humble  citizen. 

He  gathered  happiness  while  promoting 
the  welfare  of  others,  and  step  by  step,  year 
by  year,  his  friends  increased  in  numbers 
und  warmed    in   devotion    to    their   trusted, 


faithful  and  grateful  servant.  He  was  rapid- 
ly growing  in  State  popularity,  as  he  had 
long  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  his  own  county 
and  district,  and  in  his  quiet,  unassuming 
way  was  building  larger  than  he  knew.  His 
plain  manner  of  dress,  commonly  "  blue 
jeans,"  caused  him  to  become  widely  known 
by  the  sobriquet  of  "  Blue  Jeans,"  of  which 
his  admirers  were  as  proud  as  M-ere  those  of 
"  Old  Hickory  "  as  applied  to  Andrew  Jack- 
son, or  "  Eough  and  Eeady  "  as  applied  to 
General  Zachariah  Taylor. 

The  civil  war  had  made  fearful  inroads  in 
party  lines;  the  public  questions  to  be  set- 
tled immediately  following  the  close  of  the 
war  involved  problems  which  many  leading 
men,  who  had  previously  acted  with  the 
Democratic  party,  could  not  solve  satisfacto- 
rily to  themselves  from  a  Democratic  stand- 
point; hence  they  cast  their  fortunes  with 
the  popular  party,  the  Eepublican. 

The  Democratic  party  had  been  impatient 
ly  but  energetically  seeking  State  supremacy. 
James  D.  Williams,  so  far  as  tried,  had  led 
the  column  to  success,  why  not  make  him 
their  Moses  to  lead  them  to  possess  the 
promised  land.  State  Supremacy? 

The  centennial  anniversary  of  American 
independence,  1876,  seemed  to  them  the  auspi- 
cious period  to  marshal  their  forces  under  an 
indomitable  leader  and  go  forth  to  conquer. 

They  accordingly  in  that  year  nominated 
the  Hon.  James  D.  "Williams  for  Governor, 
and  the  Eepublicans  nominated  General  Ben- 
jamin Harrison,  a  military  hero  and  a  lineal 
descendant  of  General  W.  II.  Harrison.  Tlie 
contest  will  stand  m  history  as  the  most  ex- 
citing campaign  In  the  political  history  of 
the  United  States,  and  resulted  in  the  elec- 
tion of  the  Democratic  leader.  His  services 
as  Governor  of  the  State  were  characteristic 
of  his  past  public  life.  He  died,  full  of  hon- 
ors, on  November  20,  1880. 


*^ 


y^^c^^A 


(a 


ROBERT    DALE    OWE  I,' 


1 


■fx>' 


M^^^^HHn^^r'T5-?:r^J??^?Hr^H--r^r^^r-'=^T^'7Tp7J;:j^ 


i  ^ROBERT  DALE  OWEN, }^ 


_^^.^^„^,^,^-^P-P„^^.^p,^,^^„^^^.^-.p.-j,^^  ^  J 


)OKING  outside  of  the 
realm  of  statesmen,  we 
find  that  the  most  emi- 
nent citizen  of  Indi- 
ana not  now  living 
^ci,'  ''  '-'^^-^"*  was  the  learned 
Scotchman  named  at  the  head  of 
this  sketch.     Eobert   Owen,  his 
father,  was  a   great   theorist  in 
social  and  religious  reforms.    He 
was  born  in  Newtown,  Montgom- 
eryshire, North  AVales,  March  14, 
1771,  where  he   died  November 
19,  1858. 

He  (the  father)  entered  npon  a 
commercial  life  at  an  early  age,  and  subse- 
quently engaged  in  the  cotton  manufacture 
at  New  Lanark,  Scotland,  where  he  introduced 
important  reforms,  having  for  their  object 
the  improvement  of  the  condition  of  tlie 
laborers  in  his  employ;  afterward  he  directed 
his  attention  to  social  questions  on  a  broader 
scale,  publishing  in  1812  "  New  Yiews  of 
Society,  or  Essays  upon  the  Formation  of  the 
Human  Character,"  and  subsequently  the 
"  Book  of  the  New  Moral  "World,' '  in  which 
he   advocated  doctrines   of  human  equality 


and  the  abolition  of  class  distinctions.  Hav- 
ing won  a  large  fortune  in  his  business,  he 
M-as  able  to  give  his  views  a  wide  circulation, 
and  his  followers  became  numerous;  but, 
being  outspoken  against  maiiy  of  the  gen- 
erally received  theological  dogmas  of  the 
time,  a  zealous  opposition  was  also  aroused 
against  him.  After  the  death  of  his  patron, 
the  Duke  of  Kent,  he  emigrated  to  this 
country,  in  1823,  and  at  his  own  expense 
founded  the  celebrated  communistic  society 
at  New  Harmony,  this  State.  The  scheme 
proving  a  failure  he  returned  to  England, 
where  he  tried  several  similar  experiments 
with  the  same  result;  but  in  spite  of  all  his 
failures  he  was  universally  esteemed  for  his 
integrity  and  benevolence.  His  later  years 
were  spent  in  efforts  to  promote  a  religion  of 
reason,  and  to  improve  the  condition  of  the 
working  classes. 

His  eldest  son,  the  subject  of  this  biographi- 
cal sketch,  was  born  in  Glasgow,  Scotland, 
November  7,  1801 ;  was  educated  at  Fellens- 
berg's  College,  near  Berne,  Switzerland ;  came 
with  his  father  to  the  United  States  in  1823, 
and  assisted  him  in  his  efforts  to  found  the 
colony  of  New  Harmony.     On  the  failure  of 


that  experiment  he  visited  France  and  Eng- 
land, but  returned  to  this  country  in  1827 
and  became  a  citizen.  In  1828,  in  partner- 
ship with  Miss  Frances  Wright,  he  founded 
"The  Free  Enquirer,"  a  weekly  journal  de- 
voted to  socialistic  ideas,  and  to  opposition  to 
the  supernatural  origin  and  claims  of  Chris- 
tianity. The  paper  was  discontinued  after 
an  existence  of  three  years.  In  1832  he 
married  Mary  Jane  Kobinson,  of  JS'ew  York, 
who  died  in  1871.  After  marriage  he  settled 
again  in  New  Harmony,  where  for  three  suc- 
cessive years  (1835-'38)  he  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Legislature.  It  was  through  his 
influence  that  one-half  of  the  surplus  revenue 
of  the  United  States  appropriated  to  the 
State  of  Indiana  was  devoted  to  the  support 
of  public  schools.  From  1843  to  1847  he 
represented  the  First  District  of  Indiana  in 
Congress,  acting  with  the  Democratic  party; 
took  an  active  paat  in  the  settlement  of  the 
northwestern  boundary  question,  serving  as 
a  member  of  the  committee  of  conference  on 
that  subject,  and  introduced  the  bill  organ- 
izing the  Smithsonian  Institute,  and  served 
for  a  time  as  one  of  the  regents.  In  1850  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Indiana  Constitutional 
Convention,  in  which  he  took  a  prominent 
part.  It  was  through  his  efforts  that  Indiana 
conferred  independent  property  rights  upon 
women.  In  1853  he  went  to  Naples,  Italy, 
as  United  States  Charge  cV Affaires,  and  from 
1855  to  1858  he  held  the  position  of  Min- 
ister. 

In  1860,  in  the  New  York  Tribune,  he 
discussed  the  subject  of  divorce  with  Horace 
Greeley,  and  a  pamphlet  edition  of  the  con- 
troversy afterward  obtained  a  wide  circula- 
tion. 

After  the  breaking  out  of  the  Rebellion, 
Mr.  Owen  was  a  warm  champion  of  the 
policy  of  emancipation,  and  the  letters  which 
he  addressed  to  members  of  the  cabinet  and 


the  President  on  that  subject  were  widely 
disseminated.  "When  the  proposition  was 
made  by  certain  influential  politicians  to 
reconstruct  the  Union  with  New  England 
<'  left  out  in  the  cold,"  Mr.  Owen  addressed 
a  letter  to  the  people  of  Indiana  exposing 
the  dangerous  character  of  the  scheme, 
which  the  Union  Leagues  of  New  York 
and  Philadelphia  published  and  circulated 
extensively.  In  1862  he  served  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Commisson  on  Ordnance  Stores, 
and  in  1863  was  Chairman  of  the  American 
Freedmen's  Commission,  which  rendered  val- 
uable service  to  the  country. 

Mr.  Owen  was  a  prominent  Spiritualist  in 
his  philosophical  views,  and  publislied  sev- 
eral remarkable  works  inculcating  them. 
His  mind,  in  his  later  years,  beginning  to 
totter,  he  was  often  too  credulous.  He  also 
published  many  other  works,  mostly  of  a 
political  nature.  To  enumerate:  he  pub- 
lished at  Glasgow,  in  1824,  "  Outlines  of 
System  of  Education  at  New  Lanark ;"  at  New 
York,  in  1831,  "Moral  Physiology;"  the 
next  year,  "Discussion  with  Origen  Bachelor 
on  the  Personality  of  God  and  the  Authentici- 
ty of  the  Bible;"  and  subsequently,  "Pocahon- 
tas," an  historical  drama;  "  Hints  on  Public 
Architecture,"  illustrated ;  "  Footfalls  on  the 
Boundary  of  Another  World,"  probably  his 
most  wonderful  work;  "The  Wrong  of  Slav- 
ery, and  the  Right  of  Freedom;"  "Beyond 
the  Breakers,"  a  novel;  "The  Debatable 
Land  between  this  World  and  the  Next," 
and  "Threading  My  Way,"  an  autobiography. 

The  giant  intellect  of  Mr.  Owen  being 
linked  to  a  large  and  tender  heart,  his  sym- 
pathies were  constantly  rasped  by  witnessing 
the  boundless  but  apparently  needless  amount 
of  sufi'ering  in  the  world,  and  chafed  by 
the  opposition  of  conservatism  to  all  efforts 
at  alleviation,  so  that  in  old  age  he  was  liter- 
ally worn  out.     He  died  at  an  advanced  age. 


I 


ENERAL   k 

.  — Jii.' 


j.^^^ 


m 


m 


%^^^^^^ 


I  STORY. 


TOPOGRAPHY 


EKMILLION,  spelled 
witli  two  Z's,  is  from  the 
French  vermilion, 
spelled  with  one  Z,  and  signi- 
iies,  according  to  "Webster,  "  a 
bright  red  sulplmret  of  mercury, 
^'  consisting  of  sixteen  parts  of  sul- 
^\  phur  and  one  hundred  parts  of 
mercury."  This  substance,  he 
remarks,  is  sometimes  found  na- 
^  tive,  of  a  red  or  brown  color,  and 
is  then  called  cinnabar.  Used  as 
a  pigment.  The  word  is  a  literal 
translation  of  the  Miami  Indian 
word  pe-auk-e-shaw,  which  was  given  to  the 
Vermillion  Eivers  on  account  of  the  red  earth 
or  "keel"  found  along  their  banks.  This 
substance  was  produced  by  the  burning  of  the 
shale  overlying  the  outcrops  of  coal,  the  latter 
igniting  from  tlie  autumnal  tires  set  by  the 
aborigines.  From  the  rivers  the  county  was 
named. 

The  position  which  Vermillion  County  oc- 
cupies in  the  world  can  best  be  indicated  by 
describing  the  geodesic  situation  of  Newport, 


the  county  seat,  which  is  near  the  middle  of 
the  county.  This  point  is  39°  55'  north  of 
the  ecjuator  of  the  earth,  and  therefore  the 
north  star  appears  to  the  observer  here  at  that 
angle  above  the  horizon.  Newport  is  also 
87°  10'  west  longitude  from  Greenwich  (Lon- 
don, England),  and  railroad  standard  time, 
which  is  here  conformed  to  that  of  tlie 
ninetieth  meridian,  is  about  eleven  minutes 
slower  than  local,  or  sun-time.  Newport 
is  also  about  520  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
ocean,  and  fifty  feet  above  the  low- water  mark 
of  the  Wabash  River  opposite. 

The  beautiful,  picturesque  scenery  of  Ver- 
million County,  Indiana,  is  equal  to  that  of 
any  otlier  in  the  State.  The  modest  mean- 
derings  of  the  classic  old  "Wabash,  which  ever 
and  anon  are  hiding  their  silvery  waters  away 
amid  the  luxurious  foliage  of  the  forest  trees, 
give  to  its  eastern  border  a  lineal  presenta- 
tion of  romantic  beauty  such  as  attracts 
universal  attention,  while  the  long  range  of 
bench  hills  which  skirt  the  western  boi-der  of 
this  garden  valley  throw  along  its  railroad 
line  a  continued  display  of  panoramic  rural 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


beauty  wliich  even  without  any  coloring, 
might  be  termed  "  the  lovely  valley  of  the 
West."  Tlie  county,  stretching  its  narrow 
length  along  the  river  for  thirty-seven  miles, 
is  wholly  made  up  of  beautiful  scenery. 

All  the  minor  streams  draining  Vermillion 
County  ai-e  of  course  tributary  to  the  Wabash, 
and  most  of  them  have  a  general  southeasterly 
direction.  Spring  Brancli,  or  Creek,  flows 
southwesterly  through  the  northeast  corner 
of  Highland  Township.  Coal  Brancli  flows 
south  near  the  western  border.  Big  Yer- 
niillion  River  winds  southeasterly  through 
the  sonthwest  corner  of  Highland  and  the 
northern  portion  of  Eugene.  Little  Vermill- 
ion River  wends  its  way  through t  he  south- 
western corner  of  Eugene,  and  empties  into 
the  Wabash  near  the  middle  of  the  east  side 
of  Vermillion  Township.  Jonathan  Creek, 
in  the  western  part  of  Vermillion  Township, 
flows  northeasterly  into  the  Little  Vermill- 
ion. Bi-ouillet's  (pronounced  in  American 
style,  IvH-lefs)  Creek  is  wholly  in  Clinton 
Township,  running  at  first  southeasterly  and 
then  east,  into  the  Wabash;  and  the  Little 
Raccoon  Creek,  in  Helt  Township,  runs 
southeasterly,  rather  toward  the  northeastern 
corner  of  the  township,  into  the  Wabash  be- 
tween Highland  and  Alta. 

GEOLOGY. 
From  one-fourth  to  one-third  of  Vermillion 
Connty  consists  of  the  rich  bottoms  and  ter- 
races of  the  valleys  of  the  Wabash  and  its 
affluents,  the  Big  and  Little  Vermillion 
Rivers  and  Norton's  Creek.  The  main  ter- 
race, or  "  second  bottom,"  is  especially  de- 
veloped in  the  region  between  Perrysv'ille 
and  Newport,  a  fact  probably  resulting  from 
the  combined  action  of  the  two  main  tributa- 
ries in  this  county.  The  terrace  is  from  one 
to  four  miles  wide,  furnishing  a  broad  stretch 
of  rich,  well  drained  farming  lands,  having 


an  average  elevation  of  about  forty  feet  above 
the  present  (or  "  first")  bottoms.  Below 
Newport  the  blnfts  approach  the  r-iver  so 
closely  that  the  terrace  is  nearly  obliterated, 
and  the  immediate  bottoms  become  very  nar- 
row. At  the  mouth  of  Little  Raccoon  Creek 
the  bottoms  are  considerably  widened;  but 
the  terrace  has  no  considerable  extent  until 
we  reach  the  head  of  Helt  Prairie,  about  si.x 
miles  north  of  Clinton,  whence  it  stretches 
southward,  with  an  average  width  of  one  to 
three  miles.  About  three  miles  below  Clin- 
ton it  narrows  again  as  we  approach  the 
month  of  Brouillet's  Creek  and  the  county 
line. 

At  the  first  settlement  of  the  country  the 
bottoms  were  heavily  timbered,  but  a  large 
proportion  of  the  terrace  was  devoid  of  tim- 
ber. We  are  scarcely  permitted  to  believe 
that  these  timberless  tracts  were  originally 
prairie,  as,  on  account  of  their  nature  and 
fav^orable  situation,  we  should  presume  tluit 
they  were  grounds  cleared  and  cultivated  hy 
the  same  aboriginal  race,  possibly  the  Mound- 
Builders,  for  mounds  abound  in  this  region, 
and  the  annual  tires  prevented  a  re-occupation 
by  trees  or  shrubbery. 

Rising  from  the  upper  bottom  lands  we 
find  bhiffs,  more  or  less  abrupt,  which  attain 
a  general  level  of  120  to  130  feet  above  the 
river,  and  form  the  slightly  elevated  border 
of  Grand  Prairie.  The  most  gradual  ascent 
is  to  the  westward  from  Perrysville,  favorable 
for  the  construction  of  the  present  railroad. 
South  of  the  Big  Vermillion  the  blufl's  are 
much  steeper,  where  a  moderate  grade  for  a 
railroad  can  be  found  only  by  tracing  one  of 
the  smaller  streams.  These  blufts,  being  too 
steep  for  cultivation,  are  still  covered  with 
timber,  which  consists  principally  of  oak, 
hickory,  maple  and  walnut,  and  toward  the 
soutiiern  end  of  the  county,  beech.  In  many 
of  the  ravines,  and  along  the  foot  of  the  blufl's. 


■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■.■^■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■"■"^Hi 


INTRODUCTORY. 


185 


there  are  large  groves  of  sugar  maple.  Near 
the  principal  streams  this  timbered  region 
extends  westward  to  the  State  line.  The 
nortliern  and  middle  portions  of  the  county 
are  in  great  part  a  portion  of  the  Grand 
Prairie,  which  covers  all  eastern  Illinois,  from 
the  forest  of  the  Little  Wabash  to  Lake  Mich- 
igan. 

Yermillion  County  is  singularly  blessed 
with  spj-ings,  bursting  forth  from  below  the 
boulder  clay  of  the  drift  period.  Some  of 
these  springs  are  very  strong. 

The  alluvium  of  the  river  bottoms  have  the 
common  features  of  river  deposits.  A'egetable 
remains  are  mingled  with  find  sand  and  mud 
washed  from  the  drift  beds  higher  up  the 
streams,  and  occasional  deposits  of  small 
stones  and  gravel,  derived  either  from  the 
drift  or  from  the  rock  formations  into  which 
the  rivers  have  cut  their  winding  ways.  The 
only  definite  knowledge  obtained  as  to  the 
depth  of  these  beds  refers  to  the  prairie  be- 
tween Eugene  and  Perrysville,  where  wells 
have  been  sunk  si.vty  feet  through  alluvial 
sand,  and  then  encountered  six  to  ten  feet 
of  a  soft,  sticky,  blui.h  mud  filled  with  leaves, 
twigs  and  trunks  of  trees,  and  occasionally 
small  masses  of  what  appears  to  have  been 
stable  manure.  This  stratum  is  sometimes 
called  "Noah's  Barnyard."  The  lake-bottom 
deposits,  of  corresponding  age,  which  com- 
monly underlie  the  soil  of  the  Grand  Prairie, 
have  been  found  west  of  the  State  line,  con- 
sisting of  marly-clays  and  brick-clay  subsoil, 
and  probably  exist  equally  under  such  por- 
tions of  the  prairie  as  extend  into  this  county. 

Tiiere  are  several  very  good  gravel  beds  in 
the  county,  principally  developed  since  the 
building  of  the  railroads. 

The  boulder-clay  referred  to  above,  which 
forms  the  mass  of  the  drift  formation,  is  a 
tough,  bluish  drab,  unlaminated  clay,  more 
or  less  thoroughly  filled  with  fine  and   coarse 


gravel,  and  including  many  small  boulders. 
On  the  bluff  west  of  Perrysville  this  bed  was 
penetrated  to  a  depth  of  about  100  feet  before 
reaching  the  water-bearing  quicksand  com- 
monly found  beneath  it.  Out-crops  of  110 
feet  have  been  measured,  and  the  bed  very 
probably  attains  a  thickness  of  125  feet  or 
more  where  it  has  not  been  worn  away.  It 
is  much  thinner  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
county.  From  the  difference  in  character  of 
the  included  boulders  at  different  levels,  we 
are  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  currents 
which  brought  the  materials  composing  these 
beds  flowed  in  different  directions  at  diilerent 
times. 

Illustrating  the  above  remarks  we  give  a 
section  from  a  brancli  of  Johnson's  Creek,  in 
Eugene  Township:  Boulder  clay,  with  peb- 
bles of  Silurian  limestone  and  trap,  thirty  feet; 
yellow  clay,  with  fragments  of  coal,  shale, 
sand-stone,  etc.,  four  inches;  boulder  clay, 
with  pebbles  of  Silurian  limestone,  twenty- 
live  feet;  ferruginous  sand,  a  streak;  boulder 
clay  from  the  northwest,  with  pebbles  of  va- 
rious metamorphic  rocks  and  trap,  and 
nuggets  of  native  copper,  fifty  feet. 

The  section  of  rocks  exposed  at  the  Horse- 
shoe of  the  Little  Vermillion  exhibits  the 
following  strata:  Black,  slaty  shale;  coal, 
two  and  a  half  to  four  feet;  fire-clay  and  soft- 
clay  shales,  with  iron-stones,  fifteen  feet; 
argillaceous  (clayey)  limestone,  one  to  two 
feet;  dark  drab  clay  shale,  one  foot;  coal,  four 
to  live  feet;  light-colored  fire-clay,  two  f<.et; 
dark-colored  lire-clay,  one  foot;  soft,  drab 
shale,  with  iron-stones,  ten  to  fifteen  feet; 
fossiliferous,  l)lack  slaty  shale,  often  pyritous, 
with  many  large  iron-stone  nudides,  two  to 
three  feet. 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  boulders  and 
pebbles  of  these  beds,  especially  those  con- 
sisting of  limestone  and  the  metamorphic 
rocks,  are  finely  polished  and  striated  on  one 


HISTORY    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


or  more  of  their  sides,  showing  the  power  of 
the  forces  which  were  engaged  in  their  trans- 
portation from  their  original  beds.  Nuggets 
of  galena  (suljihide  of  lead)  and  of  native 
copper  are  occasionally  met  with,  and  have 
had  the  usual  effect  of  exciting  the  imagina- 
tions of  those  who  are  ignorant  of  the  fact 
that  the  rocks  which  contain  these  metals  do 
not  occur  nearer  than  the  galena  region  of 
Nortliern  Illinois. 

The  "coal  measures,"  as  given  in  the  para- 
graph preceding  the  last,  furnish  the  only 
rock  formations  to  be  found  in  the  county. 
There  seem  to  be  no  outcrop  of  beds  overlying 
this  section.  The  first,  or  uppermost,  vein  of 
coal  is  covered  by  a  few  feet  of  soil  only. 
The  argillaceous  limestone  below  it  is  very 
thinly  laminated,  being  mingled  with  much 
clay;  but  the  shales  covering  the  next  vein 
constitute  a  fair  working  roof. 

The  sandy  iron-stones  areinteresting  to  the 
fossil  hunter,  as  they  contain  numerous  frag- 
mentary remains  of  lishes,  insects,  etc.  Fos- 
siliferous  strata  of  an  interestiiig  character 
continue  exposed  along  the  Little  Veriuillion 
to  its  mouth  and  down  the  Wabash.  Out- 
crops of  the  above  mentioned  strata  are  found 
along  the  principal  streams  throughout  the 
county. 

In  ascending  the  Big  Vermillion  we  find 
on  its  south  bank,  a  mile  below  Eugene,  a 
bluff  of  banks  of  from  twenty-tive  to  thirty 
feet  of  irregularly  bedded,  highly  ferruginous, 
coarse-grained  sandstone,  often  containing 
comminuted  plant  remains,  with  some  large 
fragments  of  trees,  etc.  Some  of  the  beds 
are  sutticiently  solid  to  make  good  building 
stone.  In  quarrying  them  many  fine  trunks 
and  branches  of  Lepidodendron  and  Sigillaria 
have  been  found,  with  a  few  fruits  of  Trig- 
onocarpum.  In  the  vicinity  are  some  fine 
large  stems  of  Syringodendron  Porteri. 

Wells  sunk  below  the  limestone  at  Perrys- 


ville,  to  a  reported  depth  of  ninety  feet,  are 
said  to  have  encountered  no  coal;  but  coal 
may  be  found  in  the  vicinity,  in  consequence 
of  the  irregular  dip  of  the  strata. 

Good  coal  underlies  most  of  the  surface  of 
Vermillion  County,  and  is  now  mined  abun- 
dantly at  various  points.  A  total  thickness 
of  eight  feet  would  probably  be  a  small 
enough  estimate  for  the  coal  underlying  every 
square  mile  of  the  county.  Since  the  advent 
of  railroads  many  large  coal  mines  have  been 
opened  and  worked,  although  some  have  been 
wholly  or  in  part  abandoned,  either  on  account 
of  competition  in  other  parts  of  the  country 
or  of  finding  better  mines  in  the  vicinity. 

The  principal  iron  ore  found  in  the  county 
is  an  impure  carbonate,  occurring  in  nodules 
and  irregular  layers  or  bands.  These  nodules 
once  were  supplied  to  a  furnace  on  Brouillet's 
Creek,  where  they  yielded  thirty-tliree  per 
cent,  of  iron.  The  ore  in  the  county  varies 
from  twenty-five  to  forty-five  per  cent,  of 
iron.  Along  the  bottoms  of  Norton's  Creek, 
near  the  head  of  Plelt's  Prairie,  a  bed  of  bog 
iron  ore,  said  to  be  three  feet  thick  and  cov- 
ering six  to  eight  acres,  has  been  discovered. 

Zinc  blende  (sulphide  of  zinc),  frequently 
occurs,  in  small  quantities,  in  the  cracks  and 
cavities  of  some  of  the  iron-stone  nodules. 
Its  appearance  at  one  place  on  the  Little 
Vermillion  gave  rise  to  the  so-called  "  Silver 
Mine." 

The  second  bottoms,  or  terrace  prairies,  in 
Vermillion  County,  in  order  from  the  north, 
are  named  Walnut  Mound,  Eugene  or  Sand, 
Newport  and  Kelt's.  The  soil  is  a  black, 
sandy  loam,  producing  the  richest  crops. 
These  terraces  comprise  about  three-tenths  of 
the  county,  and  are  from  tliirty-five  to  sixty- 
five  feet  above  low-water  mark,  while  the 
higher  portions  of  the  county  are  from  250 
to  270  feet  above  low- water. 

Says  Professor  Collett,   in   his  Geological 


INTRODUCTORY. 


Keport  for  1880:  "  Remains  of  the  maimnotli 
have  been  discovered  in  nearly  all  sections  of 
of  Indiana.  They  have  consisted,  as  a  rule, 
of  the  most  compact  bones  of  these  animals, 
as  the  teeth,  tusks,  jaws  and  thigh-bones. 
Some  of  the  best  preserved  teeth  of  the  mam- 
moth were  found  in  the  counties  of  Vigo, 
Parke,  Yermillion,  AVayne,  Putnam  and  Van- 
derbiirg.  Thirty  individual  specimens  of  the 
remains  of  the  mastodon  have  been  found  in 
tliis  State,"  etc. 

Reading  the  above  report  inspired  a  wag- 
gish son  of  the  Muse,  Judge  Buskirk,  formerly 
Attorney-General  of  the  State,  to  indict  the 
following  warning: 

It  thus  appears  that  Professor  Collett, 
Our  State  geologist 
And  paleontologist, 
Is  digging  up  for  his  learned  wallet 
Every  colossal 
Dirty  old  fossil 
In  the  shape  of  jaw-bones,  tusk  and  teeth. 
He  is  able  to  find  our  swamps  beneath. 
Handed  down  from  the  old  heroic 
Ages,  named  the  Paleozoic. 
When  he  strikes  a  huge  nasty  one 
Named  Giganteus  Mastodon, 


Or  in  the  beds  of  ancient  ponds 
Digs  up  big  Bison  latifrons, 
Or  an  Elephas  Americanus, 

And  others  the  name  of  which, 

Preserving  the  fame  of  which. 
To  pronounce  is  enough  to  cause  tetanus. 
It  seems  that  at  once,  with  his  fossil-stuffed 

wallet. 
Out  marches  the  palaeontologist  Collett, 

And  with  his  little  hammer 

And  scientific  grammar 
First  knocks  a  mammoth  tooth. 

To  put  into  his  grip-sack; 
Tlien  constructs  an  awful  name 

By  means  of  which  to  skip  back 
With  a  great  rhonchisouant  fury,  on 
The  epochs  carboniferous  and  Silurian. 

Now  allow  me  as  a  friend,  Professor  Collett, 
To  advise  you  to  put  up  your  learned  wallet. 
Until  the  present  Legislature  has  adjourned ; 
Or  else  by  misadventure  it  might  come  to  pass 
Some  day  you'd  strike  the  bones  of  a  mammoth 

ancient  ass ; 
And  when  by  the  Legislature  the  circumstance 

was  learned, 
At  once  you'd  feel  the  tempest  of  their  ire 
Roused  by  your  sacrilege  upon  their   ancient 

sire,  "^ 

And  straight  they'd  have  your  salary  in  no  fix,— 
Worse  than  you  ever  knocked  a  tooth  from  a 

Jeffersoni  Megalouyx. 


HISTORY    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


MOUND-BUILDERS. 


HE  following  sketches 
of  the  Mound-Builders, 
Indians,  etc.,  are  com- 
piled from  data  furnish- 
ed l>y  lion.  John  Collett. 
When  tirst  explored 
hy  the  white  race,  this  county 
was  occupied  by  savage  Indians, 
without  fi.xed  habitation,  averse 
to  labor  and  delighting  only 
in  war  and  the  cliase.  Their 
misty  traditions  did  not  reach 
i^^JX^^  Ji^  liack  to  any  previous  people 
or  age,  but  numerous  earth- 
works are  found  in  this  region 
of  such  extent  as  to  require  for 
their  construction  much  time  and  the  per- 
sistent labor  of  many  people.  Situated  on 
river  bluffs,  their  location  combines  pictur- 
esque scenery,  adaptability  for  defense,  con- 
venience for  transportation  by  water,  and 
productive  lands.  These  are  not  requisites 
in  the  nomadic  life  of  red  men,  and  identifies 
the  Mound-Builders  as  a  partially  civilized 
people.  Their  mounds  and  other  works  are 
ot  such  extent  tliat  it  required  years  of  labor. 


with  basket  and  shovel,  to  erect,  and  such  co- 
ordination of  labor  as  to  indicate  the  rule  of 
priestly  government  or  regal  authority;  they 
were  certainly  to  that  extent  civilized.  The 
vastness  of  their  work  indicates  a  large  com- 
munity of  people,  so  that  governments  were 
necessary,  which  must  have  had  civil  power 
to  request  and  require  the  necessary  labor. 
The  implements  found  in  the  graves,  mounds 
and  tombs,  were  more  often  domestic  and 
agricultural,  and  indicate  a  peaceful,  obedient 
race.  Tlieir  temples  were  defended  by  bul- 
warks of  loving  hearts  rather  than  by  warrior 
braves.  Many  of  the  religious  emblems  and 
articles  of  utility  made  of  stone,  point  back 
to  the  earliest  forms  of  sentiment  represented 
by  the  fire  and  sun  worshipers  of  Central 
Asia,  and  give  a  clue  to  the  reason  why  their 
favorite  habitations  and  mounds  were  as  a 
rule  never  placed  beneath  the  eastern  blufl's 
of  streams,  but  on  the  other  hand  were  so 
located  in  elevated  positions  or  on  the  west- 
ern bluifs,  that  when  the  timber  was  cleared 
away  and  the  land  reduced  to  cultivation,  a 
long  outlook  was  given  to  the  east  and  to  the 
sunrise,  from  which  direction  their  expected 


ABORIOINAL. 


Messiah  or  ruler  was  to  come.  Similar  cus- 
toms still  prevail  in  Mexico. 

Traditions  intimate  that  the  tribes  were 
driven  southward  from  the  northern  portion 
of  the  continent,  and  these  traditions  are  cor- 
roborated bj  the  discovery  of  relics  in  this 
region  made  from  material  found  only  far  to 
the  nortli. 

Clusters  of  mounds  are  found  in  Yermiil- 
ion  County  on  Mound  Prairie,  near  the 
Shelby  battle-ground,  and  nearly  all  along 
the  tract  between  Eugene  and  Newport,  many 
of  them  twenty  to  forty  feet  in  diameter, 
four,  five  or  six  feet  high,  and  the  clusters 
containing  from  ten  to  eigiity  mounds.  One 
memorable  mound  is  situated  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  town  of  Clinton,  from  which  earth 
was  removed  for  road  building  about  1830. 
In  it  were  found  stone  implements  of  the 
Mound-Builders,  accompanied  with  copper 
lieads,  five  copper  rods,  half  an  inch  in  diame- 
ter and  eighteen  inches  long,  showing  that  it 
■was  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  Mound-Builder's 
works,  whilst  they  were  also  accompanied 
with  other  implements  imported  from  the 
north. 

Another,  on  the  Head  farm  near  Newport, 
had  copper  rods  or  spear  heads  and  smaller 
stone  implements.  These  were  probably 
burial  mounds.  A  majority  of  them  con- 
tained no  relics,  but  were  simply  abandoned 
mounds  of  habitation.  Mr.  Pigeon  in  his 
volume  called  "  Dacoudah,"  says  he  noticed 
figured  mounds  of  men  and  beasts  on  the 
south  bank  of  the  Little  Vermillion,  three  or 
four  miles  from  its  mouth.  A  burial  mound 
near  the  northeast  corner  contains  a  chief  in 
a  sitting  position  at  the  center.  Radiating 
from  his  body  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel 
were  five  persons,  slaves  or  wives,  to  wait 
upon  him  in  the  other  world.  His  useful 
implements  for  the  other  world  were  a  great 
number  of  copper  beads,  from  a  half  inch   to 


an  inch  and  a  quarter  in  diameter,  seven 
copper  axes,  one  of  which  contained  unmelted 
virgin  silver  as  it  occurs  at  Lake  Superior, 
varying  in  weight  from  two  to  eight  pounds, 
and  seven  copper  rods,  (spear-heads),  with 
pots  and  crocks  containing  black  mold  as  if 
it  were  food.  The  streams  near  their  homes 
afforded  fish  for  food,  and  the  implements 
found  indicated  that  they  were  skilled  in 
handling  fish  spears  and  gigs.  The  soil  sur-* 
rounding  their  homes  was  always  the  choicest, 
with  the  addition  of  beautiful  and  engaging 
scenery.  The  relics  found  in  their  mounds 
show  that  in  their  more  northern  homes  in 
Wisconsin,  Minnesota  and  Michigan,  the 
common  northern  material,  the  striped  slate 
and  copper,  was  abundant.  In  Vermillion 
County  relics  of  this  character,  were  scarce 
and  precious,  if  not  holy.  At  more  southern 
points  striped-slate  implements  of  northern 
stone  are  very  rare,  while  the  precious  copper 
could  no  longer  be  used  in  implement-making, 
but  was  beaten  into  the  finest  of  sheets  and 
bent  over  ornamental  pendants.  All  these, 
and  the  customs  of  their  burial,  indicate  an 
Asiatic  origin,  and  prove  conclusively  that 
in  their  migration  to  this  region  they  pass  by 
more  northern  regions,  including  Lake  Su- 
perior. 

Afterward  the  northern  barbarian  came,  of 
an  intermediate  race  between  the  Mound- 
Builder  and  the  red  man.  The  Mound- 
Builders  were  driven  away  by  this  irruption, 
their  property  seized,  many  of  their  wives 
made  captive  and  adopted  by  the  new  people. 
Many  of  the  customs  of  the  old  people  conse- 
quently remained  with  the  new  comers,  and 
the  latter  also  deposited  their  dead  in  the  old 
mounds,  ovei'  the  remains  of  the  more  ancient 
people.  The  number  of  individuals  thus 
found  buried  together  number  from  five  to 
2,000  or  3,000.  Their  graves  and  relics  from 
the  tombs  are  the   only  story  of  their  lives. 


BISTORT    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


\\\ 


Throughout  all  these  a  deep  spirit  of  religious 
devotion  is  indicated,  as  well  as  a  belief  in 
the  existence  of  another  world,  and  that  im- 
plements of  a  domestic  nature  were  necessary 
to  the  comfort  of  the  departed. 

On  the  Moore  farm,  three  miles  nortliwest 
of  Eugene,  Mr.  Zeke  Sheward,  in  making  an 
underground  "  dug-out,"  for  the  storing  of 
vegetables,  on  a  small  mound  surrounded  by 
giants  of  the  original  forest,  found  at  a  depth 
of  three  feet,  and  at  least  one  foot  below  the 
surface  of  the  surrounding  soil,  some  pieces 
of  metal  about  the  size  of  a  teaspoon  handle, 
and  one  coin.  On  analysis  they  were  found 
to  be  made  of  lead,  antimony  and  tin.  The 
coin  had  in  relief  easily  identified  figures  of 
a  worshiped  crocodile  of  Egypt  or  a  holy 
water-dog  of  America,  and  word  characters 
much  resembling  those  of  China  or  Ilindo- 
stan.  Prof.  W.  D.  Wiiitney,  of  Yale  College, 
one  of  the  most  thorough  linguists  of  America, 
believed  the  characters  to  be  Arabic,  but  of  so 
ancient  a  date  that  the  Oriental  Society  was 
unable  to  read  them.  The  director  of  the 
British  Museum  in  London  determined  them 
to  be  ancient  Hindostanee,  but  of  so  ancient 
a  date  that  no  scholar  in  England  could  read 
the  inscription.  Trees  and  their  remains 
indicate  an  age  of  over  2,000  years  for  these 
mounds. 

In  March,  1880,  while  a  company  of  gravel- 
road  workers  were  excavating  gravel  from 
the  bank  on  the  ridge  at  the  southwest  corner 
of  the  Newport  fair-ground,  live  human 
skeletons  were  found,  supposed  to  be  tlie 
remains  of  fndians  buried  at  that  point  in  an 
early  day.  In  the  gravel  bank  along  the 
railroad,  at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  fair- 
ground, another  skeleton  was  found.  No 
implements  of  war  were  found  with  the  bones, 
but  ashes  were  perceivable,  which  would  indi- 
cate that  they  were  the  remains  of  Indians. 
Aftei'  burying  the  dead  it  was  their  custom, 


in  some  parts  of  the  country,  to  build  a  fire 
over  the  corpse.  Many  of  the  skeletons  thus 
discovered,  as  well  as  a  large  portion  of  the 
bones  of  the  lower  animals,  on  exposure  to 
the  air  crumble  away  so  easily  that  it  becomes 
impossible  to  preserve  them  for  exhibition. 

A  collection  of  a  dozen  skeletons  shows,  by 
measurements  of  the  thigh  l)ones  found,  that 
the  warriors,  including  a  few  women,  average 
over  six  feet  and  two  inches  in  height. 
Without  animals  for  transportation,  their 
bones  were  made  wonderfully  strong  by  the 
constant  carrying  of  heavy  burdens,  and  their 
joints  heavily  articulated,  and  the  troclianters 
forming  the  attachments  of  muscles  show 
that  they  were  a  race  not  only  of  giant  stature 
but  also  of  more  than  giant  strength. 

Manyj-elics  from  these  mounds,  as  well  as 
from  the  surface  of  the  earth  elsewhere,  have 
been  collected  by  old  resident  physicians  and 
others,  especially  Professor  John  Collett,  late 
State  Geologist,  and  Josephus  Collett;  and 
an  interesting  museum  may  here  and  there 
be  found  presenting  great  variety  of  arrow 
points,  spear-heads,  stone  axes,  tomahawks, 
pestles,  mortars,  aboriginal  pottery,  pipes, 
ornaments,  bones  of  Indian  skeletons,  etc. 
These  collections  also  generally  include  an 
odd  variety  of  geological  and  anatomical 
specimens. 

INDIANS. 
At  the  advent  of  the  wbite  man  to  the 
Wabash  Valley,  the  Indians  had  ceased  from 
their  long  warfare  and  were  living  in  a  state 
of  quietude.  They  had  no  fixed  villages  or 
places  of  residence.  For  a  few  months 
their  homes  were  at  some  point  for  summer, 
and  at  another  location  for  winter;  and  their 
wigwams,  made  of  deer-skins  and  bufi'alo 
hides,  could  be  easily  removed,  or  be  suljsti- 
tuted  by  others  made  from  the  bark  of  trees. 
Many  of    the    older   settlers    can    remember 


1i^ 

I 


seeing  trees  the  bark  of  which  had  beeu  torn 
off  in  zigzag  fashion  seven  or  eight  feet  from 
the  ground  for  the  construction  of  wigwams. 
All  along  the  banks  of  creeks  and  rivers  were 
circular  fire  holes  in  which  they  cooked  their 
food,  and  at  night  would  sleep  upon  the 
ground  with  their  feet  hanging  down  in  the 
warm  places  thus  made. 

The  Wabash  River  was  by  them  called 
Wahbahshikka;  by  the  French,  Ouabache; 
the  Vermillion  was  called  Osanamon,  but  by 
the  French  a  name  which  signifies  Yellow, 
lied  or  Vermillion  afterward  translated  into 
English  as  Yellow  Kiver. 

The  Miamis  occupied  a  portion  of  the 
county,  but  their  general  territory  was  east 
of  the  AValjash.  They  were  a  tall  straight 
race,  of  handsome  countenance, — especially 
the  girls — brave  and  terrible  as  enemies, 
kind  and  faithful  as  friends,  and  chivalrous  in 
disposition. 

The  Kickapoos,  or  Mosquitans,  originally 
from  the  north  and  northwest,  occupied  the 
regions  south  and  southwest  of  the  Big  Ver- 
million River,  but  occasionally,  by  comity  of 
neighbors,  camped  for  a  greater  or  less  time 
north  of  the  Vermillion,  on  their  neighbor's 
territory.  The  Pottawatomies,  also  of  north- 
ern origin,  owned  the  territory,  and  their 
rights  were  recognized  by  the  Government  in 
treaties.  The  county  was  at  times  the  home 
of  each  of  these  tribes,  who  at  the  zenith  of 
their  power  had  their  headquarters  at  the 
Big  Springs,  a  half  rnile  south  of  Eugene, 
and  the  place  was  known  among  the  whites 
as  Springfield.  There  the  councils  of  their 
confederacy  were  lield,  decisions  as  to  wars 
and  other  difficulties  determined,  the  great 
treaty  with  the  British  merchants  made,  and 
the  Governor  of  Virginia  took  possession  of 
immense  tracts  of  land  on  the  Lower  Wabash. 
Many  of  the  early  settlers,  as  Esquire  James 
Armour.  Samuel  Groenendyke,  Sr.,  and  Irvin 


Uigby,  can  recollect  meetings  held  there 
comprising  800  to  1,000  individuals.  The 
Bottawatomies  were  of  a  rather  subdued  dis- 
position, somewhat  stoop-shouldered  and  of 
unpleasant  countenance;  the  Kickapoos,  on 
the  other  hand,  were  a  warlike  race,  quarrel- 
some in  disposition,  addicted  to  controversy 
and  happy  only  in  giving  and  receiving 
blows. 

It  is  believed  that  the  early  explorers  and 
the  French  missionaries  passed  down  or  up 
the  Wabash  as  early  as  1702, — or  even  as 
early  as  1670.  The  missionaries,  being 
Jesuits,  were  very  successful  by  their  winning 
methods  in  making  converts  among  tlie  sav- 
ages. Near  the  Indian  village  on  section  16, 
township  17  north,  9  west,  on  cutting  down 
a  white  oak  tree,  the  rings  of  growth  over  the 
scar  made  by  a  white  man's  ax  showed  that 
the  incision  was  made  not  later  than  1720. 

In  1790,  or  later,  General  Hamtramck  led 
an  expedition  of  Indiana  volunteers  and 
militia  from  Vincennes  to  attack  the  non- 
aggressive  Indians  and  their  village  on  the 
Shelby  farm  near  the'  mouth  of  the  Vermill- 
ion. These  were  the  remnants  of  tlie  now 
weakened  Pottawatomie  and  Kickapoo  tribes. 
This  was  their  favorite  camping  ground;  the 
confluence  of  tiie  rivers  gave  them  opportu- 
nities for  taking  fish,  which  were  then  very 
abundant;  the  adjoining  terrace  lands  were 
filled  M'ith  thousands  of  the  greatest  variety 
of  plum  bushes  and  grape-vines,  and  it  was 
known  as  the  great  plum  patch.  The  expe- 
dition, in  two  columns,  crossed  the  Indian 
ford  at  Eugene,  just  north  of  the  present 
mill-dam,  where  stepping  stones  were  placed 
for  crossing  the  stream  at  low  water.  Thence 
they  marched  in  a  circuitous  manner  to  at- 
tack the  village  in  the  rear,  when  the  direct 
division  should  attack  it  at  the  same  time 
from  the  south.  The  warriors  and  braves 
were  off  on  a  hunting  expedition,  and  there 


were  none  to  molest  or  make  afraid  these 
"gallant"  soldiers  except  the  broken-down 
old  men,  the  women  and  tlie  children,  and 
these  were  unmercifnlly  slaughtered  in  the 
coldest  of  cold  blood!  It  is  not  a  matter  of 
wonder,  therefore,  that  the  Indians  of  this 
region  snbseqnently  took  part  in  the  battles 
of  Fallen  Timbers  and  Tippecanoe. 

A  portion  of  the  Indians  of  this  county 
became  connected  with  the  confederacy  that 
fought  the  battle  of  Fallen  Timbers  near  Fort 
Recovery,  Ohio,  and  participated  in  the 
treaty  of  Greenville,  which  they  tried  to  ob- 
serve; but  later  a  smaller  division  of  tliem 
were  compelled  to  join  the  confederacy  of 
Tecumseh  at  Tippecanoe.  i 

La  Chappelle  is  tlie  name  of  the  tirst  j 
French  trading  post  established  at  the  Ver- 
million village,  near  Hamtramck's  battle 
ground,  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  33, 
18  north,  9  west,  by  M.  Laselle,  fatlier  of 
Hon.  Charles  Laselle,  one  of  the  distinguish- 
ed lawyers  of  Logansport,  this  State.  Another 
trading  post  was  subsequently  established  by 
an  Englishman  on  the  John  Collett  farm, 
sections  9  and  16.  It  was  the  custom  of  the 
French  traders  here  to  strike  small  lead 
medals,  in  siz3  a  little  less  than  a  silver  quar- 
ter of  a  dollar,  with  a  few  figures  and  initial 
letters  upon  them,  and  tack  them  upon  trees 
at  the  mouths  of  the  tributaries  claimed,  as  a 
sign  of  possession. 

The  Indians  of  the  southern  end  of  tlie 
county  did  their  trading  at  stockades  in  Sul- 
livan and  Kno.x  counties.  Among  the  earliest 
traders  were  two  brothers.  Frenchmen,  named 
I3rouillet,  which  was  generally  pronounced 
by  the  Americans,  Bruriet.  For  some  reason 
the  Indians  of  that  region  entertained  a  strong 
enmity  toward  one  of  these  brothers.  He 
was  captured  and  brought  to  their  village, 
near  the  mouth  of  a  creek  south  of  Clinton, 
tiiat   now    liears   liis   name.     At  once  it  was 


decided  to  burn  him  at  the  stake;  and  to  the 
stake  he  was  fastened,  with  buckskin  thongs. 
After  the  men  had  ceased  talking,  the  squaws, 
according  to  Indian  custom,  had  a  right  to 
be  heard.  An  aged  squaw,  who  had  had  a 
son  killed  in  warfare,  demanded  the  right  to 
adopt  the  prisoner  as  a  substitute  for  her  lost 
son;  and,  whilst  this  privilege  was  generally 
granted,  on  this  occasion  the  demand  was 
refused,  although  she  pleaded  earnestly  ainl 
long.  In  her  wild  but  heroic  determination, 
she  seized  a  butcher-knife,  and  before  any  one 
could  interfere,  cut  the  prisoner  loose,  pointed 
to  a  canoe  on  the  sandy  shore  of  the  Wabash, 
and  told  liim  to  run  and  save  his  life  if  he 
could.  He  did  run.  Pushing  the  canoe  out 
into  the  water  as  far  as  possible,  and  giving 
it  directive  force  toward  the  middle  of  the 
river  he  sprang  aboard,  and, lying  flat  in  its 
bottom,  paddled  it  into  the  stream  ))eyond 
the  reach  of  the  Indians'  rifles  and  escaped. 
This  incident  gave  name  to  Brouillet's  Creek. 

The  Brouillets  took  wives  from  the  Miami 
tribe.  The  wife  of  the  elder  Brouillet  be- 
longed to  a  family  in  the  line  of  promotion 
to  the  chieftianship.  On  his  death  the  mother 
returned  to  her  people,  and  the  children  were 
entitled,  according  to  Indian  law,  to  her  jjropei- 
home  and  position  among  her  people.  Her 
eldest  son  grew  up  an  athletic  and  vigorous 
young  man,  and  became  one  of  the  chiefs  of 
the  Miamis.  He  was  equitable  in  his  deal- 
ings, and  energetic  in  his  duties,  and  chival- 
rous as  a  commander.  His  prudence  served 
to  avoid  in  a  great  measure  any  difiiculties 
with  his  wliite  neighbors,  wlio  were  constantly 
encroaching  upon  his  territory  and  often  in- 
flicting injustice  upon  his  people.  Frequently 
the  young  men  desired  to  avenge  their 
wrongs,  but  he  was  able  to  prevent  the  butch- 
ering episodes  of  Indian  warfare  and  retalia- 
tion. 

loseidius     Collett,     Sr.,     after    sm 


ABORIGINAL. 


through  the  then  swampy  grounds  of  Hen- 
dricks and  Montgomery  Counties,  found  that 
his  camp  was  without  sufficient  provisions, 
and  all,  including  himself,  were  more  or  less 
sick.  On  the  return  march  of  Harrison's 
army  to  Fort  Harrison,  now  Terre  Haute,  he 
directed  the  others  to  go  on  and  secure  food, 
and  leave  him  on  the  bank  of  Raccoon  Creek 
in  a  little  tent.  Chief  Brouillet  came  to  him, 
offered  his  services  to  kill  game  and  to  dress 
and  cook  it  for  him,  and  to  care  for  him,  M'hich 
he  did  as  carefully  and  gently  as  could  a 
woman.  Fifty  years  afterward,  when  an  old 
man  of  eighty,  Mr.  Collett  only  could  recall 
the  scene  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  and  declared 
that  Chief  Brouillet  was  the  best  looking 
man  that  ever  trod  the  banks  of  the  Wabash, 
and  was  as  kind  hearted  as  he  was  brave. 

In  the  march  to  Tippecanoe,  the  confeder- 
ate Indians  had  prepared  an  ambuscade  for 
Harrison's  army  at  the  narrow  pass  between 
the  high  rocky  bluffs  and  the  Wabash  River, 
at  Vicksburg,  near  Ferrysville.  The  army 
forded  the  river  near  Montezuma  and  marched 
up  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  and  thus 
avoided  that  ambuscade.  They  crossed  the 
Little  Vermillion  near  the  present  railroad 
bridge,  passed  up  the  hollow  just  back  of 
Joe  Morehead's  residence.  Remnants  of 
their  corduroy  bridge  may  be  seen  in  the 
miry  bottom  of  Spring  Branch,  near  the  brick 
house  on  the  Head  farm.  On  that  march  the 
useless  shooting  of  a  gun  was  prohibited, and 
even  loud  talking,  under  penalty  of  death. 
Judge  Naylor,  of  Crawfordsville,  who  was 
one  of  the  volunteers,  tells  the  incident  that 
on  Oak  Island,  on  S.  S.  CoUett's  farm,  a 
frightened  deer  jumped  over  the  outer  rank 
of  men,  and  finding  himself  hemmed  in,  ran 
in  various  directions  over  the  enclosed  space; 
and,  although  the  soldiers  needed  fresh  meat, 
they  were  not  permitted  to  shoot  the  animal. 
It  was  allowed  to  get  away  in  safety.     On 


the  two  spring  branches  on  the  John  Collett 
farm,  sections  9  and  16,  corduroy  roads  may 
be  seen  to  this  day. 

The  army  marched  as  close  to  the  river 
bank  as  possible  for  the  protection  of  the 
pirogues  and  keel-boats,  which  carried  corn 
for  their  horses  and  provisions  for  the  men. 
Spies  reported  that  on  account  of  low  water, 
further  navigation  was  impracticable  at  Coal 
Creek  bar.  The  boats  were  landed  near 
where  Gardner's  old  ferry  was  once  estab- 
lished, on  the  John  Collett  farm,  until  a 
reconnoisance  could  be  made  and  a  site  for  a 
stockade  reconnoisance  could  be  selected. 
It  was  determined  to  build  the  stockade  on 
the  farm  of  the  late  J.  W.  Forter,  at  a  point 
known  as  Porter's  eddy,  and  that  it  should 
partially  overhang  the  river  so  as  to  protect 
the  boats  and  their  stores.  Such  a  fqrt  could 
usually  have  been  built  in  one  day,  but  in  the 
bnstle  and  hurry  of  handling  they  lost  half 
their  axes  in  the  water.  One  of  these  was  a 
long  time  afterward  found,  and  it  was  con- 
sidered curious  that  a  new  axe,  unused,  and 
mounted  with  an  unused  handle,  should  be 
found  tliere,  nntil  Judge  Naylor  explained 
the  fact  that  many  axes  were  there  lost  on 
the  occasion  just  referred  to,  while  the  men 
were  busily  engaged  in  building  the  blockade. 
Fersons  are  now  living  who  remember  having 
seen  parts  of  the  stockade. 

The  Kentuckians  and  the  mounted  rifie- 
men  recruited  their  horses  on  the  rich  blue- 
grass  pastures  in  the  river  valley  bottoms,  on 
the  Forter  and  Collett  farms. 

A  sergeant  and  eight  men  were  left  toguard 
the  stockade.  About  seven  days  afterward  a 
wild  looking  soldier  returned,  reporting  a 
disastrous  battle  at  Tippecanoe,  the  defeat 
and  destruction  of  the  whole  army,  that  he 
alone  was  left  to  tell  the  story,  and  that  they 
must  quickly  destroy  the  post  and  retreat  to  a 
safe  place.     The  sergeant's  reply  was,  "  I  was 


I 


ordered  to  hold  this  post;  I  shall  do  so;  and 
as  for  yon,  deserter  and  coward,  my  men  will 
pnt  you  upon  the  ridge-pole  of  the  stockade, 
and  tie  your  feet  together.  If  the  In- 
dians come  you  will  catch  the  first  bullet  and 
shall  be  the  first  to  die.  We  will  die  at  our 
post  of  dut}^" 

The  army  marched  through  the  prairie 
regions  west  of  Perrysville  to  where  State 
Line  City  now  stands,  and  near  which  place 
they  pass  the  north  boundary  of  the  county. 

Major  James  Blair  and  Judge  J.  M.  Cole- 
man settled  on  section  16,  township  17  north, 
9  west,  between  Eugene  and  Newport,  before 
the  land  in  that  region  was  offered  for  sale 
by  the  Government.  The  prairie  was  known 
as  Little  Vermillion,  or  Coleman's  Prairie. 
These  two  men  had  always  been  pioneers. 
Blair  had  been  one  of  the  heroes  of  Perry's 
victories  on  Lake  Erie,  and  afterward  held 
conspicuous  positions  of  honor  and  trust  in 
the  community  and  State;  but  at  this  time 
he  and  Coleman  were  })eacemakers  between 
the  Indians,  whose  confidence  they  had;  and 
they  knew  that  Indians,  if  properly  treated, 
could  be  trusted. 

Se-Seep,  or  Siie-Sheep.  a  small,  Ijow-legged, 
stoop-shouldered,  white-haired  man,  110  years 
old,  was  chief  of  the  Pottawatomies  and  their 
allied  Kickapoos.  Their  territory  ranged 
from  the  Little  Vermillion  to  Pine  Creek, 
including  the  north-half  of  Vermillion  Coun- 
ty, all  of  "Warren,  and  the  west-half  of  Foun- 
tain. Se-Seep  had  been  a  gallant  fighter  in 
the  defense  of  his  people  and  coimtry  at  the 
battle  of  Fallen  Timbers  (Wayne's  Victory), 
and  afterward  in  the  terrible  defeat  of  his 
people  at  Tippecanoe.  Brave  and  heroic  in 
battle,  after  signing  the  treaties  of  peace  with 
the  American  authorities,  he  was  faithful  and 
trustworthy,  and  finally  became  a  reliable 
friend  of  the  white  people.  He.  became  the 
liero  of  a  serio-comic  incident  wherein  Noah  I 


Hubbard,  who  settled  on  Indian  land  where 
Cayuga  now  stands,  became  the  butt  of  ridi- 
cule. Hubbard  was  cultivating  a  portion  of 
a  ten  acre  tract.  One  day  the  Indians  crossed 
at  the  army  ford  and  "  stole  "  roasting  ears 
and  squashes  as  rental.  Hubbard  found 
Se-Seep  with  some  ears  of  corn  and  two 
squashes  within  the  folds  of  his  blanket,  and 
he  undertook  to  castigate  the  chief  with  a 
cane.  Se-Seep  did  "  not  scare  worth  a  cent," 
but,  dropping  the  squashes  and  corn,  chased 
Hubbard  out  of  the  field  with  a  stick.  Then 
Hubbard  went  to  Blair  and  Coleman  and  de- 
manded that  they  should  call  out  the  rangers 
and  the  mounted  riflemen,  declaring  that  the 
Indians  were  destroying  liis  property  and  that 
they  should  be  dealt  with  and  punished. 
They  refused  to  call  out  the  rangers,  but  said 
he  might  notify  them  to  assemble  at  their 
house  the  next  morning.  He  did  so,  and  the 
next  morning  some  of  the  riflemen  also  as- 
sembled and  commenced  practice,  shooting  at 
a  mark.  The  Indians  had  camped  for  the 
night  a  mile  north,  at  the  famous  Bufi'alo 
spring  near  the  residence  of  the  late  John  W. 
Porter.  Blair  introduced  to  the  Indians  the 
matters  of  difi'erence,  and  concluded  to  have  an 
imitation  Indian  pow-wow.  Accordingly,  he 
and  Coleman,  who  had  been  chosen  as  arbitra- 
tors, rejiaircd  to  a  plum  thicket  with  a  well  worn 
testament,  a  wooden-covered  spelling-book,  a 
dilapidated  almanac,  and  a  remnant  of  an  old 
law  book,  as  authorities.  Here  they  held  a 
sham  court,  chattering  gibberish,  and  gesti- 
culating like  Indians,  and  finally  rendered 
the  following  verdict:  That  the  two  litigants 
settle  the  whole  matter  by  a  fist  fight.  The 
decision  was  no  sooner  announced  than  the 
little  old  Indian  chief,  who  was  dressed 
only  with  a  blanket  belt,  threw  it  off  and 
made  rapidly  for  Hubbard.  Of  course  the 
latter  ran,  and  ran  as  fast  as  he  could,  mount- 
ed his  pony  and  was  soon  out  of  sight.     The 


ABORIGINAL. 


Indians,  who  were  scarcely  ever  known  to 
langh,  indulged  heartily  on  this  occasion. 

Se-Seep  was  finally  murdered,  in  a  foul 
manner,  at  Nebnker's  Springs,  Fountain 
County,  at  the  age  of  110  years,  by  a  lazy, 
vicious  renegade  Indian  named  Namqua. 
He  had  a  splendid  son,  who  at  the  of  seven- 
teen years  was  killed  by  falling  fifty  feet 
from  a  tree  while  fighting  a  bear,  near  the 
residence  of  John  Collett. 

Although  no  battles  nor  skirmishes  in  con- 
nection with  the  war  of  1812  took  place  in 
this  county,  the  "  Vermillion  country"  was 
two  or  three  times  crossed  by  belligerents. 
From  a  copy  of  General  John  Tipton's  jour- 
nal, kindly  lent  us  by  Stephen  S.  Collett, 
Esq.,  of  Newport,  we  extract  the  following 
paragraphs. 

Tipton  was  an  illiterate  man  but  a  daring 
fighter,  and  in  the  autumn  of  1811,  he,  as  a 
private  in  Captain  Spencer's  Harrison  County 
Riflemen,  journeyed  from  Corydon,  that 
county,  down  the  Wabash  to  Fort  Harrison, 
four  miles  north  of  Terre  Haute,  and  up  the 
same  stream  again,  in  the  Indian  campaign 
which  ended  in  the  hloody  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe. The  company  compi-ised  forty-seven 
men,  besides  oflicers,  and  these  were  joined 
by  Captain  Heath  and  twenty-two  men.  In 
going  down]tlie  river  they  guarded  a  keel-boat 
of  provisions  for  Camp  Harrison,  and  con- 
cerning this  trip  we  quote: 

"October  6. — We  moved  early;  one  mile, 
came  to  the  river  at  the  coal  bank;  found  it 
was  below  the  Vermillion  half  a  mile;  we 
took  coffee;  moved  after  the  boat  started 
down.  The  coal  bank  is  on  the  east  side  of 
the  Wabash.  We  went  through  a  small 
prairie;  crossed  the  river  to  the  west  side; 
went  in  on  the  head  of  a  bar  and  came  out  on 
the  lower  end  of  another  on  the  west  side; 
went  through  a  small  prairie,  then  came  to  a 
big  prairie,  where  the  old   Vermillion  town 


was.  We  crossed  the  Wabash  half  a  mile 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Vermillion  River 
before  we  came  to  the  above  town.  Crossed 
the  Vermillion  River,  took  a  south  course 
through  timbered  land,  and  then  through  a 
prairie  with  a  good  spring  and  an  old  Indian 
hut;  then  tlirougli  a  beautiful  timbered  ground 
to  a  small  creek,  and  stopped  to  let  our  horses 
graze;  then  went  through  a  good  land  with  a 
ridge  on  our  right,  out  of  which  came  four 
springs,  and  for  two  miles  nothing  but  large 
sugar  and  walnut.  The  hill  and  the  river 
came  close  together.  We  found  a  good  coal 
bank  fourteen  miles  below  Vermillion.  AV^e 
then  crossed  to  the  east  side,  went  three 
miles  and  camped  with  the  boat;  after  coming 
twenty  miles  and  finding  two  bee  trees,  left 
them." 

On  the  31st,  coming  northward,  the 
following  entry  is  made: 

"  We  moved  early.  Two  of  the  oxen  miss- 
ing. Three  of  our  men  sent  to  hunt  them. 
We  crossed  Raccoon  Creek.  Saw  our  men 
who  went  to  guard  the  boats  on  the  29th; 
they  left  us.  We  came  to  the  river  where 
we  camped  on  our  return  fi-om  Vermillion  on 
the  night  of  the  sixth;  thence  up  to  the  ford. 
Saw  our  boat  guard  just  crossing  the  river. 
We  halted  until  the  army  came  up,  then  rode 
the  river,  which  was  very  deep,  then  ca:nped. 
Our  boat  guard  and  the  men  who  went  to 
hunt  the  oxen  came  up,  when  we  left  the 
guards.  We  took  a  north  course  up  the  east 
side  of  the  Wabash  and  crossed  to  the  west,  witli 
orders  to  kill  all  the  Indians  we  saw.  Fine 
news.  The  Governor's  wagon  was  left  this 
morning  in  consequence  of  the  oxen  being  lost. 
All  the  army  crossed  in  three  hours.  We 
drew  corn. 

"  Friday,  November  1. — I  was  sent  with 
eighteen  men  to  look  for  a  way  for  the  army  to 
cross  the  Little  Vermillion.  Marched  at  day- 
break; canje  to  the  creek;  found  and  marked 


tlie  road:  waited  till  the  army-came  np;  went 
on  and  camped  on  the  river  two  miles  below 
the  Big  Vermillion.  Captain  Spencer,  my- 
self and  three  others  went  np  to  the  Big  Ver- 
million; retnrned  to  camp.  General  Wells, 
with  forty  men,  and  Captain  Berry  with  nine 
men,  had  come  up.  Our  camp  marched  in 
front  to-day,  as  usual,  which  now  consisted 
of  thirty-seven  men,  in  consequence  of  Captain 
Berry   and    Lindley    being   attached  to    it. 

"  Saturday,  November  2. — A  fine  day. 
Captain  Spencer,  M'ith  ten  men  went  out  on  a 
scout.  Onr  company  not  parading  as  usual, 
the  Uovernor  threatened  to  brake  the  officers. 
I  staid  in  camp.  The  army  staid  here  to 
bnild  a  block  house  on  the  bank  of  the 
Wabash  three  miles  below  Vermillion,  in  a 
small  prairie.  The  house,  twenty-five  feet 
square,  and  a  breast-work  from  each  corner 
next  the  river  down  to  the  water.  Took 
horses  and  drew  brush  over  the  prairie  to 
break  down  the  weeds.  This  evening  a  man 
came  from  the  garrison:  said  last  niglit  his 
was  boat  llred  upon.  One  man  who  was  asleep, 
was  killed.  Three  boats  came  up,  unloaded; 
went  back  taking  a  sick  man  with  them. 
One  of  Captain  Bobb's  men  died  to-night." 

"  Sunday,  the  3d. — A  cloudy  day.  We 
moved  early.  Our  company  marched  on  the 
right  wing  to-day.  Crossed  the  Big  Ver- 
million, through  a  prairie  six  miles,  through 
timber,  then  through  a  wet  prairie  with 
groves  of  timber  in  it,"  etc. 

Thus  we  have  quoted  all  of  General  Tip- 
ton's journal  that  pertains]  to  Vermillion 
County.  Under  date  of  November  7,  1811, 
he  gives  an  account  of  the  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe, in  a  paragraph  scarcely  longer  than 
tiie  average  in  his  journal,  as  if  unaware  that 
the  action  was  of  any  greater  importance  than 
an  insignificant  skirmish.  Tipton  was  pro- 
moted from  rank  to  rank  tintil  he  was  finally 
made  General,  His  orthography,  punctuation, 


etc.,  were  so  bad  that  we  concluded  not  to 
follow  it  in  the  above  extracts.  Nearly  every 
entry  in  his  jonrnal  not  quoted  above  opens 
with  the  statement  that  the  weather  was  very 
cold.  He  also  makes  occasional  mentions  of 
the  soldiers'  drawing  their  rations  of  whisky, 
— from  one  to  three  or  four  quarts  at  a  time. 

In  Harrison's  march  to  Tippecanoe  his 
boats  (pirogues)  could  not  pass  Coal  Creek 
bar,  spoken  of  under  date  of  October  31 
above  and  for  their  protection  he  built  a 
stockade  fort  at  the  head  of  Porter's  eddy, 
the  precise  locality  being  the  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  9,  17  north,  9  west.  Here  he 
left  the  sergeant  and  ten  men  to  guard  them. 
The  remains  of  the  heavy  timbers  were  still  to 
be  seen  in  1888.  Corduroy  or  pole  bridges 
buried  in  mud  may  yet  be  seen  on  the  spring 
branches  on  the  farms  of  Hon.  John  Collett, 
S.  S.  Collett  and  the  Head  family, —  sec- 
tions 9,  and  15,  17  north,  9  west. 

General  Harrison  also  had  caches  in  this 
county  along  the  Wabash. 

According  to  one  of  the  treaties,  General 
Harrison  made  a  purchase  for  the  Govern- 
ment, the  northern  line  of  which,  west  of  the 
AVabash,  extended  from  a  point  directly  op- 
posite the  mouth  of  the  Big  Eaccoon  Creek 
northwesterly.  This  tract  was  opened  for 
white  settlement  long  before  the  northern 
portion  of  the  county  was,  which  i-emained 
in  the  possession  of  the  Kickapoos  and  Potta- 
watomies  for  a  few  years  longer. 

FIKST  WHITE  SETTLER. 

In  the  year  1816,  John  Vannest,  a  man 
who  was  not  afraid  of  the  Indians,  in 
company  with  a  man  named  Hunter,  who  was 
also  a  hunter  by  occupation,  ventured  west 
of  the  Wabash  to  select  land  for  a  permanent 
home.  Arriving  at  a  point  aboiit  a  mile 
north  of  where  Clinton  now  stands, — the 
e}(act  spot  being  the  southeast  corner  of  sec- 


ABORiaiNAL. 


tioii  9,  township  14  north,  range  9  west,  they 
halted  for  the  night.  Hunter  soon  seared  up 
a  deer,  which  was  killed,  and  thus  they  liad 
a  choice  supper  of  fresh  venison.  After  the 
night's  rest  Mr.  Vannest  looked  about  a  little, 
and  without  tramping  around  further  con- 
cluded that  tiiat  spot  was  about  as  good  as 
any  he  would  likely  find.  Keturning  to 
his  temporary  home  at  Fort  Harrison,  about 
four  miles  this  side  of  Terre  Haute,  he  waited 
a  short  time  for  the  day  of  the  Government  land 
sales  to  arrive  at  Vincennes.  Repairing 
thither,  he  entered  three  quarters  of  section  9. 
Subsequently  he  bought  the  remaining  quar- 
ter of  William  Bales.  This  land  is  on  the 
second  batton,  very  high  and  beautifully  un- 
dulating, but  originally  covered  with  timber. 
Had  he  proceeded  a  little  further  north  he 
would  have  found  a  beautiful  little  prairie, 
which  would  be  land  already  cleared  for  him ; 
but  that  point  was  either  unknown  to  him, 
or  it  was  too  near  or  over  the  line  between 
Government  land  and  the  Indians.  Besides, 
at  the  stage  of  the  country's  development 
existing  at  that  time  it  was  not  believed  that 
the  prairies  could  be  cultivated,  or  dwelt  upon 
with  comfort,  on  account  of  the  greater  and 
more  constant  cold  winds. 

On  the  beautiful  timbered  land  above  de- 
scribed, Mr.  Yannest,  settled  bringing  with 
him  his  wife  and  several  children.  Erecting 
lirst  a  log  cabin  on  the  west  side  of  his  land,  he 
cocupied  it  for  a  long  period,  when  he  built  a 
large  brick  residence,  from  bricks  he  had  made 
near  by.  It  was  the  first  brick  building  in 
the  county.  The  mason  employed  upon  it 
was  a  Mr.  Jones,  residing  toward  Newport. 
This  house  finally  became  unsafe  and  was 
torn  away. 

The  land  which  Mr.  Vannest  obtained  re- 
mains  mostly  in  the  possession  of  his  descend- 
ants to  this  day;  and  it  is  a  remarkable  fact 
that  from  this  tract  no  less  than  forty-five 


men  entered  the  service  of  their  country  dur 
ing  the  late  war. 

John  Vannest,  Jr.,  son   of  the  precedin 


was  the  first  white  child  born 
County,    though    this    honor 


11  Vermillion 
as  also  been 
claimed  for  the  late  Hon.  William  Skidmore, 
of  Ilelt  Township. 

John  Vannest,  Sr.,  died  September  28, 
184:2,  at  age  of  sixty-two  years,  and  liis  wife 
Mary,  August  29,  1824,  aged  forty  years,  and 
they  lie  buried  in  the  Clinton  cemetery, 
north  of  the  village.  A  daughter,  Mrs. 
Sarah,  widow  of  Scott  Malone,  stilloccupies 
the  old  homestead,  being  the  oldest  female 
resident  of  Clinton  County.  She  well  re- 
members the  time  when  the  girls,  as  well  as 
the  boys,  had  to  "  go  to  meeting  "  and  to 
school  barefoot,  sometimes  walking  and  some- 
times on  horseback.  The  school  and  the 
meetings  were  held  in  the  characteristic  pio- 
neer log  school-house,  with  puncheon  floor, 
raud-and-stick  chimney,  flat  rails  for  benches, 
a  slab  pinned  up  for  a  writing  desk,  and 
greased-paper  windows.  These  and  otlier 
pioneer  customs  are  described  in  detail  else- 
where in  this  volume. 

Mrs.  Malone  and  her  twin  sister,  Jane, 
were  born  August  6,  1812,  and  were  conse- 
quently about  four  years  old  when  their 
parents  nioved  with  them  to  this  county.  It 
was  a  remarkable  fact  that  these  sisters,  as  long 
as  the  latter  was  living, — who  died  in  old  age, 
—  always  resembled  each  other  so  closely  in 
their  personal  appearance  that  even  their  child- 
ren often  mistook  one  for  the  other.  Jane 
married  Thomas  Kibby,  and  died  in  March, 
1880.  [It  is  from  Mr.  Kibby  and  Mrs. 
"Malone  that  we  have  learned  many  fiicts  of 
this  early  history.] 

Mrs.  Vannest  had  two  narrow  escapes  from 

death    at    the   hands   of  the   Indians.     The 

origin  of  this  vengeance  on   the  part  of  the 

was   as    follows;     Two    white 


soldiers  at  Camp  Harrison  became  engaged  in 
a  quarrel  one  day,  and  one  of  them  in  attempt- 
ing to  shoot  the  other,  carelessly  missed  his 
aim  and  killed  an  Indian  Sqnaw  beyond. 
Thereupon  the  reds  vowed  they  would  kill 
the  first  white  "  squaw  "  who  should  cross  to 
this  side  of  the  Wabash  Eiver.  Accord- 
ingly they  watched  their  opportunity,  and 
made  two  attempts  to  take  the  life  of 
Mrs.  Vannest.  On  the  first  occasion  her  life 
was  saved  by  the  timely  interference  of  a 
friendly  Indian,  and  the  other  time  by  the 
violent  interference  of  iier  relatives  and  friends. 
Directly  after  this  her  husband  took  her  back 
to  Fort  Harrison,  where  she  remained  until 
the  "holy  ardor"  of  the  fiery  savages  had 
died  down. 

Most  of  the  early  settlers  throughout  the 
county  are  mentioned  in  the  histories  of  the 
respective  townships.     See  Index. 

In  the  first  portion  of  this  volume  is  given 
a  description  of  the  features  of  pioneer  life 
in  this  part  of  the  country,  of  the  privations 
and  sicknesses  suffered,  as  well  as  of  dangers 
from  Indian  and  beast,  and  of  the  abundance 
of  wild  game. 

WILD  GAME. 

Several  circular  "  hunts  ■'  or  "  drives  "  have 
been  held  in  this  county;  but  as  tliey  have 
been  conducted  without  the  employment  of 
dogs,  their  success  lias  not  been  great.  The 
largest  competitive  chase  ever  held  in  this 
county  was  in  early  day,  and  lasted  three 
months.  Two  leaders  were  chosen;  they 
picked  their  men  and  divided  the  neighbor- 
hood in  two  parties  for  a  compass  often  miles; 
they  were  to  bring  in  the  scalps  of  the  slain 
animals  at  the  end  of  three  months,  and  the 
leader  who  showed  the  most  scalps  could  de- 
mand five  gallons  of  whisky  as  a  treat  from 
the  beaten  side.  A  wolf,  fox,  crow,  coon  or 
mink   scalp  was  to  be   considered   equal  in 


value  to  five  other  scalps.  A  squirrel  or 
chipmunk  scalp  counted  one.  On  the  ap- 
pointed day  the  opposing  forces  assembled. 
The  committees  began  counting  early  in  the 
morning,  and  completed  theexciting  task  about 
three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  when  it  was 
ascertained  that  over  70,000  scalps  had  been 
taken !  Thus,  by  a  general  rivalry  the  settlers 
enjoyed  the  execution  of  a  plan  which  proved 
the  means  of  safety  and  protection  to  tlieir 
crops. 

EAELY  NAVIGATION. 

In  the  settlement  of  Indiana,  before  the 
age  of  canals,  railroads,  or  even  wagon  roads, 
the  Wabash  Valley  was  the  center  of  attraction, 
for  it  was  the  only  means  of  transportation 
of  products  and  supplies.  Hence  the  towns 
and  villages  along  the  river  were  the  centers 
of  trade  and  civilization.  All  the  adjoining 
region  to  the  east  in  Indiana  and  to  tlie 
west  in  Illinois  were  compelled  to  bring 
their  produce  to  the  Wabash  for  transpor- 
tation to  New  Orleans  and  other  southern 
markets.  At  first,  flat-boats  by  hundreds 
and  thousands,  forty,  fifty,  eighty,  one-hun- 
dred and  one-hundred  and  twenty-five  feet 
long  were  built,  loaded  with  pork,  hogs,  beef, 
cattle,  corn,  wheat,  oats  and  hay,  and  sent 
south.  Five  hundred  of  these  boats  have 
been  sent  out  of  the  Big  Vermillion  from 
Eugene,  Danville  and  other  points  on  that 
stream  in  one  year.  Scarcely  a  day  in  the 
long  April,  May  and  June  floods  but  that 
from  twenty  to  forty  of  these  boats  would 
pass.  They  were  generally  manned  by 
a  steersman, — who  was  also  captain, — four 
oarsmen,  with  long  side  sweeps,  and  one 
general  utility  boy,  who  did  the  cooking. 
Supplies  of  food  were  taken  along;  and  no 
boat  was  considered  safely  equipped  which 
had  less  than  twenty  gallons  of  whisky. 

To  the  boatmen  these  trips  were  occasions 


ABORIGINAL. 


199 


of  joyous  festivity;  and  the  wonderful  stories 
which  they  bronght  hack  of  the  dangers  and 
terrors  of  the  navigation  of  the  Mississippi, 
and  tlie  strange,  mysterious  eddies  in  which 
yet  might  ilow  for  weeks, — especially  the 
"Widow  Woman's  eddy,  tiie  Grand  Gulf,  the 
i^rick-house  Point,  the  Red  Church — were  as 
remarkable  as  Scylla  and  C'liaribdis  in  Roman 
song  and  story.  Dozens  of  captains  and  ex- 
pert boatmen  resided  at  Clinton,  Eugene  and 
Perrysville.  The  boatmen  would  sometimes 
return  from  the  southern  markets  on  foot 
through  the  Cherokee  nation.  The  greatest 
danger  to  whicii  they  were  exposed,  however, 
was  an  attack  from  some  of  the  noted 
Jlurrell's  gang  of  robbers  in  Southern  Illi- 
nois and  AVestern  Kentucky.  "While  many 
from  Southern  Indiana,  Ohio,  and  Eastern 
Kentucky  were  robbed  and  murdered  by  these 
desperadoes,  all  the  "V^ermillion  County  men 
fortunately  came  through  safely. 

Captain  N.  H.  Adams,  who  died  at  Eugene 
fiom  an  over-supply  of  whisky,  started  in 
ISll  with  a  loaded  boat  from  the  Wabash, 
and  had  landed  at  New  Madrid,  Missouri, 
wlien  the  terrible  earthquake  occurred,  dur- 
ing the  night,  which  was  dark  and  stormy. 
The  trees  were  shaken  and  the  crash  and 
noise  of  nature,  and  the  horror  of  the  alarmed 
people  of  the  doomed  town,    rendered    the 


scene  more  terrific  than  imagination  can  con- 
ceive. And  what  could  have  been  the  feel- 
ing of  those  who  witnessed  the  current  of  the 
Mississippi  turned  furiously  up  stream  for 
hours!  It  seemed  that  the  bottom  of  the 
river  had  fallen  out.  Wlien  the  cavity 
made  by  the  "earthquake  was  filled,  the 
current  resumed  its  natural  flow,  but  the 
sunken  lauds  and  broken  or  inclined  forest 
trees  showed  that  over  a  large  adjoining 
region  a  terrible  earthquake  had  taken  place. 

Mercantile  and  other  supplies  were  wagoned 
across  the  Alleghany  mountains,  were  taken 
down  the  Ohio  in  flat-boats,  transferred  to 
keelboats  and  brought  up  the  Wabash  by 
push-poles  and  cordelling  by  ropes  which 
were  sent  out  in  advance,  tied  to  trees,  and 
wound  up  on  improvised  capstans. 

The  first  steamer  on  the  Wabash  made  its 
appearance  about  1820,  an  event  of  signal 
importance  and  popular  excitement.  x\li  the 
people  both  wondered  and  rejoiced.  The 
screaming  fife,  the  throbbing  drum  and  the 
roaring  cannon  welcomed  the  new  power. 
Afterward  steamers  became  more  common, 
one  or  more  passing  every  day.  At  one  time, 
when  Vermillion  was  at  its  flood,  and  the 
river  at  Perrysville  obstructed  by  ice,  as 
many  as  eleven  steamers  sought  harbor  at 
Eugene. 


''HE  territory  comprising 
Vermillion  County  was 
originally    a     part    of 
Vigo  County.    In  1821 
Vigo  County   was  di- 
vided by  the  organiza- 
tion of  Parke  County,  which 
comprised  Vermillion  as  a  part 
of  it,  and  Roseville,  on  the  Big 
Raccoon  Creek,  was  the  county 
seat. 

In  1823,  by  an  act  of  the 
Legislature  of  the  State,  Parke 
!^t^  Cwinty  was  divided  by  the 
AV abash  River,  the  part  west 
of  the  river  being  organized 
as  Vermillion  County,  and  named  from  the 
rivers.  The  Big  Vermillion  had  been  for 
many  years  tlie  boundary  between  tlie  pos- 
sessions of  the  Peaukeshaws  on  the  south  and 
the  Kickapoos  and  Pottawatomies  on  the 
north,  and  during  the  period  of  ownership  by 
France  it  was  a  part  of  the  boundary  between 
Canada  and  Louisiana. 

Vermillion  County  was  created  by  an  act 
of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  January 
2,  1824.     The  full  text  is  as  follows: 

"  Section  1.  Be  it  enacted- hij  the  General 
Assenihly  of  the  State  of  hidiana^  That  from 


and  after  the  first  day  of  February  next,  ail 
that  part  of  the  counties  of  Parke  and  Wabash 
included  within  the  following  bounds  shall 
form  and  constitute  a  new  county,  that  is  to 
say:  Beginning  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Wabash  River,  where  the  township  line 
dividing  townships  numbered  thirteen  ami 
fourteen  north  of  the  base  line,  of  range 
number  niiie  west  of  the  second  principal 
meridian  crosses  the  same;  thence  west  to 
the  State  line;  thence  north  to  the  line 
dividing  townships  numbered  nineteen  and 
twenty  north;  thence  east  to  the  Wabash 
River;  and  thence  south  with  the  meanders 
of  said  river  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

"Section  2.  The  said  new  county  shall, 
from  and  after-  the  first  day  of  February  ne.xt, 
be  known  and  designated  by  the  name  of  the 
county  of  Vermillion,  and  it  shall  enjoy  all 
the  rights,  privileges  and  jurisdictions  which 
to  a  separate  and  independent  county  do  or 
may  properly  belong  or  appertain:  Provided 
always,  That  all  suits,  pleas,  plaints,  actions 
and  proceedings  which  may  before  the  first 
day  of  Marcli  next  have  been  commenced, 
instituted  and  jjending  within  the  county  of 
Parke,  shall  be  prosecuted  to  final  judgment 
and  cficct  in  the  same  manner  as  if  this  act 
had  not  been  passed:   Provided  also,   That 


OOVERNMENTAL. 


201 


the  State  and  county  taxes  wliicli  are  now 
due  within  the  bounds  of  the  said  new  county 
shall  lie  collected  and  paid  in  the  same  man- 
ner and  l)y  the  same  otticers  as  the}'  wonld 
have  been  if  the  creation  of  the  said  new 
county  had  not  taken  place. 

"Section  3.  Eobert  Sturgus  and  Samuel 
Caldwell,  of  the  county  of  Vigo,  Moses  Rob- 
bins,  of  Parke  County,  William  Pugh,  of 
Sullivan  County,  and  AVilliam  Mcintosh,  of 
tlie  county  of  Putnam,  are  hereby  appointed 
commissioners,  agreeably  to  the  act  entitled 
'Au  act  for  the  fixing  of  the  seats  of  justice 
in  all  new  counties  hereafter  to  be  laid  off.' 
The  commissioners  above  named,  or  a  major- 
ity of  them,  shall  convene  at  the  house  of 
James  Blair,  in  the  said  new  county  of  Ver- 
million, on  the  first  Monday  of  March  next, 
and  immediately  proceed  to  discharge  the 
duties  assigned  them  by  law.  It  is  hereby 
made  the  duty  of  the  sheriff  of  Parke  County 
to  notify  the  said  commissioners  either  in 
person  or  by  written  notice  of  their  appoint- 
ment, on  or  before  the  first  day  of  February 
next:  and  the  said  sherift"  of  Parke  County 
shall  receive  from  the  said  county  of  Ver- 
million such  compensation  therefor  as  the 
county  commissioners  of  said  new  county  of 
Vermillion  shall  deem  just  and  reasonable; 
who  are  hereby  authorized  to  allow  the  same 
out  of  any  monies  in  the  treasury  of  said 
county,  not  otherwise  appropriated,  in  the 
same  manner  as  other  allowances  are  made. 

"Sectiox  4.  The  Circuit  Court  of  the 
county  of  Vermillion  shall  meet  at  the  house 
of  James  Blair,  in  the  said  new  county  of 
Vermillion,  until  suitable  accommodations 
can  be  had  at  the  seat  of  justice;  and  so  soon 
as  the  courts  of  said  county  are  satisfied  that 
suitable  accommodations  can  be  had  at  the 
county  seat,  they  shall  adjourn  their  courts 
thereto,  after  which  time  the  courts  of  the 
said  county  shall   be  holden  at  the  seat  of 


justice  of  said  county  established  by  law: 
Provided  alwajs,  That  the  Circuit  Court 
shall  liave  authority  to  adjourn  tiie  court 
from  the  house  of  James  Blair  as  aforesaid, 
to  any  other  place,  previous  to  the  comple- 
tion of  the  public  buildings,  should  the  said 
court  or  a  majority  of  them  deem  it  ex- 
pedient. 

"Section  5.  The  Board  of  County  Com- 
missioners of  the  said  county  of  Vermillion 
shall,  within  six  months  after  the  permanent 
seat  of  justice  of  said  county  shall  have  been 
selected,  proceed  to  erect  the  necessary  pub- 
lic buildings  thereon. 

Section  6.  The  agent  who  shall  be  ap- 
pointed for  the  sales  of  lots  at  the  seat  of 
justice  of  said  new  county  shall  reserve  and 
receive  ten  per  centum  out  of  the  proceeds 
ot  all  donations  made  to  the  said  county,  and 
also  out  of  the  proceeds  of  all  sales  made  of 
lots  at  the  county  seat  of  said  county,  and 
pay  the  same  over  to  such  person  or  persons 
as  may  be  appointed  by  law  to  receive  the 
same,  for  the  use  of  a  county  library  for  the 
said  county  of  Vermillion,  whicii  he  shall 
pay  over  at  such  time  and  place  as  may  be 
directed  by  law. 

"  Section  7.  The  powers,  privileges  and 
authorities  that  are  granted  to  the  qualified 
voters  of  the  county  of  Dubois  and  others 
named  in  the  act  entitled  'an  act  incorpo- 
rating a  county  library'  in  the  counties 
therein  named,  approved  January  28,  1818, 
to  organize,  support  and  conduct  a  county 
library,  are  hereby  granted  to  the  qualified 
voters  of  the  county  of  Vermillion;  and  the 
same  powers  and  authorities  therein  granted, 
and  the  same  duties  therein  required  of  the 
several  officers  and  persons  elected  by  the 
qualified  voters  of  Dubois  and  other  counties 
therein  named,  for  the  purpose  of  carrying 
into  effect  the  provisions  of  the  act  aforesaid, 
according  to  the    true    intent    and    meaning 


thereof,  are  hereby  granted  to  and  required 
of  the  otticers  and  other  persons  elected  by 
tlie  qualified  voters  of  the  county  of  Yer- 
niillion. 

"  Section  8.  The  said  county  of  Vermill- 
ion shall  have  both  civil  and  criminal 
jurisdiction  over  all  the  country  north  of  said 
county,  which  is  or  may  be  included  in  ranges 
nine  and  ten  west,  to  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  State. 

"  Section  9.  The  said  new  county  of  Ver- 
million shall  be  attached  to  the  counties  of 
Pike  and  Vigo,  for  the  purpose  of  electing 
Representatives  to  Congress,  and  to  the  same 
Senatorial  and  Eepresentativedistricts  to  which 
said  counties  now  belong,  for  the  purpose  of 
electing  Senators  and  Representatives  to  the 
General  Assembly,  and  to  the  first  return  dis- 
trict for  the  purpose  of  returning  votes  for 
electors  of  President  and  Vice-President  of 
the  United  States." 

For  the  space  of  a  year  Vermillion  County 
thus  had  jurisdiction  over  more  than  a  hun- 
dred miles  of  country  north  and  south — to 
Lake  Michigan,  but  a  few  miles  from  the 
modern  city  of  Chicago.  The  presidential 
election  referred  to  in  the  closing  sentence 
was  that  at  which  John  Quincy  Adams  was 
chosen,  and  during  the  administration  of 
President  Monroe.  It  takes  us  back  almost 
to  "  ancient  "  history. 

The  county  is  thirty-seven  miles  long, 
north  and  south,  by  an  average  of  seven  miles 
in  width,  east  and  west.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Warren  County,  on  the  east  by 
the  "Wabash  River,  or  Fountain  and  Parke 
counties,  on  the  south  by  Vigo  County,  and 
on  the  west  by  the  State  of  Illinois,  that  is, 
by  Edgar  and  Vermillion  counties,  that  State. 

The  county  seat  was  located  at  its  present 
point,  in  what  was  then  (1824)  a  wilderness, 
by  Commissioners  Robert  Sturgis,  Samuel  M. 
Caldwell,  William   Pugh   and  William  Mc- 


intosh, of  adjoining  counties.  A  fifth  com- 
missioner was  probably  appointed,  but  did 
not  act.  Tradition  gives  four  reasons  wliy 
the  seat  of  government  was  fixed  at  Nepurt: 
First,  the  site  is  nearly  central;  second,  it 
was  convenient  to  a  good  big  spring,  and  to 
a  grist  and  saw  mill  on  the  Little  Vermillion 
River;  third,  those  who  owned  the  land  were 
more  liberal  in  their  donations  to  the  county 
than  were  others  who  sought  the  seat  of  g"\  - 
ernment  elsewhere;  and  fourth,  a  few  have 
intimated  that  the  commissioners  were  bought 
up  by  parties  in  interest;  but  of  course  no 
proof  of  this  lias  ever  been  given;  the  first 
three  reasons  are  sufficient.  There  has  never 
since  been  a  serious  effort  made  to  remove  the 
county  seat;  and,  although  Dana  may  out- 
grow the  other  towns  in  the  county  and 
some  cay  bid  strong  for  the  honor,  the  pres- 
ent railroad  system  of  the  county  constitutes 
an  additional  reason,  and  a  more  cogent  rea- 
son than  all  the  others  combined,  for  retain- 
ing the  seat  of  county  government  at  its 
present  place.  It  is  more  convenient  than 
any  other  point  in  the  county  can  be,  unless 
Dana  should  grow  to  a  city  and  become  a 
kind  of  railroad  center. 

EAELT    ACTS    OF    THE    COMJIISSIONEKS. 

The  earliest  acts  of  the  commissioners  of 
Vermillion  County  were  recorded  in  a  "home- 
made" book  manufactured  for  the  purpose 
by  the  clerk.  Tiiis  record  was  left  in  some 
place  e.xposed  to  the  depredations  of  mice, 
which  mutilated  it  seriously,  and  some  of  the 
minutes  therefore  cannot  be  deciphered.  In 
March,  1882,  by  order  of  the  commissioners, 
as  much  of  this  mutilated  record  as  was  pos- 
sible was  carefully  transcribed  in  a  large, 
well-bound  book  of  modern  manufacture. 
This  transcript  begins  with  the  minutes  of 
the  March  session  of  1824,  the  year  the  county 
was  organized,  and  therefore  but  very  little 


GOVERNMENTAL. 


203 


of  tlie  record  is  really  lost.  Tliis  iirst  session 
was  held  at  the  residence  of  James  Blair, 
situated  near  the  southeast  corner  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  16,  in  township 
17  north,  of  range  9  west.  That  was  on  the 
west  side  of  the  old  wagon  road  leading  from 
Eugene  to  Newport,  and  about  half  way 
heuwecn  those  two  towns.  As  these  earliest 
acts  of  the  County  Legislature  gather  increas- 
ing interest  with  lapsing  years,  we  p'-int  the 
tirst  few  pages  ot  them. 

"  At  a  special  meeting  of  the  board  of  com- 
missioners of  Vermillion  County,  begun  and 
held  at  the  house  of  James  Blair,  on  Tuesday, 
the  23d  day  of  March,  1824,  and  the  com- 
missioners having  their  certificates  of  election, 
and  having  taken  the  necessary  oath,  took 
their  seats.  Commissioners  present — John 
Haines,  Thouias  Durliam  and  Isaac  Cliambers. 

"  1st.  Ordered,  That  William  W.  Kennedy 
be  and  is  hereby  appointed  clerk  of  the  board 
of  commissioners  of  Vermillion  County  for 
this  session. 

"  2d.  Ordered,  That  Caleb  Bales  be  and  is 
hereby  appointed  lister  of  the  County  of  Ver- 
millioi',  upon  his  giving  bond  and  security. 

"  3d.  Ordered,  That  all  that  part  of  the 
County  of  Vermillion  contained  in  the  fol- 
lowing bounds,  to  wit:  Beginning  at  the 
Wabash  River  where  the  line  dividing  town- 
ships 13  and  14  crosses  the  same,  thence  with 
said  line  to  the  line  dividing  the  States  of 
Lidiana  and  Illinois,  thence  north  to  the  line 
dividing  townships  14  and  15,  thence  east 
with  said  line  to  the  Wabash  River,  thence 
south  with  said  river  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning, shall  constitute  the  township  of  Clin- 
ton; and  that  the  election  in  said  township 
be  held  in  said  township  at  the  house  of  John 
Sargeant,  in   Clinton. 

"  4th.  Ordered,  That  all  that  part  of  the 
county  of  Vermillion  contained  in  the  follow- 
ing bounds,  to  wit:  Beginning  at  the  Wabash 


River  where  the  line  between  townships  14 
and  15  crosses  the  same,  thence  west  with 
said  line  to  the  line  dividing  the  States  of 
Indiana  and  Illinois,  thence  north  with  said 
line  to  the  center  of  township  16,  thence  east 
with  said  central  line  to  the  Wabash  River, 
thence  south  with  said  river  to  the  place  of 
beginning, — shall  constitute  the  township  of 
Ilelt,  and  that  elections  for  said  township  be 
held  at  the  house  of  John  Van  Camp. 

"5th.  Ordered,  That  all  that  part  of  Ver- 
million County  contained  in  the  following 
bounds,  to  wit:  Beginning  at  the  Wabash 
River  at  the  center  of  township  16,  thence 
west  with  said  central  line  to  the  line  dividing 
the  States  of  Indiana  and  Illinois,  thence 
north  with  said  line  until  it  strikes  the  Big 
Vermillion  River,  thence  east  with  said  river 
until  it  empties  into  the  Wabash,  thence 
south  with  said  river  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning, shall  constitute  the  township  of  Ver- 
million; and  that  elections  in  said  township 
be  held  at  the  school-house  on  section  16  in 
township  16. 

"  6th.  Ordered,  That  all  that  part  of  Ver- 
million County  contained  in  the  following 
bounds,  to  wit:  Beginning  at  the  Wabash 
River  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Vermillion 
River,  thence  west  with  said  river  to  the  line 
dividing  the  States  of  Indiana  and  Illinois, 
thence  north  with  the  said  line  to  the  line 
dividing  townships  19  and  20,  thence  east 
with  said  line  to  the  Wabash  River,  thence 
south  with  said  river  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning, shall  constitute  the  township  of  High- 
land, and  that  elections  in  said  township  be 
held  at  the  house  of  Jacob  Andrick." 

The  next  four  orders  appoint  inspectors  of 
the  elections  first  to  l>e  held  in  the  above 
described  townships — Salmon  Luck,  for  Clin- 
ton; William  Bales,  for  Helt;  John  Gardner, 
for  Vermillion;  and  Jacob  Haines,  for  High- 
land. 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


The  next  four  orders  direct  that  justices 
of  the  peace  be  chosen  at  these  elections,  and 
that  the  sheriff  give  due  notice  of  the  time, 
place  and  purposes  of  the  same. 

The  succeeding  four  orders  appoint  consta- 
bles for  the  townships — Cliarles  Trowbridge, 
for  Clinton;  John  Harper,  for  Ilelt;  Jacob 
Custer,  for  Yermillion;  and  George  Han- 
sucker,  for  Highland;  upon  their  giving  bond 
and  security. 

The  above  constitutes  the  business  of  the 
first  day's  session. 

Clinton  and  Helt  townships  remain  un- 
changed to  this  day;  but  the  other  two  town- 
ships have  been  made  into  three,  as  follows: 
The  line  between  Vermillion  and  Eugene 
townships  is  the  line  dividing  sections  19  and 
30  of  surveyed  township  17  north  and  10 
west,  running  east  to  the  northeast  corner  of 
section  21,  township  17  north  and  9  west, 
thence  north  a  half  mile,  and  thence  east  to 
the   river;    the    line  dividing   Eugene    and 


ig  sec- 


Highland  townships  is  the  line  divid 
tions  19  and  30  of  township  18  north  and  10 
west,  running  east  to  the  river;  and  from  the 
northern  side  of  Highland  Township  has 
been  cut  off  one  tier  of  sections  of  Congres- 
sional township  19  nortli,  9  west,  and  thrown 
into  Warren  County. 

On  the  second  day  -^  the  session  the  fol- 
lowing were  appointed  grand  jurors  for  the 
May  (1824)  term  of  the  Circuit  Court:  David 
W.  Arnold,  Horace  Luddington,  Rezin  Shel- 
by, Andrew  Thompson,  John  Tipton,  William 
Coffin,  John  Scott,  Jesse  Higgins,  Morgan 
De  Puy,  AVilliam  Hedges,  John  Tannest, 
William  Boyles,  James  Andrews,  James 
Harper,  Sr.,  and  James  Davis;  and  tlie  fol- 
lowing as  petit  jurors:  Joel  Dicken,  Robert 
Elliott,  James  Groenendyke,  John  Thompson, 
Simeon  Dicken,  Isaac  Worth,  Lewis  Zebres- 
key  [or  Zabriskie],  Benjamin  Shaw,  Alexan- 
der   Bailey,    William    Rice,    Harold  Hayes, 


Amos  Reeder,  William  Hamilton,  John  Clo- 
ver, Ralph  Wilson,  John  Wimsett,  Abraham 
Moore,  John  Maxadon,  Joseph  Dillow, 
Thomas  Matheny,  John  E.  Anderson,  0\  ed 
Blakesley,  John  Van  Camp,  and  Joshua  Skid- 
moi-e. 

For  some  reason,  however,  the  most  of 
those  appointed  as  grand  jurors  failed  to 
serve,  as  the  Circuit  Court  record  for  the  May 
(1824)  term  opens  by  giving  the  following 
named  gentlemen  as  constituting  the  grand 
jury:  Simeon  Dicken,  Ralph  Wilson,  Joseph 
Schooling,  Obed  Blakesley,  James  Harper, 
Sr.,  Carter  Hollingsworth,  Joshua  Skidmore, 
Amos  Reeder,  Joel  Dicken,  Robert  Elliott, 
Jesse  Higgins,  John  Thompson,  John  Tipton, 
Joseph  Dillow,  Ludlow  Ludwick,  James 
Davis  and  William  Rice. 

This  day  they  also  appointed  "  superintend- 
ents "  of  the  school  sections — Harold  Hughes 
for  Clinton  Township,  William  Bales  for 
Helt,  James  Davis  for  Vermillion,  William 
Coflin  for  that  in  17  north,  9  west,  in  High- 
land Township,  Hoi'ace  Luddington  in  18 
north,  and  Jacob  Andrick  in  19  north,  also 
in  Highland. 

For  overseers  of  the  poor,  John  Vannest 
was  appointed  for  Clinton  Township,  James 
Andrews  and  Augustus  Ford  for  Helt,  Zeno 
Worth  and  John  Tipton  for  Vermillion,  and 
John  Haines  and  AVilliatn  Gonger  for  High- 
land. 

John  Collett  was  appointed  ''agent  for 
laying  out  a  county  seat,"  and  also  "for  sell- 
ing such  lots  as  were  donated  by  John  Jus- 
tice and  George  Miner  for  the  use  of  tiie 
county,  and  such  lands  as  were  by  them  do- 
nated as  more  fully  appears  by  their  bonds." 
Josephus  Collett  and  William  Fulton  were 
accepted  as  security  for  John  Collett. 

Alexander  Bailey  was  appointed  collector 
of  State  and  county  tax. 

James  Blair  was  appointed  agent  for  the 


GOVERNMENTAL. 


library  of  the  county,  and  authorized  to  re- 
ceive the  moneys  appropriated  for  the  pur- 
pose from  the  sales  of  the  county  seat  lots. 
(There  is  no  "  county  library  "  now.) 

On  the  third  day  of  this  session  the  bills 
of  the  sheriff  and  commissioners  appointed 
by  the  State  government  to  locate  the  county 
seat,  were  audited  and  ordered  paid.  Will- 
iam Fulton  was  allowed  §35  "  as  a  sheriff  in 
organizing  the  county  of  Vermillion,"  and 
also  $2.50  for  obtaining  a  copy  of  the  laws 


regi 


ilati 


the    duties    of    sheriffs 


counties. 

John  Collett  was  authorized  to  receive  a 
deed  of  the  land  for  the  county  seat  from 
John  Justice,  Josephus  Collett  and  Stephen 
Collett,  the  land  being  "  all  that  part  of  the 
west  halt  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
26,  in  townsliip  number  17  north,  of  range 
9  west,  which  may  be  south  of  the  Little 
Vermillion  Creek,  should  the  same  contain 
more  or  less." 

"William  Fulton  was  substituted  for  Alex- 
ander Bailey  as  collector  of  taxes. 

For  the  May  (1824)  session  the  same  com- 
missioners first  met  at  the  house  of  James 
Blair,  and,  before  transacting  any  business, 
adjourned  to  4  p.m.,  at  the  house  of  Josephus 
Collett,  at  Vermillion  Mills.  At  this  place 
Mr.  Haines  did  not  appear.  The  other  two 
commissioners  decreed  that  ferry  licenses  be 
$7;  "  that  the  clerk  list  all  property  liable  to 
taxation  for  county  purposes  to  the  full 
amount  allowed  by  law;  "  that  tavern  licenses 
be  $5;  that  the  seat  of  justice  shall  be  known  as 
"  the  town  of  Newport,"  and  that  the  lots  in 
said  town  be  laid  off  according  to  the 
following  form,  viz:  Lots  sixty-six  feet  in 
front,  and  1811  feet  in  depth;  the  main  street 
to  be  100  feet  in  breadth,  all  other  streets 
eighty  feet;  the  alleys  running  north  and 
south  to  be  thirty-three  feet,  those  east  and 
west,    sixteen;  and  that  tlie  sale  of  lots  take 


place  on  the  first  Monday  in  June  next,  at 
the  public  square  in  said  town,  one-fifth  of 
the  purchase  money  to  be  paid  in  hand,  the 
residue  in  four  seini-annnal  installments;  and 
one-half  of  the  lots  donated  to  the  county 
only  shall  be  offered  at  said  time." 

Next,  the  county  was  divided  into  thirteen 
road  districts,  and  supervisors  for  them  were 
appointed. 

James  Blair  was  authorized  to  run  a  ferry 
at  Perrysville,  at  the  following  rates:  Wagon 
and  five  horses,  75  cents;  wagon  and  four 
horses,  62^  cents;  wagon  and  three  horses, 
50  cents;  wagon  and  two  horses,  37|-  cents; 
man  and  horse,  12^  cents;  pedestrian,  6J 
cents;  neat  cattle,  4  cents  a  head;  hogs  and 
sheep,  2  cents  a  head. 

John  Gardner  was  authorized  to  run  a  ferry 
across  the  Wabash  about  two  miles  north  of 
Newport. 

For  the  proceedings  of  the  next  day  the 
record  says  that  "the  grand  and  petit  jurors, 
being  duly  selected  for  the  present  year,  M-ere 
deposited  in  a  box  prepared  for  that  pur- 
pose !"     No  wonder  they  dreaded  to  serve  ! 

"  License  to  vend  foreign  merchandise  for 
the  present  year  [remainder  of  1824]  was 
established  at  $10." 

At  the  June  (182^  session  the  commis- 
sioners ordered  a  conwact  to  be  let  for  the 
building  of  a  court-house  of  the  folloM'ing  de- 
scription: "36  feet  in  length,  and  24  feet  in 
depth;  containing  two  jury  rooms,  to  l)e  fur- 
nished with  a  window  of  fifteen  lights,  and  a 
door  opening  from  each  into  the  court-room; 
the  latter  to  have  eight  feet  for  a  passage  be- 
tween it  and  the  jury  room;  balance  of  six- 
teen feet  to  be  finished,  laid  off  and  worked 
in  a  semicircular  form,  in  a  workmanlike 
manner;  with  seats  for  the  judges,  bar  and 
jury;  with  bannisters  to  separate  the  said 
court  and  jury  rooms,  eight  feet  one  from 
the  other  across  said  court-house,  at  the  dis- 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


tance  of  eight  feet  from  said  jury  rooms,  ex- 
cept so  much  as  may  be  necessary  for  the 
admission  of  persons  in  and  to  the  Lar  and 
court,  which  said  space  is  not  to  exceed  three 
feet;  and  the  said  court-room  is  to  be  fur- 
nished with  three  windows  of  fifteen  lights 
eacli,  and  two  good  doors.  Said  building  is 
to  be  erected  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the 
public  square,  of  good,  substantial  frame  of 
a  ten-foot  story,  covered  with  joint  shingles; 
and  said  frame  is  to  be  settled  on  a  sufficient 
number  of  eighteen-inch  blocks  two  feet 
long." 

June  26,  1824,  the  board  of  commissioners 
met  and  awarded  to  John  Justice  the  con- 
tract for  building  the  above  described  court- 
house, for  $345,  the  structure  to  be  completed 
by  the  first  of  the  following  November. 


PLAN  OF  FIRST' COURTHOUSE. 

Although  the  commissioners  refused  to 
accept  this  building  when  Mr.  Justice 
thought  he  had  it  completed,  it  was  used  for 
courts  and  pnblic  meetings  of  all  kinds  until 
another  was  erected,  of  brick.  The  county 
paid  Mr.  Justice  in  part;  he  sued  for  the 
balance,  and  finally  recovered  it,  the  Supreme 
Court  ordering  the  county  to  pay  the  full 
amount  and  the  cost  of  the  proceedings. 

In  February,  1831,  the  coramistioners  had 
a  plan  for  a  new  court-house  drawn  up,  and 
advertised  for   proposals  for  furnishing  the 


material  with  whicb  to  build  it.  James  Skin- 
ner, being  tlie  lowest  responsible  bidder,  was 
awarded  the  contract  for  furnishing  the 
brick,  at  $3.50  per  thousand;  and  Stephen 
B.  Gardner  was  promised  $2.50  a  perch  for 
the  stone.  Other  material  was  contracted 
for,  and  the  court-house  completed  under  the 
immediate  supervision  of  the  county  com- 
missioners, and  was  occupied  until  Januaiy 
29,  1844,  at  half  past  eleven  o'clock  in  the 
forenoon,  when  it  was  partly  burned  down. 
The  commissioners  called  a  session  immedi- 
ately and  arranged  for  repairing  the  building. 
It  WHS  fully  repaired,  and  re-occupied  during 
the  following  summer.  This  served  until 
1868,  when  the  present  beautiful  structure 
was  built. 

In  June,  1828,  the  board  of  commissioners 
let  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the  first 
jail,  which  was  to  be  16  x  28  feet  in  ground 
area,  two  stories  high,  of  hewed  timbers, 
with  a  partition  of  twelve  feet  for  debtors' 
and  criminals'  room,  lower  story  eight  and  a 
half  feet  in  the  clear,  upper  story  eight  feet, 
with  partition  as  below,  to  be  built  of  double 
timbers  8  x  10  inches  thick,  or  wider  if  con- 
venient; roof  to  be  of  joint  shingles,  etc.,  etc. 
Samuel  Hedges  was  the  contractor,  who  was 
to  receive  for  the  work  $369. 

In  connection  with  the  same  building  was 
to  be  a  clerk's  office,  16  x  14  feet,  one  story 
nine  feet  in  the  clear,  two  fifteen-light  win- 
dows, one  door,  etc.,  etc.  For  this  Mr. 
Jledges  was  to  receive  $116. 

This  building  was  erected  in  due  time, 
according  to  contract. 

PROBATE  KECOED. 

The  first  page  of  the  probate  record  begins 
thus: 

"  Order  Book  1.  Probate  Court,  April  16, 
1827.     Present,  the  Honorable  Jacob  Castle- 


GOVERNMENTAL. 


iiiau  and  Jacob  Andrick,  Associate  Judges  of 
Vermillion  Count}'. 

"Court  was  adjourned  to  meet  at  the 
clerk's  office  in  Newport. 

''Ordered,  That  Phebe  Miller  be  and  she 
is  hereby  appointed  guardian  of  Matilda 
Miller,  of  lawful  age  to  choose  a  guardian, 
and  Eliza  Ann,  Charlotte,  Jothani,  Jacob, 
John,  Lucretia  and  Massey  Miller,  infant 
heirs  of  Joshua  Miller,  deceased,  that  she 
give  bond  in  the  sum  of  §600,  and  that  John 
Haines  and  John  Gardner  be  approved  as 
sureties. 

"On  motion  of  James  Groenendyke,  ordered 
that  John  Armour,  John  Tipton  and  Robert 
Elliott  be  and  they  are  hereby  appointed  coin- 
missiouers  to  make  a  partition  of  the  real 
estate  of  John  Groenendyke,  deceased,  among 
the  heirs  of-  said  deceased,  and  report  to  the 
next  terra. 

''Ordered.,  That  Sarah  Lamphier,  adminis- 
trutri.x  of  the  estate  of  Elijah  Lamphier,  de- 
ceased, be  allowed  the  following  credits,  she 
having  filed  sufficient  vouchers  to  that  eflect: 
[Here  follows  a  list  of  expenses,  footing  up 
812.] 

"Ordered,  That  Hiram  Shepherd,  admin- 
istrator of  the  estate  of  William  W.  Ken- 
nedy, deceased,  be  allowed  a  credit  of  $39  on 
said  estate,  he  having  produced  sutKcient 
vouchers  for  the  sum. 

"Ordered,  That  court  adjourn  till  court  in 
course. 

"Jacob  Andeick. 
"Jac.  Castlkman." 

Mr.  Andrick's  name  is  signed  mostly  in 
German  letter,  while  Mr.  Castleman  swings 
a  fancy  pen  in  modern  style. 

FIRST    MARBIAGES. 

The  first  marriages  within  the  present 
bounds  of  Vermillion  County  are  probably 
recorded    at  the   county   seats  of   Parke  and 


Vigo  counties,  as  the  record  at  Newport 
opens  with  certificates  at  the  rate  of  almost 
one  a  week,  or  forty  for  the  year  ending  May 
1,  1825.  The  record  here  begins  with  the 
following,  in  the  order  here  given : 

1.  Jesse  McGee,  Minister  of  the  Gospel, 
married  Moorman  Hayworth  and  Elizabeth 
Mardick,  May  30,  1824;  and  June  2,  same 
year,  Hugh  Johnson  and  Polly  Tipton. 

2.  John  Porter,  Justice  of  the  Peace,  May 
10,  1824,  married  Philo  Heacock  and  Dian- 
tha  Smith;  June  10  following,  Joshua  Dean 
and  Susan  Nolan;  June  27,  Isaac  I>.  Potter 
and  Semiah  Seymour;  July  1,  Noah  Kirken- 
dol  and  Mary  Wallen;  and  August  12,  Ashur 
Sargent  and  Delilah  Cooper,  etc. 

Some  of  the  above  names  are  probably 
wrongly  spelled. 

THE    CIRCUIT    COURT. 

The  first  civil  suit  brought  into  the  Circuit 
Court  was  instituted  by  Mark  Hays  against 
Mary  Hays  for  divorce.  The  case  was  con- 
tinued for  several  terms  and  ended  by  Mark 
having  to  pay  Mary's  lawyers'  fees,  dis- 
missing and  pa^'ing  costs,  and  then  the 
twain  living  together  thereafter.  "  Vermillion 
County,"  says  M.  G.  Rhoades,  Esq.,  "has  the 
reputation  of  settling  more  lawsuits  by  com- 
promise than  any  other  county  in  the  State. 
This  effect  may  be  directly  traceable  to  the 
example  set  in  the  case  just  related." 

The  fii'st  volume  of  the  Circuit  Court  record 
opens  thus:  "May  Term,  1824.  Pleas  be- 
gun and  held  before  the  Honorable  Jacob 
Call,  President  of  the  First  Judicial  Circuit 
in  the  State  of  Indiana,  and  Jacob  Andrick 
and  Jacob  Castleman,  Associate  Judges  for 
the  county  of  Vermillion,  at  the  house  of 
James  Blair,  on  Thursday,  the  sixth  day  of 
May,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  twenty-four. 

"  State  of  Indiana  vs.  Josephus  Collett  and 


Ealpli  Wilson."  This  was  for  assault  and 
battery,  although  no  memorandum  of  the  fact 
is  entered.  Tlien  follows  the  plea  of  indict- 
ment, which  is  interesting  on  account  of  the 
heavy  wording  characteristic  of  that  day. 
Thus: 

"The  jurors,  for  and  in  the  name  and  body 
of  the  county  of  Vermillion,  upon  their  oaths 
present  that  Josephus  CoUett,  late  of  the 
township  of  Vermillion,  laboring  [laborer?], 
and  Ralph  Wilson,  late  of  the  same  town- 
ship and  county  aforesaid,  laborer,  on  the 
fifth  day  of  March,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty-four, 
with  force  and  arms,  at  [in  ?]  the  township 
aforesaid,  in  the  county  aforesaid,  did,  in  a 
certain  public  place,  to  wit,  the  house  yard  of 
James  Blair,  being  a  puljlic  place,  did  agree 
to  fight  at  fisticulis,  and  then  and  there 
actually  did  fight,  and  then  and  there,  in  a 
rude,  insolent,  angry  and  unlawful  manner, 
did  touch,  strike,  beat,  bruise,  wound  and  ill- 
treat  each  other,  to  the  terror  of  the  citizens 
of  the  State  of  Indiana,  then  and  there  being 
contrary  to  the  force  of  the  statutes  of  that 
case  made  and  provided,  and  against  the  peace 
and  dignity  of  the  State  of  Indiana. 

"  Georgk  R.  C.  Sullivan,  Pros.  Atty." 

Among  the  tautologies  and  slips  of  the  pen 
in  the  above  document,  is  the  old  familiar 
phrase,  "  with  force  and  amis,"  connected 
with  a  case  of  simple  "fisticufis  !"  "Arms" 
were  employed,  no  doubt  I — two  by  each 
party. 

According  to  tradition,  the  \^hole  court 
were  indictable  as  accessories  to  the  affray, 
as,  while  they  had  no  regular  business  on 
hand  for  the  day,  they  "  adjourned  to  see  the 
fun!" 

At  the  second  term  of  the  court  Mr.  Col- 
lett  pleaded  guilty  and  was  fined  §2;  but  Mr. 
Wilson  continued  his  case  for  several  terms, 
and  was  ultimately  fined  $10, — -for  the  use  of 


the  county  seminary.  Judge  John  R.  Porter 
presided  at  this  term  of  court.  His  circuit, 
by  the  several  changes  that  were  made,  ex- 
tended from  the  Ohio  to  Lake  Michigan. 

Of  course  it  is  not  necessary  for  us  to  fol- 
low the  criminal  records  further,  or  even  give 
any  statistics  of  crime  in  this  county.  In 
reading  a  modern  newspaper  one  often  gets 
the  impression  that  "  this  section  of  tiic 
country"  is  awfully  addicted  to  crime,  for- 
getting that  it  is  the  province  of  the  paper  tn 
gather  and  publish  all  that  is  sensational, 
though  other  things  be  excluded.  In  reading 
the  modern  newspaper,  therefore,  one  is 
almost  constantly  looking  at  the  worst  side 
of  society. 

There  has  been  but  one  case  of  capital 
punishment  in  Vermillion  County,  a  lu-ief 
account  of  which  wc  now  proceed  to  give. 

THE    SCAFFOLD. 

Walter  AVatson  was  executed  April  3, 1879, 
for  iiaving  murdered  Ezra  Compton  at  High- 
land January  10,  preceding. 

Watson  was  born  in  Vermillion  County, 
Indiana,  March  20,  1852,  and  when  grown 
was  five  feet  nine  inches  in  height,  weighed 
about  165  pounds,  and  had  a  light  complexion 
and  auburn  hair.  When  he  M-as  fourteen 
years  of  age  his  mother  died,  a  little  before 
which  time  he  joined  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church;  but  in  1876  he  joined  the  Baptist 
church,  and  December  25,  1877,  married 
Mary  E.  Sharp,  a  memberof  the  same  church. 
His  father  kept  house  but  a  short  time  after 
his  mother's  death,  and  he  and  his  brother 
were  consequently  left  to  shift  for  themselves. 
He  was  generally  industrious,  however,  work- 
ing mostly  on  a  farm,  and  some  as  a  car- 
penter; he  carried  mail  four  months,  and  was 
also  engaged  in  numerous  other  odd  jobs,  in 
various  places. 

Being  a  creature  ot  high  temper,  he  occa- 


GOYERNMENTAl.. 


sioiially  had  a  fight,  and,  according  to  what 
he  said,  was  always  victorions.  The  hist 
light  he  liad  was  with  a  man  named  Lon 
Glaric,  in  Illinois.  Tliej  snapped  revolvers 
at  each  other,  hut  neither  of  tlie  revolvers 
fired.  The  ti'ouble  began  on  the  qncstion 
who  should  go  home  with  a  certain  girl. 
After  the  revolvers  failed,  the  parties  clinched, 
when  Watson  gained  the  victory  and  marched 
off  with  the  girl. 

Watson  never  made  a  practice  of  getting 
drunk,  but  would  occasionally  drink  with  a 
friend.  He  had  such  a  disposition  as  one 
would  suppose  was  developed  by  being  teased 
and  tantalized  when  an  infant;  was  fretful, 
suspicious,  overbearing  and  ugly;  but  in  jail 
he  was  always  kind  to  his  fellow  prisoners 
and  to  the  jailor,  Spencer  H.  Dallas. 

January  9, 1879,  Watson  went  to  High- 
land and  purchased  of  Ezra  Compton  25 
cents  worth  of  soap,  on  credit.  The  next 
(\-Ay  his  brother  Florence  bought  an  ax 
at  the  same  place,  and  in  paying  for  it  he 
handed  Mi-.  Compton  a  $2  bill  to  change. 
The  latter,  not  being  well  acquainted  with 
the  brothers,  and  thinking  this  was  the  same 
who  had  bought  the  soap  the  preceding  day, 
reserved  pay  for  it  also,  in  making  the  change. 
Florence  asked  for  an  explanation,  when 
Compton  said  he  supposed  he  desired  to  pay 
for  the  soap  also.  Then  Florence  had  to 
explain  that  it  was  his  brother  who  obtained 
the  soap,  and  added  that  it  was  all  right,  and 
mark  that  debt  cancelled  also. 

Arriving  home,  Florence  told  his  brother 
Walter  that  he  thought  it  was  "  a  little  thin  " 
to  buy  so  small  a  quantity  of  soap  and  having 
it  charged.  Walter  denied  the  charge,  flew 
into  a  terrible  rage  and  declared  he  would 
have  satisfaction  out  of  Compton.  Seizing 
his  brother's  revolver  I'lom  an  adjoining 
room,  he  sallied  forth,  despite  the  entreaties 
of  his  wife,  and  walked  to  the   village,  two 


miles  away,  bent  on  revenge.  First,  he  de- 
manded to  know  of  Mr.  Compton  why  he  had 
caused  his  brother  to  pay  for  the  soap  when 
he  had  promised  to  wait  on  him  till  he  could 
get  the  money.  Mr.  Compton  explained  the 
matter  to  him,  but  he  was  too  greatly  excited 
to  be  reasonable.  Even  handing  back  the 
twenty-five  cents  by  Mr.  Compton  had  no 
effect  in  cooling  down  the  boiling  caldron. 
Compton  then  ordered  him  out  of  the  store. 
He  withdrew  for  a  moment,  but  stepping 
back  upon  the  threshold,  he  pointed  the  deadly 
weapon  toward  his  victim,  and  exclaimed, 
"  D — n  you !  I'll  shoot  you  anyhow,"  and 
fired  the  fatal  shot,  which  passed  into  Comp- 
ton's  body  in  the  inguinal  region  and  lodged 
in  the  spinal  column.  The  poor  man  died 
the  next  day. 

Immediately  after  the  shooting,  Watson 
started  for  home,  brandishing  his  revolver 
and  making  terrible  threats  of  what  he  should 
do  if  Compton  should  attempt  to  follow  him. 
He  told  several  parties  in  bravado  style  tliat 
he  had  killed  Compton,  and  had  a  few  more 
pills  left  for  any  of  his  friends  who  might 
sympathize  with  him.  Late  that  evening  he 
was  arrested. 

The  next  month  he  was  indicted  for  mur- 
der in  the  first  degree,  and  tried  during  that 
term  of  court,  Thomas  F.  Davidson,  Judge. 
The  attorneys  for  the  prosecution  were  Prose- 
cutor A.  P.  Harrell,  and  Messrs.  Jump  & 
Cnshman  and  K.  B.  Sears.  As  Watson  was 
poor  and  had  no  means  to  employ  legal  talent. 
Judge  Davidson  appointed  Messrs.  Rhoads& 
Parrett  and  J.  C.  Sawyers  to  defend  him. 
The  jury  consisted  of  William  Collett,  T.  J. 
Stark,  Solomon  Ilines,  M.  J.  liudy,  AVallace 
Moore,  William  C.  Groves,  J.  S.  Shaner,  R. 
C.  Jones,  J.  R.  Gouty,  J.  R.  Dunlap,  Alfred 
Carmack  and  John  Van  Duyn,  who  on  the 
first  ballot  unanimously  found  the  accused 
guilty.     The  usjial  steps  for  a  n,ew  trial,  coin- 


BISTORT    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


mutation  of  sentence,  etc.,  were  made,  but  in 
vain,  and  on  the  3d  of  April,  between  12  and 
1  o'clock,  Walter  Watson  was  hanged  in  the 
jail  yard,  in  the  presence  of  a  few  spectators, 
who  were  admitted  by   ticket. 

Ezra  Compton,  the  murdered  man,  was  a 
young  gentleman  of  integrity  and  high  char- 
acter, and  had  been  married  but  four  weeks. 
By  steady,  hard  manual  labor,  protracted  for 
six  years,  he  had  managed  to  save  $1,300, 
which  but  a  few  weeks  previous  to  his  mur- 
der he  had  invested  in  general  merchandise, 
and  was  commencing  as  a  merchant  at  High- 
land, lie  had  not  an  enemy  in  the  world, 
except  the  high-tempered,  unreasonable  Wal- 
ter Watson,  a  few  hours  before  the  linal 
tragedy. 

The  renuiins  of  the  executed  criminal  were 
interred  in  Kelt's  Prairie  Cemetery,  where 
his  father  and  others  guarded  the  place 
for  several  nights  to  prevent  body-snatching 
by  physicians.  Becoming  weary  of  such 
duty,  they  buried  about  six  inches  of  heavy 
plank  over  the  coffin,  making  it  a  tedious  task 
for  vandals  to  "  resurrect  "  the  remains. 

Many  citizens  thought  that  Florence  Wat- 
son was  as  much  to  blame  as  Walter,  if  not 
more,  as  he,  knowing  his  brother's  ungovern- 
able temper,  inflamed  his  passions  by  inti- 
mating that  Crompton  was  afraid  to  trust 
him  any  more,  etc.,  and  left  the  county  after- 
ward refusing  to  help  his  accused  brother. 

But  there  is  a  sequel  to  the  above  tragedy, 
portrayed  in  the  Indianapolis  Herald  in  terms 
characteristic  of  the  old-fashioned  novel.  It 
describes  Mrs.  Watson  as  a  remarkable  hero- 
ine. She  was  determined  to  accompany  her 
husband  to  the  scaffold,  despite  the  remon- 
strance of  all  around  her.  One  of  the  attend- 
ing ministers  remarks  in  gentle  accents, 
"  Mrs.  Watson,  this  will  never  do."  As  quick 
as  the  lightning's  flash  she  turned  on  him, 
replying,  "  1  should  not  have  expected  this 


from  a  minister.  When  I  was  married  I 
promised  a  minister  that  I  would  cleave  to 
my  husband  '  for  better  or  for  worse,'  and  1 
am  going  to  keep  that  promise  as  far  as  God 
will  let  me." 

Mrs.  Watson  was  a  small  woman,  but  with 
a  great  soul.  Her  face  was  a  study  for  an 
artist,  being  a  blonde  of  pronounced  tyjte, 
with  high  and  broad  forehead,  irregular 
features,  but  exquisite  in  their  delicacy  fi,nd 
mobility;  eyes  large  and  intelligent.  At 
one  moment  her  mouth  would  indicate  great 
tenderness  and  sweetness  of  disposition,  but 
in  an  instant  her  lips  would  compress  with  a 
firmness  that  would  fill  one  with  surprise. 

She  assisted  in  arranging  her  husband  for 
the  final  scene,  and  even  contributed  some 
articles  to  his  wardrobe — a  neck-tie  and  a 
pair  of  slippers.  The  latter,  with  her  own 
hands,  she  placed  upon  his  feet,  and  put 
the  tie  around  his  neck  with  a  care  and  de- 
tail that  could  not  have  been  out  of  place  had 
she  been  decking  him  out  for  a  mari-iage 
feast.  She  then  combed  his  hair,  and,  after 
having  finished  the  last  loving  touch,  re- 
marked, "  Xow  you  are  ready,  Walter,  and  I 
will  go  M'ith  you."  Holding  her  husband's 
hand,  the  brave  little  woman  accompanied 
him  to  the  scatfold,  amid  the  stillness  that 
was  absolutely  painful.  They  took  seats  side 
by  side;  she,  tenderly  taking  his  hand  in 
hers,  caressed  it,  and  then,  giving  away  to 
tears,  she  fell  wailing  upon  his  breast.  Thus 
they  sat,  while  prayers  ascended  to  heaven 
asking  mercy  upon  the  doomed  man,  she 
sobbing  upon  his  bosom  and  he  calm,  await- 
ing his  fate. 

The  sheriff'  changed  the  scene,  saying, 
"  Stand  up,  Walter  Watson."  The  wife  arose 
with  him.  "  Good  by,  Walter,"  were  her 
parting  words  as  she  once  more  passionately 
kissed  him.  Then  turning  her  pale  face,  full 
of  bitterness  and  reproach,  upon  the  specta- 


^ 


GOVERNMENTAL. 


tors,  she  fell  into  the  loving  arms  of  some 
female  friends  and  was  borne  away. 

After  the  execution,  the  body  of  her  dead 
husband  was  delivered  to  her.  She  had  been 
weeping  loud  and  bitterly,  but  she  heroically 
dried  lier  eyes,  approached  the  coffin,  looked 
lovingly  upon  the  dead  face,  kissed  his  lips, 
eyes  and  brow,  arranged  the  neck-tie  with 
tender  hands  once  again,  and  quietly  said, 
"  JS'ow  please  close  the  coffin  and  let  no  one 
yce  my  Walter  again.  I  cry  no  more.  God 
have  mercy  upon  me  and  little  baby!  '' 

EARLY  JUSTICES  OF  THE  PEACE. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  all  the  jus- 
tices of  the  peace,  with  dates  of  commissions, 
who  were  appointed  for  Vermillion  County 
previous  to  1830: 

James  Blair,  Zeno  Worth,  William  Ar- 
nold, John  Hair,  Sr.,  Michael  Patton,  John 
Porter,  James  Andrew  and  Joseph  Schooling, 
August  7,  1824;  Christian  Zabrisky,  October 
10,  1825;  John  Gardner,  December  17, 
1825;  Samuel  Paish,  October  16,  1826;  Nor- 
man D.  Palmer,  IS'ovember  1,  1826;  Jacob 
Custer,  March  19,  1827;  John  T.  Chunn, 
June  11,  1827;  Isaac  Keys,  January  2,  1828; 
John  Anglin,  February  24,  1828;  John  Ar- 
mour, June  13,  1828;  James  Groenendyke, 
June  13,  1828;  John  Payne,  December  8, 
1828;  Thomas  Chenoweth,  June  19,  1829; 
Joseph  Shaw,  September  18,  1829;  George 
Hansncker,  September  18,  1829;  Joseph 
Schooling,  September  18,  1829. 

OFFICIAL    REGISTER. 

Below  are  given  the  names  of  the  incum- 
bents of  the  several  county  offices,  with  the 
dates  of  their  legal  assumption  of  office, 
from  the  organization  of  the  county  in  1824 
to  the  present  yer.r,  1887.  The  names  and 
dates  are  strictly  correct,  being  obtained  from 


the  official  records  in  the  Secretary  of  State's 
office  at  Indianapolis. 


William  Fulton,  February  1,  1824;  Caleb 
Bales,  September  8,  1825;  Charles  Trow- 
bridge, August  14,  1828;  William  Craig, 
August  28,1832;  Allen  Stroud,  August  16, 
1834;  William  Bales,  August  13,  1838; 
Charles  Trowbridge,  August  8,  1842;  Owen 
Craig,  August  20,1846;  Eli  Newlin,  August 
25,  1848;'Ricliard  Potts,  August  12,  1852; 
James  II.  Weller,  November  18,  1856;  Isaac 
Porter,  November  18,  I860:  Harvey  D. 
Crane,  November  18,  1861;  Jacob  S.  Steph- 
ens, November  18,  1868;  Lewis  II.  Beck- 
man,  November  18,  1872;  Spencer  II. 
Dallas,  November  18,  1876;  William  C. 
Myers,  November  18,  1880;  John  A.  Darby, 
November  18,  1884. 

CLERKS  AND    REOJRDERS. 

James  Thompson,  April  22, 1824  (declined 
to  qualify);  William  Kennedy,  September  8, 
1824  (died  in  office);  James  T.  Pendleton, 
August  29,  1826;  Stephen  B.  Gardner,  Au- 
gust 27,  1827;  John  W. Push.  June  8,1833; 
Alexander  B.  Florer,  April  22,  1838.  Offices 
separated  in  the  spring  of  1852. 


James  A.  Bell,  April  22,  1852;  William 
E.  Livengood,  April  22,  1860;  James  A. 
Bell,  April  22,  1868;  William  Gibson,  April 
22,  1872;  James  Roberts,  April  22,  1880; 
Alfred  R.  Hopkins,  April  22,  1884. 


Alexander  B.  Florer,  April  22,  1852;  An- 
drew F.  Adams,  November  2,  1861;  Robert 
E.  Stephens,  November  2,  1865;  Jacob  A. 
Souders,    November   2,   1874;  Cornelius  S. 


! 


i( 


Davis,  October  26,  1878;  Melville  B.  Carter, 
November  13,  1886. 

TREASURERS. 

William  Utter,  November  23,  1852; 
George  11.  Sears,  November  23,  1854; 
George  W.  Englisb,  November  23,  1856; 
James  A.  Foland,  November  23,  1860; 
James  A.  Bell,  November  23,  1864;  Samuel 
B.  Davis,  November  23,  1865;  James  A. 
Foland,  November  23,  1870;  James  Os- 
borne, November  23,  1874;  John  H.  Bogart, 
November  23,  1876;  Henry  O.  Peters,  No- 
vember 23,  1880;  William  L.  Porter,  Novem- 
ber 23,  1884. 

ASSOCIATE  JUPGES. 

Jacob Castleiuan,  April 22, 1824 (resigned); 
Jacob  Andrick,  April  22,  1824;  Christian 
Zabrisky,  February  4,  1828;  Joseph  Hain, 
Aug'.ist  14,  1828  (resigned  on  being  elected 
Judge);  John  Porter,  April  22, 1831  (resign- 
ed); Alexander  Morehead,  August  19,  1831; 
Mattliew  Stokes,  JVJarch  4,  1835  (resigned); 
Robert  G.  Roberts,  August  18,  1835  (resign- 
ed); Charles  Johnston,  July  11, 1836;  Joseph 
Shaw,  August  9,  1836  (removed  from  coun- 
ty); Alexander  Morehead,  April  22,  1838 
(resigned) ;  Joel  Hume,  August  27,  1838 
(resigned);  Ashley  Harris,  August  11,  1840; 
Eli  Brown,  August  11,  1840  (removed  from 
county);  James  M.  Morris,  October  17, 1842. 
Office  abolished  by  Constitution  of  1852. 

PROBATE  JUDGES. 

Asaph  Hill,  August  14,  1829;  John  W. 
Rush,  January  8,  1833  (resigned);  Rezin 
Shelby,  May  6,  1833;  Francis  Chenoweth, 
August  19,  1847.  Office  abolished  by  Con- 
stitution of  1852. 

AUIIITORS. 

David  Shelby,  August  30, 1854;  Henry  D. 
Washburn,  June  7, 1856;  George  W.  English, 


November  18,  1860;  James  Tarrence,  No- 
vember 18, 1864;  Thomas  Cnshman,  Novem- 
ber 18,  1872;  Elias  Pritchard,  November  18, 
1880. 

SURVEYORS. 

Greenup  Castleman,  March  6, 1824;  James 
Osborn,  November  11,  1826;  John  Collett. 
August  30,  1854;  Edward  Griffin,  November 
18,  1856;  John  Fleming,  November  2,1857; 
David  Shelby,  November  2,  1859;  B.  E. 
Rhoads,  November  2,  1860;  Daniel  Shelby, 
November  2,  1861;  James  M.  Lacy,  Novem- 
ber 7,  1862;  Buskin  E.  Rhoads,  November  2, 
1863;  John  Davis,  November  7,  1864; 
Martin  G.  Rhoads,  October  28,  1865;  Will- 
iam F.Henderson,  October  26,  1870;  John 
Henderson,  October  30,  1872;  Richard  Hen- 
derson, October  30,  1874;  John  Ilendei-son, 
October  30,  1876;  Piatt  Z.  Anderson,  Octo- 
ber 30,  1878;  Fred  Rush,  November  13, 
1884. 

CORONERS. 

Matthew  Stokes,  September  8, 1824;  Carter 
Hollingsworth,  August  29,  1826;  Matthew 
Stokes,  August  14,  1828;  Edward  Marlow, 
August  28,  1832;  Matthew  Stokes,  August 
16,  1834  (resigned);  Peter  J.  Yandever, 
August  18,  1835;  Alfred  T.  Duncan,  August 
9,  1836;  William  Malone,  August  14,  1837; 
Leonard  P.  Coleman,  August  10,  1841;  Will- 
iam Malone,  August  8, 1842;  Durham  Hood, 
August  23,  1844;  Daniel  C.  Sanders,  August 
25,  1848;  Joseph  E.  Ilepner,  August  23, 
1850;  Andrew  Dennis,  August  12,  1852; 
John  Vanduyn,  August  30,  1854;  Robert 
Elliott,  November  18,  1856;  David  Smith, 
November  2,  1857;  George  Luellen,  Novem- 
ber 18,  1858;  John  L.  Howard,  November  2, 
1861;  R.  Harlow  Washburn,  October  30, 
1868;  Tliomas  Brindley,  October  30,  1870; 
Hezekiah  Casebeer,  October  30,  1880; 
Thomas  Brindley,  October  30,  1882, 


OOVERNMENTAL. 


EARLY  CAMPAIGNIMG. 

As  a  relic  of  tlie  enthusiasm  -wliicli  existed 
in  the  old  Whig  party  at  the  date  mentioned, 
the  following  letter  will  prove  interesting. 
It  was  signed  l>j  prominent  citizens  of  Per- 
rysville. 

Pekeysville,  Ind.,  July  10,  1844. 
Dk.  R.  M.  Waterman,  Lodi: 

Respected  Sir: — Owing  to  the  political 
excitement  of  the  times,  and  to  the  expected 
visit  of  Mr.  R.  W.  Thompson  to  our  place  on 
next  Friday,   with  all    creation    besides,  we 


have  been  induced  to  ask  you  to  favor  the 
AVhigs  of  this  place  with  the  loan  of  your 
cannon  for  PMday  next.  We  wish  to  put  a 
stop  to  the  noise  of  this  little  loco-foco  pocket 
piece,  with  a  few  rounds  from  a  Whig  gun. 
Yours,  etc., 
Thomas  II.  Smith,  —  Parnes,  John  Kirk- 
patrick,  David  Hulick,  James  Plair,  P.  H. 
P.oyd,  M.  Gookins,  C.  R.  Jewett,  R.  Haven, 
W.  II.  Prown,  Joseph  Cheadle,  AV.  P.  Mof- 
fatt,  J.  S.  Paxter,  R.  J.  Gessie,  S.  Parnes, 
A.  Hill,  C.  F.  McNeill,  Jacob  Sherfy,  Austin 
Pishop,  J.  S.  Stephens,  P.  R.  Howe,  John  R, 
McNeill,  A.  Dennis,  G.  II.  McNeill. 


^^ 


UISTOItY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


'HE  greatest  difference 
l)et\\een  the  Northern 
and  the  Southern  States 
of  this  Union  evidently 
lias  always  related  to 
the  institution  of  slave- 
ry; but  thib,  in  the  early  his- 
tory of  the  republic,  engendered 
other  prejudices,  especially  in 
the  South  against  the  customs 
of  the  Yankee,  so  that,  in  course 
of  time,  and  in  accordance  with 
that  feature  of  human  nature' 
licli  inclines  to  find  other 
faults  than  the  main  one  with 
the  opposite  party,  the  South- 
ern people  began  to  hate  the  Northern  more 
on  account  of  certain  "  Yankee"  customs  than 
on  account  of  abolitionism  itself.  Like  a 
mass  of  food  in  a  nauseated  stomach,  the 
slavery  question  would  not  remain  settled, 
after  all  the  attempts  at  compromise  in  1820, 
1850  and  1854,  so  that,  on  the  approach  of 
the  Presidential  election  of  1860,  it  became 
evident,  on  account  of  the  division  of  the 
Democratic  party,  that  the  "  abolition  "  party 


would  for  the  first  time  elect  their  nominee 
for  President  of  the  United  States.  He  was 
elected,  and  the  most  hot-headed  Southern 
State  immediately  led  off  in  a  reltellion,  other 
States  following  during  the  winter.  They 
mustered  their  military  forces,  and  by  the 
12th  of  April,  1861,  concluded  they  were 
ready  to  commence  shooting.  On  that  day 
they  opened  upon  Fort  Sumter  and  comjielled 
it  to  surrender. 

As  to  the  part  taken  by  the  Vermillion 
County  people  in  suppressing  this  great  in- 
surrection, we  give  a  brief  sketch  of  the  re- 
spective regiments  in  which  this  county  wa» 
represented  by  volunteers. 

FOCKTEENTH     IXFANTRY. 

The  patriotism  of  Vermillion  County  was 
quick  to  demonstrate  itself,  as  a  company  was 
formed  at  Clinton  within  three  or  four  weeks 
after  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Sumter,  the 
first  overt  act  of  rebellion.  This  was  organ- 
ized as  Company  I  of  the  Fourteenth  Indiana 
Volunteer  Infantry,  with  Philander  E.  Owen 
as  Captain,  who  was  during  the  war  promoted 
Lieutenant  Colonel,  when  John  Lindsey  was 


«SS«??sa«is5S? 


^^iga«5gBgMg»gBgg.fa'^?ag5»y»^"i^»«^  ;  ^ 


THE    CIVIL     WAR. 


commissioned  Captain  to  sncceed  him.  Cap- 
tain Lindsey,  who  enlisted  as  First  Lieuten- 
ant, was  mustered  out  June  24,  1864,  on  the 
expiration  of  his  term.  Upon  his  promotion 
to  the  position  of  Captain,  William  P.  Has- 
kell, who  had  been  appointed  Second  Lieuten- 
ant of  the  organization,  was  commissioned 
First  Lieutenant  to  till  the  vacancy,  and  was 
discharged  November  25,  1863,  for  promo- 
tion in  the  Fourth  liegimentof  United  States 
colored  troops.  James  M.  Mitchell  was  pro- 
moted tVom  the  ottice  of  Second  Lieutenant 
to  that  of  P''irst  Lieutenant.  The  Colonels 
of  the  Fourteenth,  in  succession,  were:  Na- 
than Kimball,  of  Loogootee,  who  was  pro- 
moted Brigadier  General;  William  Harrow, 
of  Vincennes,  also  promoted,  and  John  Coons, 
of  Vincennes,  who  was  killed  in  the  battle  of 
Spottsylvania  •  Court-House,  Virginia,  May 
12,  1864. 

The  Fourteenth  Regiment  was  originally 
organized  at  Camp  Vigo,  near  Terre  Haute, 
in  May,  1861,  as  one  of  the  six  regiments  of 
State  troops  accepted  for  one  year.  Upon  the 
call  for  three  years  troops  the  regiment  vol- 
unteered almost  unanimously  for  that  ser- 
vice. The  new  organization  was  mustered 
into  the  United  States  service  at  Terre  Haute, 
June  7, 1861,  being  the  lirst  three  years  regi- 
ment mustered  into  service  in  the  whole  State 
of  Indiana.  On  its  organization  there  were 
1,134  men  and  otiicers.  They  left  Indianap- 
olis July  5,  fully  armed  and  equipped,  for  the 


seat   ot    war 


Western    Vi 


•gini 


They 


served  on  outpost  duty  until  October,  when 
they  had  their  first  engagement  at  Cheat 
Mountain,  with  Lee's  army,  losing  three 
killed,  eleven  wounded  and  two  prisoners. 
Their  second  engagement  was  vii'tually  in  the 
same  battle,  at  Greenbrier,  October  3,  when 
they  lost  live  killed  and  eleven  wounded. 

March  23,  1862,  under   General    Shields, 
Colonel  Kimball  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  Har-  | 


row,  they  participated  in  the  decisive  battle 
of  Winchester,  when  they  lost  four  killed 
and  fifty  wounded. 

Besides  a  great  deal  of  marching  and  other 
duty,  they  marched  839  miles  between  May 
12  and  June  23,  a  part  of  which  time  most 
of  the  men  were  without  shoes  and  short  of 
rations.  In  July,  for  some  twenty  days,  they 
were  kept  on  outpost  duty  in  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac,  coming  in  contact  with  the 
enemy  almost  night  and  day.  August  17 
they  participated  in  the  great  battle  of 
Antietam,  serving  in  Kimball's  brigade  of 
French's  division,  it  being  the  only  portion 
of  the  line  of  battle  tliat  did  not,  at  some 
time  during  the  engagement,  give  waj'.  On 
this  account  the  men  received  from  General 
French  the  title  of  the  "Gibraltar  Brigade." 
The  Fourteenth  was  engaged  for  four  hours 
within  sixty  yards  of  the  enem3''s  line,  and, 
after  exhaustiiig  sixty  rounds  of  cartridges, 
they  supplied  themselves  with  others  from 
the  boxes  of  their  dead  and  wounded  com- 
panions. In  this  fight  the  men  were  reduced 
in  number  from  320  to  150  !  Soon  afterward 
they  were  still  further  reduced  at  the  battle 
of  Fredericksburg. 

April  28,  1863,  being  a  little  recruited  by 
some  of  the  wounded  recovering,  they  were 
at  the  front  in  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville, 
and  also  at  the  desperate  battle  of  Gettysburg, 
where  they  lost  heavily,  but  did  splendid 
work.  Even  after  this  they  engaged  in  sev- 
eral severe  fights,  and  some  of  the  men  re- 
enlisted,  December  24,  1863.  This  noble 
regiment — what  there  was  left  of  it — was 
finally  mustered  out  at  Louisville,  Kentucky, 
July  12,  1865. 

SIXTEENTH    INFANTRY. 

This  was  first  organized  in  May,  1861,  as  a 
one-year  regiment,  containing  some  volun- 
teers from  Vermillion  County.     Pleasant  A 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


Hackleman,  of  Eusliville,  wasthe  first  Colonel, 
and,  on  his  promotion-  to  the  brigadier- 
generalship,  Thomas  J.  Lucas,  of  Lawrence- 
bnrg,  was  placed  as  Colonel.  Horace  S. 
Crane,  of  Clinton,  this  county,  was  mustered 
in  as  Second  Lieutenant  of  Company  I,  and 
mustered  out  w-ith  the  regiment  as  Sergeant. 
May  27,  1862,  this  was  re-organized  for 
three  years  service,  but  was  not  mustered  in 
until  the  nineteenth  of  August.  On  the  30tli 
of  this  month  it  took  part  in  the  battle  of 
Richmond,  Kentucky,  losing  200  men  killed 
and  wounded  and  600  prisoners!  After  the 
defeat  the  prisoners  were  paroled  and  sent  to 
Indianapolis,  and  were  exchanged  November 
1.  The  regiment  afterward  participated  in 
the  Vicksburg  campaign,  and  did  great  duty 
in  Texas  and  at  Arkansas  Post,  where  it  was 
the  first  to  plant  the  Union  colors  within  the 
fort.  Its  loss  was  seventy-seven  men,  killed 
and  wounded.  In  April  it  participated  in  a 
successful  engagement  at  Port  Gibson,  and 
during  the  ensuing  several  mouths  it  was 
engaged  in  the  siege  of  Vicksburg,  in  which 
it  lost  sixty  men,  killed  and  wounded.  Sub- 
sequently it  had  several  skirmishes  with  the 
enemy  in  Louisiana,  and,  in  the  expedition 
np  the  Red  River,  sixteen  engagements.  The 
regiment  was  mustered  out  at  New  Orleans, 
June  30,  1865. 

EIGHTEENTH    INFANTKV. 

Company  C,  of  this  regiment,  was  wholly 
made  up  of  Yermillion's  noble  sons,  and  all 
its  officers  in  the  roster  are  credited  to  New- 
port. John  C.  Jcnks  was  promoted  from 
Captain  to  Major;  James  A.  Bell,  from  First 
Lieutenant  to  Captain;  Josiah  Campbell  and 
William  B.  Hood,  from  private  to  Captain; 
Harvey  D.  Crane  and  Oscar  B.  Lowroy,  from 
Sergeants  to  First  Lieutenants;  William  II. 
Burtut  was  promoted  from  private  to  First 
Lieutenant;  AVilliam  M,  Mitchell,  from   pri- 


vate to  Second  Lieutenant;  William  W.Zener, 
from  First  Sergeant  to  Second  Lieutenant,  and 
then  to  Adjutant;  Jasper  Nebeker  was  Second 
Lieutenant,  and  died  in  the  service;  Robert 
H.  Nixon  and  John  Anderson  wer  eSergeants; 
the  Corporals  were  Samuel  B.  Davis,  soon 
disabled  by  disease,  and  now  editor  of  the 
Iloosier  State;  John  F.  Stewart,  James  O. 
Boggs,  Alonzo  Hostetter,  Aaron  Ilise,  James 
Henry,  Charles  Gerrish  and  John  A.  Henry. 
John  F.  Leighton,  of  the  recruits,  was  pro- 
moted from  the  ranks  to  the  position  of  Cor- 
poral. Hugh  H.  Conley,  another  recruit, 
has  since  become  a  prominent  citizen  of  the 
county. 

Thomas  Pattison,  of  Aurora,  was  the  first 
Colonel  of  the  Eighteenth,  and  on  his  resigna- 
tion, June  3,  1862,  Henry  D.  Washburn,  of 
Newport,  succeeded  him.  The  latter  was 
brevetted  Brigadier  General  December  15, 
1864,  and  mustered  out  July  15,  1865. 

The  first  service  rendered  b}'  this  regiment 
— which  was  mustered  in  August  16,  1861 
— was  in  Fremont's  march  to  Springfield, 
Missouri.  Soon  afterward  at  Black  Water, 
it  participated  in  capturing  a  large  number 
of  prisoners.  In  March,  1862,  it  was  en- 
gaged in  the  fierce  contest  at  Pea  Ridge, 
where  its  brigade  saved  from  capture  another 
brigade,  and  the  Eighteenth  recaptured  the 
guns  of  the  Peoria  Artillery.  After  several 
minor  engagements  in  Arkansas  it  returned 
to  Southeastern  Missouri,  where  it  was  on 
duty  during  the  ensuing  winter.  The  fol- 
lowing spring  it  was  transferred  to  Grant's 
army,  and,  as  part  of  the  divis'ion  commanded 
by  General  Carr,  participated  in  the  flanking 
of  the  enemy's  position  at  Grand  Gulf,  and 
May  1,  in  the  battle  at  Port  Gilison,  captur- 
ing a  stand  of  colors  and  some  artillery;  also, 
on  the  15th,  at  Champion  Hills,  and  on  the 
ITtli,  at  Black  River  Bridge.  From  the  lUtli 
until  July  4,  it  was  employed  in  the  fanmus 


siege  of  Vicksburg,  where,  during  the  assault, 
it  was  tlie  first  regiment  to  plant  its  colors  on 
the  enemy's  works. 

After  tlie  capitulation  of  Vicksburg,  July 
4,  1863,  the  regiment  moved  to  New  Orleans, 
and  during  the  fall  participated  in  the  cam- 
paign up  the  Teche  River,  and  in  the  opera- 
tions in  that  part  of  Louisiana.  November 
12,  it  embarked  for  Texas,  wliere,  on  tlie  17tli, 
it  was  engaged  in  the  capture  of  a  fort  on 
Mustang  Island,  and  also  in  the  successful 
attack  on  Fort  Esperanza,  on  the  26th.  After 
a  furlough,  in  the  winter  and  spring  of  1864, 
it  joined  General  Butler's  forces  at  Bermuda 
Hundred,  in  July,  where  it  had  several  severe 
skirmishes.  August  19,  it  joined  General 
Sheridan's  Army  of  the  Shenandoah.  In  the 
campaign  that  followed,  the  regiment  par- 
ticipated in  t-he  battle  of  Opequan,  losing 
fifty-four,  killed  and  wounded;  also,  in  the 
pursuit  and  defeat  of  Early,  seven  killed  and 
wounded;  and  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek, 
October  19,  losing  fifty-one,  killed  and  wound- 
ed, besides  thirty-five  prisoners. 

From  the  middle  of  January,  1805,  for 
three  months,  the  Eighteenth  was  assisting  in 
building  fortifications  at  Savannah.  May  3, 
it  was  the  first  to  raise  the  stars  and  stripes 
at  Augusta,  Georgia.  "Was  mustered  out 
August  28,  1865. 

THIKTY-FIKST    INFANTRY. 

This  regiment,  in  which  were  a  number  of 
volunteers  from  Vermillion  Count}-,  was  or- 
ganized at  Terre  Haute,  September  15,  1861, 
for  three  years'  service.  The  colonels  were, 
in  order,  Charles  Cruft,  of  Terre  Haute,  John 
Osborn,  of  Bowling  Green,  John  T.  Smith, 
of  Bloomfield,  and  James  E.  Hallowell,  of 
Bellmore.  It  participated  in  the  decisive 
battle  of  Fort  Donelson;  in  the  battle  of 
Shiloh,  where  it  lost  twenty-two  killed,  110 
wounded  and   ten    missing;  in   the  siege  of 


Corinth;  was  stationed  at  various  places  in 
Tennessee;  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Stone 
Iviver  and  Chattanooga,  of  the  Atlanta  cam- 
paign, Nashville,  etc.,  and  was  on  duty  in  the 
Southwest  until  late  in  the  fall  of  1865, 
many  months  after  the  termination  of  the 
war. 

FOETY-THIRD    INFANTRY. 

Company  I,  of  this  regiment,  was  from 
Vermillion  County.  Samuel  J.  Hall  was 
Captain  from  the  date  of  muster,  October  9, 
1861,  to  January  7,  1865,  the  close  of  his 
term  of  enlistment;  and  then  Robert  B. 
Sears  was  Captain  until  the  regiment  was 
mustered  out.  He  was  promoted  from  the 
position  of  Corporal  to  that  of  First  Lieuten- 
ant, and  finally  to  that  of  Captain.  David  A. 
Ranger,  of  Toronto,  was  First  Lieutenant. 
William  L.  Martin,  of  Newport,  was  first  the 
Second  and  then  the  First  Lieutenant.  George 
W.  Shewmaker  was  Second  Lieutenant  for  the 
first  seven  and  a  half  months.  John  Love- 
lace was  first  a  private  and  then  Second  Lieu- 
tenant. 

George  K.  Steele,  of  Rockville,  was  Colo- 
nel of  the  regiment  until  January  16,  1862; 
William  E.  McLean,  of  Terre  Haute,  until 
May  17,  1865,  and  John  C.  Major  from  that 
time  till  the  regiment  was  mustered  out. 

The  first  engagement  this  regiment  had 
was  the  sieges  of  New  Madrid  and  Island 
No.  10.  Next  it  was  attached  to  Commodore 
Foote's  gunboat  fleet  in  the  reduction  of  Fort 
Pillow,  serving  sixty-nine  days  in  that  cam- 
paign. It  was  the  first  Union  regiment  to 
land  in  the  city  of  Memphis,  and,  with  the 
Forty-sixth  Indiana,  constituted  the  en- 
tire garrison,  holding  that  place  for  two 
weeks,  until  reinforced.  In  July,  1862,  the 
Forty-third  was  ordered  up  AVhite  River, 
Arkansas,  and  subsequently  to  Helena.  At 
the  l)attle  at  this  place  a  year  afterward,  the 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


regiment  was  especially  distinguished,  alone 
supporting  a  battery  that  was  three  times 
charged  by  the  enemy,  repulsing  each  at- 
tack, and  linally  capturing  a  full  rebel  regi- 
ment larger  in  point  of  numbers  than  its  own 
strength. 

It  aided  in  the  capture  of  Little  Kock.  At 
this  place,  January  1,  1864,  the  regiment  re- 
enlisted,  numbering  aboiit  400.  Next  it  was 
in  the  battles  of  Elkins'  Ford,  Jenkins' 
Ferry,  Camden  and  Marks'  Mills,  near  Saline 
River.  At  the  latter  place,  April  30,  the 
brigade  to  which  it  was  attached,  while  guard- 
ing a  train  of  400  wagons  returning  from 
Camden  to  Pine  Bluffs,  was  furiously  attacked 
by  about  6,000  of  Marmaduke's  cavalry.  The 
Forty-third  lost  nearly  200  in  killed,  woiinded 
and  missing  in  this  engagement.  Among 
the  captured  were  104  of  the  re-enlisted  vet- 
erans. 

The  regiment  next  came  home  on  veteran 
furlough,  but  while  enjoying  this  vacation 
they  volunteered  to  go  to  Frankfort,  Ken- 
tucky, which  was  threatened  by  Morgan's 
cavalry,  and  where  they  remained  until  the 
rebel  forces  left  Central  Kentucky.  For  the 
ensuing  year  it  guarded  the  rebel  prisoners  at 
Camp  Morton,  near  Indianapolis.  After  the 
war  was  over  it  was  among  the  first  regi- 
ments mustered  out,  being  mustered  oxit  at 
Indianapolis,  June  14,  1865.  Of  the  164 
men  captured  from  this  regiment  in  Arkansas 
and  taken  to  the  rebel  prison  at  Tyler,  Texas, 
ten  or  twelve  died. 

SEVENTY-FIRST     INFANTRY,     SUBSEQUENTLY     THE 
SIXTH    CAVALRY. 

Company  A  of  this  regiment  was  exclu- 
sively from  Yermillion  County.  Andrew  J. 
Dowdy,  of  Clinton,  was  Ca])tain;  Robert 
Bales,  of  Clinton,  First  Lieutenant;  William 
O.  Norris,  of  the  same  place.  Second  Lieuten- 
ant,    killed     at    the     battle     of    Richmond, 


Kentucky;  Joseph  Hasty,  from  Newport, 
succeeded  him  as  Second  Lieutenant;  First 
Sergeant,  William  O.  Washburn,  of  Clinton; 
Sergeants — Francis  D.  Weber,  of  Newport, 
Johnson  Malone,  Alexander  M.  Staats  and 
George  W.  Scott,  of  Clinton;  Corporals — 
Joseph  Brannan,  Richard  M.  Rucker,  Lewis 
H.  Beckman,  Larkin  Craig,  Daniel  Buntin, 
Reuben  H.  Glearwaters,  John  L.  Harris  and 
Charles  Blanford;  Musicians,  George  W.  Har- 
bison and  James  Simpson.  Most  of  these 
were  credited  to  Clinton,  though  some  of 
them,  as  well  as  many  of  the  privates,  which 
were  accredited  to  Clinton,  and  some  to  New- 
port, were  from  Helt  Township. 

The  Colonel  of  this  regiment  was  James 
Biddle,  of  Indianapolis. 

The  Seventy-first  was  first  organized  as  in- 
fantry, at  Terre  Haute,  in  July  and  August, 
1862.  Its  first  duty  was  to  repel  the  invasion 
of  Kirby  Smith  in  Kentucky.  August  30  it 
was  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Richmond,  Ken- 
tucky, with  a  loss  of  215  killed  and  wounded, 
and  847  prisoners.  After  the  latter  were  ex- 
changed, 400  men  and  ofiicers  of  the  regiment 
were  sent  to  Mnldraugh's  Hill  to  guard  tres- 
tle work;  and  on  the  following  day  they  were 
attacked  by  a  force  of  4,000  rebels  under 
command  of  General  John  H.  Morgan,  and 
after  an  engagement  of  an  hour  and  a  half 
were  surrounded  and  captured.  The  remain- 
der of  the  regiment  then  returned  to  Indian- 
apolis, where  they  remained  until  August  26, 
1863. 

During  the  ensuing  autumn,  with  two  ad- 
ditional companies,  L  and  M,  they  were  or- 
ganized as  a  cavalry  regiment,  and  were  sent 
into  Eastern  Tennessee,  where  they  engaged 
in  the  siege  of  Knoxville  and  in  the  opera- 
tions against  General  Longstreet,  on  the  IIol- 
ston  and  Clinch  rivers,  losing  many  men  in 
killed  and  wounded.  ISfay  11,  1S04,  they 
joined  General    Sherman's  ai-my  in  front  of 


TSE    CIVIL    WAR. 


Dal  ton,  Georgia,  wlierc  it  was  assigned  to  the 
cavalry  corps  of  the  Army  of  the  Ohio,  com- 
manded by  General  Stonenian.  They  en- 
gaged in  the  battles  of  Resaca,  Cassville, 
Kenesaw  Monntain,  etc.,  aided  in  the  capture 
of  Alatoona  Pass,  and  was  the  first  to  take 
possession  of  and  raise  the  flag  upon  Lost 
Monntain.  In  Stoneinan's  raid  to  Macon, 
Georgia,  tlie  Sixth  Cavalry  lost  166  men. 

Returning  to  Nashville  for  another  equip- 
ment, it  aided  General  Rousseau  in  defeating 
Forrest  at  Pulaski,  Tennessee,  September  27, 
and  pursued  him  into  Alabama.  In  the  en- 
gagement at  Pnlaski  the  regiment  lost  twenty- 
three  men.  December  15  and  16  it  participated 
in  the  battle  at  Nashville,  and,  after  the  re- 
pulse of  Hood's  army,  followed  it  some  dis- 
tance. In  June,  1865,  a  portion  of  the  men 
were  mustered  out  of  the  service.  The  re- 
mainder were  consolidated  with  the  residual 
fraction  of  the  Fifth  Cavalry,  constituting 
the  Sixth  Cavalry,  ami  they  were  mustered 
out  in  September  following. 

EIGHTY-FIFTU    INFANTKV. 

Company  D,  of  this  regiment,  was  made 
up  from  the  southern  portion  of  Vermillion 
County.  William  Reeder,  of  Rockville,  was 
Captain  until  June  10,  1863,  and  thencefor- 
ward Caleb  Bales,  of  Toronto,  was  Captain, 
being  promoted  from  the  rank  of  Second 
Lieutenant.  The  vacancy  thus  made  was 
fllled  by  Elisha  Pierce,  of  Clinton,  who  was 
promoted  from  the  position  of  First  Sergeant. 
The  Sergeants  were  James  W.  Taylor,  of  To- 
ronto, William  A.  Richai'dson,  John  A.  C. 
Norris  and  David  Mitchell,  of  Clinton;  and 
the  Corporals  were  Brazier  E.  Henderson, 
Ben  White,  Samuel  Craig,  James  Andrews, 
Valentine  Foos,  Harrison  Pierce,  Joseph  Foos 
n;id  Wesley  A.  Brown.  Musicians,  Andrew 
•I.  Owen  and  John  A.  Curry. 

The  Colonels  of  the  Eighty-fifth  were  John 


P.  Baird,  of  Terre  Haute,  to  July  20,  1864, 
and  Alexander  B.  Crane,  of  the  same  city, 
until  the  mustering  out  of  the  regiment. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  Terre 
Haute,  September  2,  1862.  Its  first  engage- 
ment was  with  Forrest,  with  Colonel  John 
Coburn's  brigade,  March  5,  1863,  when  the 
whole  brigade  was  captured.  The  men  Avere 
marched  to  Tullahoma,  and  then  transported 
to  Libby  Prison  at  Richmond,  amid  much 
suffering,  many  dying  along  the  route. 
Twenty-six  days  after  their  incarceration  the 
men  were  exchanged,  and  stationed  at  Frank- 
lin, Tennessee,  where  they  fought  in  skir- 
mishes until  Bragg's  army  fell  back.  The 
following  summer,  fall  and  winter  the  Eighty- 
fifth  remained  in  the  vicinity  of  Murfrees- 
boro,  guarding  the  railroad  from  Nashville 
to  Chattanooga.  It  participated  in  every  im- 
portant engagement  in  the  Atlanta  campaign, 
being  in  the  terrible  charge  upon  Resaca,  and 
in  the  battles  at  Cassville,  Dallas  Woods,  Gol- 
gotha Church,  Gulp's  Farm  and  Peach  Tree 
Creek.  At  the  last  mentioned  place  it  did 
deadly  work  among  the  rebels. 

This  brave  regiment  then  followed  Sher- 
man in  his  grand  march  to  the  sea,  and  back 
through  the  Carolinas,  engaging  in  several 
battles.  At  Averysboro  it  was  the  directing 
regiment,  charging  the  rebel  works  through 
an  open  fleld,  but  suffered  greatly.  It  de- 
stroyed a  half  mile  of  railroad  in  forty  min- 
utes, corduroyed  many  miles  of  wagon  road, 
and  after  a  twenty-mile  march  one  day  it 
worked  hard  all  night  making  a  road  up  a 
steep,  muddy  bluff,  for  which  they  were 
highly  complimented  by  Generals  Siierman 
and  Slocum,  M'ho  had  given  directions  for  the 
work  and  were  eye  witnesses  to  its  execution. 
After  several  other  important  movements,  it 
had  the  pleasure  of  looking  as  proud  victors 
upon  Libby  Prison,  where  so  many  of  them 
had  suffered  in  captivity  in  1802.     Marching 


HISrORY    OF    YBllMILLION    COUNTY. 


to  Washington,  it  was  mustered  out  of  ser- 
vice, June  12,  1865.  The  remaining  recruits 
were  transferred  to  the  Thirty-third  Indiana, 
who  were  mustered  out  July  21,  at  Louisville, 
Kentucky. 


THE     ONE     HUMDRED     AND 

FANTKY, 


WENTV-NINTH      IN- 


contaiiiing  Company  K  from  Vermillion 
County,  was  recruited  from  the  Tenth  Con- 
gressional District  during  the  winter  of 
18G3-'64,  rendezvoused  at  Michigan  City, 
and  was  mustered  into  service  March  1, 1864, 
with  Charles  Case,  of  Fort  Wayne,  as  Colo- 
nel, and  Charles  A.  Zollinger,  of  the  san:e 
city,  as  Lieutenant  Colonel.  Of  Company  K, 
John  Q.  Washburn,  of  Newport,  was  Captain; 
Joseph  Simpson,  of  Highland,  First  Lieuten- 
ant, and  the  Second  Lieutenants  in  succession 
were  Thomas  C.  Swan,  of  Clinton,  Joseph 
Simpson,  of  Highland,  William  F.  Eddy,  of 
Warsaw,  and  James  Roberts,  of  Clinton. 
Henrj'  J.  Howard,  of  Toronto,  was  Sergeant. 
Corporals — Jasper  Hollingsworth,  Granville 
Gideon  and  John  A¥.  Nixon,  of  this  county, 
besides  others  from  other  counties. 

After  marching  a  great  deal,  the  first  bat- 
tle in  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
ninth  regiment  engaged  was  the  severe  contest 
at  Resaca,  opening  the  celebrated  campaign 
of  Atlanta.  This  was  a  great  victory  for  the 
Union  troops.  Tiie  next  battle  was  that  at 
New  Hope  Church.  Before  and  after  this, 
however,  there  was  almost  constant  skirmish- 
in  very  rainy    weather.     July  19,  1864, 


the  regiment  was 


igage 


d  in  a  severe  fitjht 


near  Decatur,  Georgia,  where  they  lost  heav- 
ily. Soon  afterward  they  were  in  the  fight 
at  Strawberry  Run,  where  they  lost  twenty- 
five  men,  but  enabled  General  Hascall  toturn 
a  position  whicli  our  forces,  a  brigade  of  Gen- 


eral Schofield's  corps,  had   failed  to  turn  the 
day  before. 

Thence,  until  mid-winter,  tlie  regiment 
were  kept  busy  guai'ding  and  engaging  in 
skirmishes.  November  29  occurred  the  bat- 
tle of  Franklin,  where  the  enemy  were  re- 
pulsed with  great  loss.  During  the  latter 
portion  of  the  winter  they  were  marching 
and  skirmisliing  around  near  the  coast  of 
Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  and  engaged  in 
the  battle  of  Wise's  Forks,  where  the  enemy 
met  with  signal  disaster.  The  regiment  was 
engaged  in  provost  duty  about  Raleigh  dur- 
ing the  summer  of  1865,  and  August  29  was 
miistered  out  of  the  service. 

CONCLUSION. 

The  foregoing  is  of  course  but  a  meager 
outline  of  what  the  brave  patriots  of  Ver- 
million County  did  for  their  country  during 
the  last  war;  and  those  who  did  not  go  to  the 
battle-field  did  their  duty  also,  in  giving 
moral  support  to  the  Government  and  labor- 
ing with  heart  and  hand  in  raising  materia! 
supplies  and  comforts  for  these  in  the  field. 
Soldiers'  aid  societies,  county  and  township 
levies,  etc.,  were  forthcoming  in  due  time, 
and  tlie  people  of  this  division  of  the  com- 
monwealth were  not  behind  in  those  noble 
and  terribly  self-sacrificing  offices  which  a 
gigantic  insurrection  devolves  upon  them. 

It  would  be  a  pleasure  were  we  able  to 
print  here  a  list  of  the  soldier  dead  of  Ver- 
million County  in  glowing  colors;  but  a  list 
only  of  those  in  Vermillion  Township  has 
been  compiled,  and  we  concluded  that  unless 
we  could  get  all  we  had  better  not  print  any. 
It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  Grand  Army  of 
the  Republic  in  this  county  will  be  able  in 
the  course  of  time  to  complete  the  list. 


m 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


^^3^,^^^,_^^,^-^^,„^^-,^^^^-^,^^^^^^^^,^ 


ll       MISCELLANEOUS,  i   0, 


J:^^^^^^:^^:^:^^^^^::^^^^^:^-^^:^^^^^ 


RAILROADS. 


CHICAGO    &  E.\STERN  IIXIXOIS. 


lIOUGir  railroad  lines 
running  cast  and  west 
t  li  ro  VI  g  li  Vermillion 
County  were  projected 
as  long  ago  as  1847, 
the  north  and  south 
line  was  first  coni- 
ted,  is  the  most  important  in 
county,  and  will  therefore  be 
■  first  topic  under  this  head. 
The  division  from  Evansville  to 
re  Haute  was  built  as  early  as 
)3-'54:;  but  the  link  tlirough 
s  county,  connecting  Terre 
Haute  with  Danville  was  not  completed  until 
it  was  taken  up  by  Josephus  Collett,  Jr.,  in 
1868-'69.  This  wealthy  and  enterprising  gen- 
tleman, with  the  assistance  of  O.  P.  Davis, 
Nathan  Harvey,  William  E.  Livengood,  Jo- 
seph B.  Cheadle  and  others,  held  rousing 
mass  meetings  throughout  the  county,  when 
they  explained  the  advantages  of  the  road  and 
the  feasibility  of  building  it  with  a  very  light 
tax.    But  little  opposition  or  indifference  was 


manifested.  All  tlie  townships  in  the  county, 
in  1869,  voted  for  a  two  per  cent  tax — the 
limit  of  the  law — or,  rather,  one  per  cent,  in 
addition  to  the  one  per  cent,  voted  b}'  the 
county,  provided  it  should  be  needed. 

While  this  enterprise  was  pending,  a  few 
men  elsewhere  organized  themselves  as  the 
"  Eaccoon  A^alley  Eailroad  Company,"  osten- 


Har 


nony, 


Clay 


sibly  to  build  a  road  fror 
County,  to  a  point  on  the  State  line  near  the 
road-bed  of  the  old  "  Indiana  &  Illinois  Cen- 
tral liailroad  Company,"  passing  through 
Clay,  Parke  and  Vermillion  counties;  but  it 
was  generally  supposed  by  the  citizens  here 
that  that  was  merely  a  ruse,  just  prior  to  the 
vote  to  be  taken  on  the  north  and  south  line, 
to  defeat  the  latter.  Additional  discourage- 
ment was  also  derived  from  other  projected 
east  and  west  lines,  notably  the  narrow-gauge 
route  through  Eugene  Township,  in  which 
the  people  along  the  line  felt  much  interest. 

The  ensuing  election,  however,  gave  a  de- 
cided majority  for  aiding  the  nortli  and  south 
line,  then  called  the  "Evansville,  Terre 
Haute  &  Chicago  Eailroad."  This,  under 
the  management  of  Mr.  Collett  was  com- 
pleted, in  1870,  to    the  great  joy  of  the  peo- 


BISTORT    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


pie  of  Vermillion  County,  but  not  "  to  the 
joy  "  of  most  of  tlie  villages  along  the  route; 
for,  strange  to  say,  it  seemed  to  be  the  object 
of  those  in  power  to  work  in  the  interests  of 
Terre  Hante  and  Dauville,  and  accordingly 
located  the  road  a  mile  or  so  distant  from  all 
the  villages  on  and  near  the  M-est  bank  of  the 
Wabash  except  Clinton.  This  location  of  the 
road  has  had  the  desired  effect,  iu  building 
up  Terre  Haute  and  Danville.  To  prove  the 
advantages  of  railroad  communication,  even 
Clinton  has  been  set  forward  of  all  the  other 
towns  in  the  county. 

Mr.  Collett  was  made  president  of  this  sec- 
tion of  the  road,  which  position  he  held  until 
May  1,  1880,  when  the  link  was  leased  to  the 
Chicago  &  Eastern  Illinois  Company,  the 
present  operators.  The  subsequent  year  ef- 
forts were  made  for  leasing  the  whole  line  to 
the  Louisville  &  Nashville,  and  were  nearly 
successful.  The  present  lessee  pays  the  pro- 
prietors $75,000  a  year  rental,  besides  all 
taxes  and  expeuses  for  repairs.  The  road  has 
a  funded  debt  of  $1,100,000,  the  interest  on 
which  is  six  per  cent. 

On  this  line  there  are  34^  miles  of  main 
track,  which  in  1880  was  assessed  at  $17,000 
per  mile;  seven  miles  of  side-track,  assessed 
at  $2,500  per  mile,  and  rolling  stock  at 
$1,300. 

The  stations  arc,  in  order  commencing  at 
the  south — Clinton,  Summit  Grove,  Hills- 
dale, Opeedce,  Newport,  Walnut  Grove, 
Cayuga  (or  Eugene),  Perrysville,  Gessie, 
Riley sburg  and  perhaps  two  or  three  ]ioints 
of  less  importance. 

INDIANAl'OLIS,  BLOOMINGTON    it  WESTKUN. 

The  first  railroad  proposed  through  Vermil- 
lion County  was  an  cast  and  west  line,  through 
the  northern  portion,  projected  as  early  as  1847, 
and  known  in  short  as  the  Wabash  route,  to 
run  from  Toledo,  Ohio,  to  Springtield,  Illinois. 


Stock  was  subscribed  in  this  county,  and  a 
route  surveyed.  The  first  eifort  was  to  build 
the  road  to  Paris  and  then  to  St.  Louis;  and 
after  considerable  grading  was  done,  the  en- 
terprise was  placed  under  anew  management, 
who  located  the  road  through  La  Fayette, 
Attica,  Danville  and  Springfield  to  St.  Louis, 
and  completed  it  in  1851-'52,  without  touch- 
ing any  part  of  this  county.  After  the  final 
location  of  the  road  in  this  jnanner  the  people 
of  Vermillion,  of  course,  lost  all  interest  iu  it. 
This  road  has  had  various  names:  at  present  it 
is  known  as  the  Wabash,  St.  Louis  &  Pacific. 
The  most  active  men  here  to  work  for  the 
location  of  this  road  through  Vermillion 
County  were  James  Blair,  J.  F.  Smith,  J.  N. 
Jones,  of  Perrysville,  and  Joseph  Moore  and 
Robert  A.  Barnett,  of  Eugene. 

After  struggling  and  waiting  for  many 
tedious  years,  a  company  was  finally  formed 
which  was  accommodating  enough  to'give  \gy- 
million  County  two  and  one-fifth  miles  of  track 
and  a  flag  station,  completing  it  in  1871-'72. 
This  has  long  been  known  as  the  Indianapolis, 
Bloomington  &  Western  Railway  Company, 
but  we  understand  they  have  recently  been 
merged  into  another,  comprising  an  extendeii 
system  of  railways.  In  1880  their  track  in 
this  county  was  assessed  at  $6,700  per  mile. 

TOLEDO,  ST.  LOUIS  &  KANSAS  CITY  RAILWAY  (nAR- 

kow-gauge). 

In  this  road  the  citizens  of  Eugene  Town- 
ship were  more  interested  than  any  other 
section  of  the  county.  They  took  subscrip- 
tions and  voted  a  tax,  but  the  original  com- 
pany failed  to  come  to  time  and  did  not 
realize  subscriptions,  stock  or  tax.  The  link 
here  was  then  known  as  the  Frankfort  & 
State  Line  Road.  The  Toledo,  Cincinnati  & 
St.  Louis  Railroad  Company  constructed  the 
road,  of  a  narrow  gauge,  in  1882,  but,  like 
the  other  company,  left  the  village  of  Eugene 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


223 


a  mile  and  a  half  to  one  side,  crossing  the 
Chicago  &  Eastern  Illinois  Road  at  Cayuga. 
About  two  years  ago  the  company  was  re- 
organized under  the  name  given  in  our  head- 
ing, and  proceeded  immediately  to  enlarge 
the  track  to  the  standard  width,  put  on  first- 
class  rolling  stock  and  made  the  road  in  all 
respects  as  good  as  the  best. 

The  longest  bridge  on  its  route  is  across 
tiie  Wabash  opposite  Eugene,  having  five 
spans  of  160  feet  each.  Of  this  line  there 
are  eight  and  a  half  miles  of  main  track  in 
his  county,  assessed  in  1880  at  $12,000  per 
mile,  and  one  mile  of  side  track,  assessed  at 
$(100. 

INDIANAPOLIS,  KECATUR  ,V  SPRINGFIELD. 

This  railway  was  completed  about  1874, 
without  much  ado  in  raising  stock,  or  sub- 
scriptions or  tax  in  this  county.  Many  years 
ago,  about  1852-'5-4, — during  the  great  period 
of  railroad  projects  every  where, — the  "Indiana 
&  Illinois  Central  Railway  Company"  nearly 
completed  the  grading  on  this  route.  The 
road  is  now  leased  from  the  old  Indianapolis, 
Bloom ington  &  Western  Railway  Company. 
It  has  nine  and  a  half  miles  of  main  track  in 
this  county,  assessed  in  1880  at  $5,000  per 
mile,  and  the  rolling  stock  at  $1,700.  It  has 
two  stations  in  Vermillion  County,  namely — 
Hillsdale,  where  it  crosses  the  Chicago  & 
Eastern  Illinois  track,  and  Dana,  an  enter- 
prising town  two  and  a  half  miles  east  of  the 
State  line. 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Every  acre  of  Yermillion  County  is  good 
farming  land.  About  one-fourth  the  area 
was  originally  prairie,  and  most  of  this  prairie 
is  of  the  common  black-soil  variety.  Nearly 
all  the  rest  of  the  county  is  second  bottom. 
All  this  area,  Ijping  easily  and  well  drained, 
is  available  for  profitable  cultivation.     The 


lower  bottom  lands  are  rich,  much  of  it  being 
subject  to  inundations,  which  leave  a  sediment 
equal  to  the  best  compost,  and  are  therefore 
the  best  for  corn,  except  that  the  floods  and 
frosts  are  often  untimely.  As  high  as  si.xty- 
five  bushels  of  wheat  to  the  acre,  and  110 
bushels  of  corn,  have  been  raised  in  Yermil- 
lion County. 

In  pioneer  times  hemp,  flax  and  cotton 
were  raised  here  to  a  considerable  extent. 
The  flax  and  cotton  were  "home-made"  into 
clothing.  Every  cabin  was  a  factory,  on  a 
small  scale.  The  machinery  for  the  manu- 
facture of  flax  consisted  of  a  brake,  a  wooden 
knife  to  swingle  out  shives  witli,  and  a  hackle 
to  remove  the  tow  and  straighten  out  the  lint. 
They  also  used  the  small  spinning-wheel 
("jenny")  to  twist  it  into  thread.  For  cot- 
ton, a  hand  gin  was  used,  and  hand  cai-ds 
were  employed  to  make  it  into  rolls,  which 
were  spun  into  thread  upon  a  large  spinning- 
wheel.  A  day's  work  for  a  woman  was  to 
card  and  spin  from  six  to  eight  cuts.  Ready- 
made  clothing  was  not  then  known.  Nearly 
every  man  was  his  own  shoemaker.  Some  of 
the  settlers  employed  an  itinerant  cobbler, 
who  went  from  house  to  house  in  the  fall  and 
winter  seasons  with  hiskit  of  tools,  which  was 
quite  limited,  and  boarded  with  the  family 
where  he  worked  until  they  were  shod  all 
around,  or  until  the  leather  was  all  used  up. 
If  there  was  not  enough  to  go  round  the 
youngest  had  to  go  barefoot  all  winter,  which 
was  frequently  the  case. 

At  first  the  settlers  could  not  enter  less 
than  160  acres  of  land,  M'hich  at  the  Congress 
price,  $2  an  acre,  amounted  to  more  than 
most  of  the  settlers  could  pay.  This  hardship, 
however,  was  soon  recognized  by  Congress, 
who  reduced  the  amount  that  might  be  en- 
tered to  forty  acres,  and  the  price  to  $1.25, 
so  that  any  one  who  could  raise  $50  could 
obtain  a  respectable  home. 


lii 


Agricultural  history  strictly  involves  more 
statistics  than  the  average  reader  has  the  pa- 
tience to  study,  or  even  refer  to,  and  we  must 
therefore  omit  at  least  the  details,  contenting 
ourselves  with  only  a  few  general  results. 

Of  wheat  there  was  raised  in  Vermillion 
County,  in  1880,  635,501  bushels;  1881, 
307,938 bushels;  1882,569,i20  bushels;  1883, 
14,955  bushels;  1884,  411,624  bushels. 

Of  corn,  in  bushels,  there  was  raised,  in 
1880, 662,701 ;  1881,  564,108 ;  1882, 970,051 ; 
1883,  832,260;  1884,  1,126,065. 

Of  oats,  during  those  years,  from  54,000 
to  104,000  bushels  was  raised;  of  barley,  from 
none  to  1,760  bushels;  of  rye,  from  100  to 
6,180  bushels;  Irish  potatoes,  18,000  to 
37,000  bushels;  sweet  potatoes,  48  to  840 
bushels;  buckwheat,  160  bushels  (only  the 
crop  for  1883  is  reported);  tobacco,  from  200 
to  3,000  pounds;  timothy  seed  saved,  200  to 
800  bushels. 

The  diminution  of  certain  crops  does  not 
indicate  actual  decline  of  the  agricultural 
interest  generalh',  as  more  ground  is  devoted 
to  pasturage  certain  periods  than  others. 

A  county  agricultural  society  was  organ- 
ized in  1866,  the  tirst  year  after  the  termina- 
tion of  the  war,  and  a  successful  fair  held. 
That  society  continued  to  bold  annual  -ex- 
liibitions  on  their  grounds  northeast  of  New- 
port until  1879,  when,  apparently  on  account 
of  the  railroad  running  through  the  grounds 
and  becoming  more  and  more  a  nuisance, 
public  interest  so  declined  that  they  practi- 
cally disbanded.  In  1880  a  joint  stock  com- 
pany was  orgaTiized,  but  they  failed  to  do 
anything.  Last  year,  liowever,  two  agri- 
cultural associations  were  organized  in  this 
county,  namely,  the  Vermillion  County  Fair 
Association,  liaving  its  headquartei-s  at  Eu- 
gene, and  the  Vermillion  County  Joint  Stock 
Societ}',  with  ]iead(]uarters  at  Newport.  Both 
held  fairs  last  year,  the  latter  with  success, 


but  the  former  with  a  red  need  aggregate  of 
receipts  on  account  of  rainy  weather.  Tiiey 
will  try  it  again  this  year.  At  the  Newport 
fair,  which  was  held  the  first  week  of  Octo- 
ber, the  total  receipts  were  over  $2,200. 
Every  premium  was  paid  in  full.  Two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  stalls  were  occupied  by  horses 
and  cattle,  steam  water-works  and  reser- 
voirs. No  drunkenness  nor  gambling  on  the 
ground,  and  everything  passed  otf  (quietly. 

rOPCLATION    AND    WEALTH. 


Townships, 

Personal  prop- 

inchuling 

Pop.  in 

erly  in 

towns.     Sq.  miles. 

1880. 

1883. 

Clinton,       42 

3,000 

S    643,675 

Helt,            72 

3,027 

1,411,745 

Vermillion,  45 

2,215 

1,086,385 

Eugene,       33 

1,340 

680,870 

Highland,    00 

2,433 
12,015 

1,300,950 

257 

$5,123,625 

The  data  for  tlie  above  figures  are  some- 
what characterized  by  discrepancy,  but  for 
practical  purposes  they  are  sufhciently  exact. 
The  real  estate  is  estimated  at  about  §6,000,- 
000  for  the  county.  The  total  wealth  of  tlie 
county  may  now  be  given  in  round  numbers 
at  about  $12,000,000. 

The  taxes  in  1880  were,  for  State  purposes, 
$17,219;  county,  $21,683;  town,  village  and 
school  district,  $16,962.  The  bonded  debt 
then  was  $27,600;  floating,  $100;  no  sink- 
ing fund. 

There  were,  in  1880,  forty-seven  manufac- 
turing establishments,  with  an  invested 
capital  of  $127,700,  employing  105  hands, 
to  whom  were  paid  in  wages  that  year  (end- 
ing May  31, 1880),  $22,025;  value  of  materi- 
als, $166,732;  of  products,  $222,946. 

Tlie  population  of  most  of  the  villages 
grown  a  great  deal  since  the  last  Federal  cen- 
sus was  taken.     The  estimates  given   by  th 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


residents  of  the  respective  villages  are  given 
in  the  township  histories  on  succeeding 
pages.  The  school  enumeration,  being  about 
one-tliird  of  the  total  population,  gives  cor- 
roboration of  the  estimates  adopted. 

It  has  often  been  a  subject  of  remark  that 
there  is  something  aT)out  Vermillion  County 
that  is  very  favorable  to  longevity.  In  1877 
it  was  ascertained  that  there  were  ninety-six 
voters  in  the  county  between  seventy  and 
eighty  years  of  age,  nineteen  between  eighty 
and  ninety,  and  two  over  ninet3-.  At  that 
time  Jesse  Richmond  was  the  oldest  man  in 
the  county,  being  ninety-five  years  of  age, 
and  his  wife,  who  was  then  still  living,  was 
ninety-four  years  old. 

THOKOUGHFAEES. 

In  addition  to  the  account  we  have  given 
of  the  railroads,  we  should  note  the  advance 
made  over  the  rest  of  the  territory.  At  first 
the  Wabash  River  constituted  the  only  outlet 
for  the  exports  of  the  county,  and  hence  fiat- 
boating  was  a  prominent  pursuit,  many  of  the 
old  settlers  having  made  twenty  to  fifty  trips 
to  I^ew  Orleans.  James  L.  Wishard  once 
made  the  return  trip  on  foot,  but  generally 
the  voyagers  returned  by  steamboat.  "Will- 
iam Swan  and  "Wesley  Southard  each  made 
about  sixty  trips  to  New  Orleans. 

In  the  fall  season  goods  were  brought  from 
Evansville  and  Cincinnati  by  wagon.  The 
men  often  went  in  companies  for  mutual  pro- 
tection and  assistance,  with  five  or  six  horse 
teams.  One  of  the  lead  horses  always  wore 
a  set  of  bells.  If  a  team  got  stuck  in  a  mud- 
hole  or  on  a  hill,  it  was  the  custom  for  any 
teamster  with  the  same  number  of  horses  to 
make  an  efi'ort  to  ])ull  the  wagon  out.  In 
case  of  success  the  bells  changed  ownership. 
In  this  way  the  bells  were  constantly  changing 
from  one  to  another.     In  a  few   years  the 


river  boats  superseded  this  expensive  mode  of 
shipping. 

The  surface  of  Vermillion  County  is  natu- 
rally far  more  favorable  for  wagoning  than 
most  counties  in  the  State.  In  addition  to 
this,  the  enterprise  of  the  citizens  has  added 
the  following  well-finished  turnpikes:  One 
from  Newport  to  Walnut  Grove  and  Eugene; 
Newport  to  Quaker  Point;  from  a  point  on 
the  latter  to  Dana;  from  Dana  to  Clinton; 
from  Clinton  to  the  State  line,  on  the  Paris 
road;  Clinton  to  the  county  line,  on  the  road 
to  Terre  Haute;  from  Perrysville  southwest 
about  eighty  miles. 

EDUCATION. 

Vermillion  County  is  confessedly  ahead  of 
most  others  in  this  latitude  in  the  character 
of  her  public  schools.  As  the  people  "  take 
pride  "  in  this  institution,  so  do  the  teachers. 
Institutes  and  normals  have  been  faithfully 
attended  and  zealously  and  profitably  con- 
ducted. 

Helt,  Eugene  and  Highland  townships 
have  graded  schools,  while  Vermillion  Town- 
ship united  until  recently  with  Newport  in 
sustaining  a  graded  school,  and  the  town  of 
Clinton  has  an  excellent  graded  school,  to 
which  the  pupils  of  the  township  are  some- 
times admitted. 

Arrangements  have  been  made  by  the 
school  board  for  a  uniform  length  of  school 
session  throughout  the  county.  The  per  cent, 
of  enrollment  was  raised  from  78  in  1882- 
'83,  to  85  in  •1883-'84,  and  the  per  cent,  of 
attendance  correspondingly  increased.  In 
1874  it  was  reported  that  418  children  who 
had  attended  school  could  not  read.  The 
number  has  been  growing  smaller  each  year 
until  none  are  so  reported  by  the  last  enu- 
meration, although  there  are  probably  a  few. 

The  last  log  cabin  school-house  was  supeiN 


!«L— •«!«-_»: 


seded  many  years  ago.     The  respective  town- 


ii 


ps  n<jw  have  the 

following: 

Clinton, 

Brick. 
3 

Frame 
9 

Ilelt, 

3 

20 

Verniillion, 

1 

12 

Eugene, 

1 

7 

Highland, 

1 

11 

9  59 

Estimated  value  of  school-houses  and  lots, 
$59,000;  of  school  apparatus,  globes,  maps, 
etc.,  about  S4,000.  Number  of  teachers  em- 
ployed in  the  county,  about  eighty-five.  The 
enumeration  of  school  children  (six  to  twenty- 
one  years  of  age)  for  September,  1886,  was 
4,291,  and  the  enrollment  8.467,  or  about 
eighty  per  cent. 

The  county  seminary  at  Newport  was 
built  in  early  days,  under  the  general  law 
appropriating  a  fund  for  the  purpose.  The 
same  building,  with  an  addition,  constitutes 
the  present  "public-school  "  house. 

The  earnestness  of  the  teachers  in  seeking 
professional  knowledge  is  shown  by  their 
large  attendance  at  the  various  normal  schools 
of  the  State,  their  general  habit  of  reading 
educational  journals,  and  the  wide-spread  in- 
terest taken  in  institutes  and  associations.  The 
townships  principals  appointed  to  preside 
over  and  superintend  the  township  institutes 
are  expected  to  organize  and  direct  the  work 
of  the  "  Teachers'  Eeading  Circle." 

Atone  of  the  institutes  the  following  in- 
genious poem  was  read,  which  deserves  a 
place  in  this  work: 

A   PEDAGOGICAL   POEM. 

Written  for  the  Hoosier  State,  by  C.  W.  Joab. 

I'm  Tvith  vou  here,  my  teachers  dear, 

To  read  a  little  poem. 
I  often  have  some  queer  ideas  about  the  calami- 
ties and 
Jlisfortunes  in  the  teacher's  sad  career, 

y^n'  I  thought  you'd  like  to  kiiow  'em. 


We  tug  and  sweat,  with  care  we  fret, 

In  this  vacation  toiling. 
Now    just    give   me    your     undivided   attention 

while  I  speak  of  some  misfortunes 
With  which  our  pathway  is  beset: 

To  do  so,  I  am  spoiling. 

For  years  we  toil,  in  constant  broil 

To  get  an  education; 
And  after  many  disappointments. 
Burdened  with  anguish  and  turmoil. 

We  get  a  situation. 

The  most  of  men  consider  then 

That  we  from  care  are  free,  sir; 
But  I'd  have  you  understand  that  I've 
The  business  tried, time  and  again: 

We're  in  up  to  our  knees,  sir. 

With  all  our  might,  from  morn  till  night, 

Our  weary  brain  we  rob,  sir; 
For  when  you  manage  a  house  full   of  little   sav- 
ages 
In  a  village  school,  you're  right,— 

You  "have  no  idle  job,"  sir. 

You'll  meet  with  scorn,  sure  as  you're  born ; 

Some  men  will  be  your  foes,  sir. 
Yes,    some    old    fogies  can  not  digest  the   solid 
kernel  of  truth;  they  hanker  after  husks  and 
chaff 
And  small  potatoes  and  soft  corn ; 
I've  met  with  such  as  those,  sir. 

In  humor  grum,  they  will  not  come. 

To  see  tlie  order  there,  sir, 
And  witness  the  fact  that  some  pupils 
Are  stupid,  lifeless,  deaf  and  dumb. 

And  view  the  subject  fair,  sir. 

But  all  Ihey  know  about  the  show- 
Is  what  by  chance  they  hear,  sir. 

They  are  ever  ready  to  catch  all  tales  of  scandal 
and  idle  gossip 

As  the  children  homeward  go. 
Believing  all,  I  fear,  sir. 

Some  say  that  you  will  never  do : 

The  pupils  do  not  mind,  sir. 
They  plainly  tell  you   to   give   the  little  youk^rs 

regular  old  Sam  Hill, 
And  just  to  put  Ihem  through. 

And  not  to  be  too  kind,  .sir, 


i 


i^g»s^-^is»8ii»»~«-»»"»g-"-"-»-iW.i»nir'»^»J»i«Bii'"«*iii»«"ia'; 


Bui  when,  forsooth,  you  flog  a  youth, 

His  pa  comes  in  to  beat  you. 
"See  here!  what  right  had  you  to  whip  Biy  boy? 

1  know  the  facts  iu  the  case : 
My  children  tell  the  truth." 

And  that's  the  way  they  treat  you. 

Day  after  day,  for  little  pay. 

We  work,  witli  few  vacations; 
And  bear  all  this  meanness  and  abu>e 
In  a  good-natured,  Christian  way, — 

Iu  never-ending  patience. 

COUNTY    SOCIETIES. 

Veniiilllon  County  Medical  Societij. — In 
July,  1869,  a  meeting  was  held  at  Newport, 
comprising  James  McMeen  and  William  C. 
Eichelbarger,  of  Eugene;  Hiram  and  Lewis 
Shepherd,  of  Quaker  Point;  Henry  C.  Eaton, 
of  Brouillet's  Creek,  and  M.  L.  Hall  and  C. 
Leavitt,  of  Newijort,  — for  the  purpose  of 
organizing  a  county  medical  society.  They 
a<ljourned  to  meet  again  a  week  or  two  after- 
ward, but  we  tind  no  account  of  further 
meetings  until  1873,  when  they  organized, 
electing  I3r.  I.  B.  Hedges,  of  Clinton,  presi- 
dent. The  membership  subsequently  attained 
twenty-two  in  number,  but  the  association 
was  permitted  to  "  run  down  "  in  the  course 
of  about  four  years. 

Western  Indiana  Scientific  Association. — 
The  scientific  spirit  of  AVilliam  Gibson,  then 
of  Newport  but  previously  of  Perrysville,  led 
him  during  the  summer  of  1875  to  call  a 
meeting  of  the  friends  of  science  with  the 
view  of  organizing  for  efficient  work.  In 
August,  tliat  year,  a  preliminary  meeting  was 
held  at  Newport,  comprising,  among  others. 
Professor  !>.  E.  Rhoads,  William  Gibson,  M. 
L.  Hall,  William  L.  Little,  Jesse  Houchin. 
P.  Z.  Anderson  and  Samuel  Groenendyke, — 
the  last  two,  however,  sending  letters  of 
regj-et  for  tlieir  absence. 

At  the  next  meeting,  August  30,  they  or- 
ganized as  the  "  Westeni  Indiana  Ilistorical 


and  Scientific  Association,"  with  a  con- 
stitution and  by-laws,  "  for  the  purpose  of 
promoting  discovery  in  geology,  archaeology 
and  other  kindred  sciences;  for  our  mut- 
ual improvement  therein,  and  for  securing 
a  cabinet  of  natural  history  and  a  collection 
of  minerals  and  fossils  as  will  illustrate  the 
resources  and  wealth  of  Vermillion  and  ad- 
joining counties  in  these  respects."  The  con- 
stitution was  signed  by  John  Collett,  William 
L.  Little,  William  Gibson,  H.  H.  Conley,  M.  L. 
Hall,S.  E.  Davis,  M.  G.  Ehoads,  Jesse  Hou- 
chin, W.  C.  Eichelberger,  Samuel  Groenen- 
dyke, B.  E.  lihoads  and  P.  Z.  Anderson.  Mr. 
Collett  was  elected  President,  M.  G.  Rhoads, 
Vice-President;  AVilliam  L.  Little,  Treasurer; 
H.  II.  Conley,  Corresponding  Secretary;  M. 
L.  Hall,  Recording  Secretary,  and  AVilliam 
Gibson  Librarian  and  Curator. 

But  the  association,  like  most  others  of  the 
kind,  forgot  to  provide  (or  perhaps  could  not) 
for  longevity  by  finding  successors  for  the 
most  active  man.  Mr.  Gibson,  the  moving 
spirit,  after  fitting  up  and  filling  a  neat  little 
building  with  specimens,  moved  away:  the 
soul  gone,  the  organism  was  ot  course  dead. 

The  Patrons'' Mutual  Aid  Society,  or  Ver- 
million County  Fire  Insurance  Company,  was 
organized  in  the  summer  of  1879,  by  the 
Patrons  of  Husbandry,  and  is  still  flourishing. 

The  County  Bible  Society,  with  auxiliary 
societies  in  the  respected  townships,  and  the 
County  Sunday -school  Association,  similarly 
organized,  are  still  at  work,  the  latter  quite 
vigorously.  These,  especially  the  former,  are 
old  institutions. 

A  county  temperance  organization,  as  a 
result  of  the  '•  blue-ribbon  movement,  "  was 
eflected  February  16, 1882,  at  Newport.  The 
meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Capt.  R.  B. 
Sears,  of  Newport,  a  member  of  the  State  or- 
ganization. i)r.  E.  T.  Spotswood,  of  Perrys- 
villcj  was  chosen  temporary  chairman,  and  E: 


!i 


H.  Hayes,  of  Clinton,  'secretary.  The  per- 
manent officers  elected  were,  William  Gibson, 
President;  Thomas  Cushman,  Secretary;  0. 
S.  Davis,  Ti-easurer.  Vice  presidents  were 
appointed  for  the  various  townships,  and  an 
executive  committee.  Mrs.  Emma  Molloy, 
a  noted  temperance  lecturer,  was  invited  to 
make  a  canvass  of  the  county.  The  con- 
stitution of  the  grand  council  was  adopted. 
The  members  adopted  resolutions  to  vote  for 
none  but  temperance  men  for  offices,  and 
favoring  a  prohibitory  liquor  law  for  the  State. 
Not  being  a  religious  or  a  secret  society,  of 
course  it  died. 

THE  COUNTY  POOR  FAEM,  OR  INFIRM.\EY. 

The  farm,  about  two  miles  south  of  New- 
port, near  the  Clinton  road,  and  comprising 
a  quarter  section  of  land,  Avas  first  entered  by 
Wilbur  and  Davis  from  the  Government;  sub- 
sequently Peter  Smith  became  the  owner,  and 
upon  it  as  security  he  borrowed  a  sum  of 
money  from  the  county;  failing  to  pay,  the 
land  became  the  property  of  the  county,  and 
many  years  ago  was  made  a  resort  for  the 
helpless  poor.  The  land  is  valued  at  $35  an 
acre.  The  buildings  hitherto  used  being 
almost  valueless,  the  county  this  year  (1887) 
is  having  erected  a  magnificent  brick  build- 
ing, to  cost  815,750.  It  includes  a  depart- 
ment for  the  ins^ane.  The  plan  for  this 
structure  was  drafted  by  Mr.  Buntin,  an 
architect  of  Indianapolis.  The  building  is 
two  stories  high,  with  basement  under  the 
whole  ground  area,  which  is  40  x  108  feet. 
Can  be  heated  with  either  steam  or  hot  air. 
There  are  thirty-two  rooms  for  inmates,  six 
of  which  are  iinished  for  occupation  by  the 
insane.  Five  rooms  are  set  apart  for  the 
superintendent  and  his  family.  The  contract 
for  the  erection  of  this  building  was  let 
March  30,  1887,  to  Moore  &  McCoy,  of 
Danville,  Illinois.     The  present  superintend- 


ent is  Joseph  Conrad,  who  has  had  the  office 
since  the  spring  of  1881.  His  salary  is 
$600.  Average  number  of  inmates,  about 
twenty. 

POSTOFFICES. 

The  postoffices  of  Vermillion  County, 
enumerating  from  Clinton  northward,  are  as 
follows: 

Clinton. 

St.  Bernice,  at  Jonestown,  in  the  north- 
western portion  of  Clinton  Township. 

Summit  Grove,  on  the  C.&  E.  I.  11.  R.,  in 
Helt  Townihip. 

Toronto,  at  or  near  Bono,  Ilelt  Township. 

Hillsdale,  in  Helt  Township,  at  the  crossing 
of  the  C.  &  E.  I.  and  the  I.,  D.  &  S.  R.  Rs. 

Dana,  in  the  northwestern  portion  of  Helt 
Township,  on  the  1.,  D.  &  S.  R.  R. 

Newport. 

Quaker  Hill,  at  a  place  sometimes  called 
"  Quaker  Point,"  eight  miles  west  of  New- 
port and  in  Vermillion  Township. 

Cayuga,  in  Eugene  Township,  at  the 
crossing  of  the  C.  &  E.  I.  and  the  T.,  St.  L. 
&  K.  R.  Rs.. 

Eugene. 

Perrysville. 

Gessie,  on  the  C.  ct  E.  I.  R.  R.,  in  the 
western  portion  of  Highland  Township. 

Rileysburg,  on  the  same  road,  two  miles 
northwest  of  Gessie. 

Walnut  Grove,  Brownton,  Highland,  Atla, 
Opeedee,  etc.,  are  names  of  other  points  in 
the  county   where    there    are  no  postoffices. 

XOTABLE  METEOROLOGICAL  EVENTS. 

The  winter  of  18I8-'19  was  so  mild  that 
but  one  light  snow  fell,  which  was  on  the 
night  of  February  18.  Livestock  of  all  kinds 
wintered  well  without  being  fed. 

November  18,  1842,  the  Wabash  River, 
although  full,  was  frozen  over,  and  remained 


so  until  April  2.  The  day  preceding  the 
break-up  a  man  with  four  yoke  of  oxen 
hauled  saw-logs  upon  a  wagon  across  the 
river  at  Perrysville. 

In  August,  1875,  and  in  February,  1883, 
and  also  in  February,  1884,  the  floods  of  the 
Wabash  rose  unusually  high  and  swept  away 


hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  worth 
property. 

COUNTY  WALL  MAP. 

A  good  wall  map,  3x6  feet,  of  Vermillion 
County  was  published  in  1870-'72,  by  James 
Tarrance,  County  Auditor,  who  afterward 
moved   to  Terre  Haute  and  then  to  Texas. 


Ij 


! 


Ul  STOUT    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


EARLY    SETTLERS. 


OIIN  VANNEST,  tlie  first 
settler  of  Vermillion  Comi- 
ty, located  on  section  9  of 
this  townsliip,  in  1816.  See 
a  previous  chapter  for  par- 
ticulars. The  second  settler 
in  the  county,  John  Beard, 
also  located  in  this  township, 
building  the  first  house  in  the 
town  of  Clinton,  and  in  1819 
or  1820  the  first  mill  in  the 
county,  afterward  known  as 
Patton's  Mill,  three  and  a  half 
miles  southwest  of  C'linton. 
lie  was  also  the  first  justice  of  the  peace  in 
the  county. 

William  Hamilton  came  in  March,  1818. 
His  son  John  is  the  oldest  living  resident  of 
the  county,  and  very  frail.  William,  another 
son,  died  about  1878. 

Nelson  Eeeder,  deceased,  was  but  two 
years  old  when  his  parents  came  from  Ohio 
and  settled  here  in  1818, 


Judge  Porter,  from  New  York  State,  set- 
tled here  in  1819.  His  son  Charles,  born  in 
1816,  was  a  good  citizen,  but  ended  his  life 
by  suicide. 

John  J.  Martin,  who  died  about  three 
years  ago,  was  in  his  second  year  M'hen  his 
parents  immigrated  to  this  township  in 
1819. 

The  same  year  Daniel  McCulloch,  who 
was  born  in  the  State  of  New  York  in  1797, 
settled  in  Clinton  Township,  upon  a  farm 
five  miles  southwest  of  Clinton,  where  he 
died  a  number  of  years  ago.  W.  B.,  his  sun, 
who  was  born  in  1830,  is  still  a  resident 
here. 

John  Wright,  Sr.,  now  an  undertaker  at 
Clinton,  was  born  in  New  York  State  in 
1818,  and  in  1820  his  parents  brought  him, 
in  emigration,  to  this  county.  George  Wright 
came  in  1832,  and  died  many  j'ears  ago. 
His  wife  Mary,  who  was  born  November  13, 
1805,  in  New  York,  came  to  Indiana  in  1S17. 
settling  near  Terre  Haute,  and  in  1832  came 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


to  this  county,  where  she  died  December  18, 
1882.  Her  only  surviving  child,  "William 
Wright,  has  been  county  commissioner. 

Major  Chunn,  an  officer  in  the  regular 
array,  came  here  from  Terre  Haute  some 
time  previous  to  1820,  and  was  an  efficient 
soldier  in  driving  away  the  Indians;  was 
also  a  participant  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe. 
He  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  here  for  many 
years.  His  son  Thomas  is  still  a  resident  of 
this  township. 

John  Clover,  from  Ohio,  located  in  Clinton 
Township  in  1821,  with  his  son  Joseph  A., 
who  is  yet  living  six  miles  west  of  Clinton. 

Joshua  Dean,  who  was  born  in  Virginia  in 
1801,  settled  liere  in  1822,  and  died  about 
ten  years  ago. 

A  family  named  Andrews  located  in  this 
township  the-  same  year,  in  which  were  sev- 
eral sons. 

Henry  and  Eli  Shew,  natives  of  Xorth 
Carolina,  were  boys  when  they  became  resi- 
dents of  Clinton  Township.  The  former  was 
born  in  1815  and  came  in  1825,  and  the 
latter,  born  in  1819,  was  brought  here  in 
1823. 

Captain  AVilliam  Swan  was  born  in  Penn- 
sylvania in  1802,  settled  in  Clinton  Town- 
ship in  1823,  was  a  member  of  the  first  jury 
in  tlie  county,  followed  the  river,  making  over 
sixty  trips  to  New  Orleans  on  both  rafts  and 
flats,  was  a  Universalist  in  his  religious  be- 
lief, and  a  Freemason,  and  died  January  29, 
1887,  at  Clinton. 

Washington  Potter,  still  living,  was  about 
eight  years  old  when,  in  1823,  he  was  brought 
to  this  township.  He  is  a  native  of  Ohio, 
and  a  carpenter  by  trade. 

Silas  Davis,  a  cooper  and  farmer,  now 
living  in  Kansas,  was  born  in  Ohio  in  1818, 
brought  here  in  1823,  and  lived  here  many 
years. 

The  parents  of  William  and    Israel  Wood 


came  in  1824.  The  latter  are  still  residents 
here. 

John  W.  Hedges  came  also  in  1824.  His 
son,  Dr.  I.  B.  Hedges,  was  born  October  30, 

1819,  died  February  24,  1883,  and  was 
buried  in  Clinton  Cemetery.  He  was  a  re- 
spectable, well  known  physician,  of  many 
years'  standing  in  his  native  county. 

In  1824  came  also  Mr.  Crabb,  father  of 
Walter  G.,  who  was  born  in  Fayette  County, 
Ohio.  Tlie  former  moved  into  Parke 
County. 

James  H.  Allen,  of  Clinton,  born  in  Ohio 
in  1822,  has  been  a  resident  here  sines  1827. 

John  Payton,  an  early  merchant  of  Clin- 
ton, was  born  in  Ohio  in  1818,  and  settled 
here  in  1828. 

This  year  also  came  James  Clark,  Sr.,  from 
Ohio,  where  he  was  born  in  1798,  became  a 
farmer  a  mile  and  a  half  west  of  Clinton, 
and  is  now  deceased. 

Samuel  Davidson,  also  deceased,  was  born 
in  Ohio  in  1817,  and  settled  in  this  township 
in  1830.  Martin  M.  Davidson,  born  in  Ohio 
in  1829,  was  brought  here  in  1832,  lived 
here  many  years,  and  is  now  a  resident  of 
Terre  Haute. 

George  W.  Edwards,  of  Clinton,  was  born 
in  this  State  in  1827,  and  became  a  resident 
here  in  1830. 

Andrew  Eeed,  born  in  Nortli  Carolina  in 

1820,  settled  here  in  1830. 

Thomas  Kibby,  who  was  born  in  this  State 
in  1810,  came  to  Clinton  Township  in  the 
fall  of  1830,  and  is  still  a  resident  here. 

Benjamin  K.  Whitcomb,  born  in  Vermont 
in  1798,  and  his  cousin  and  business  partner, 
John  Whitcomb,  came  in  1828,  .settling  in 
the  village  of  Clinton,  where  they  were 
among  the  first  merchants,  pork  packers,  etc. 
John  died  August  29,  1830,  aged  forty-one 
years.  Benjamin  H.  died  April  23,  18G1, 
and  his  wife,  Anna  S.,  died  May  21,  1800, 


UISTOJRT    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


at  the  age  of  fifty-five  and  a  half  years. 
John  R.  Whitcoinb,  another  merchant,  born 
in  Ohio  in  1804,  first  settled  in  Edgar  Coun- 
ty, Illinois,  in  1832,  and  in  the  village  of 
Clinton  in  1834.  He  died  in  March,  1873, 
leaving  a  widow  (third  wife),  who  is  living  a 
half  mile  west  of  town.  His  first  wife, 
Eunice,  died  May  15, 1832,  aged  only  twenty- 
three  years. 

Scott  Malone,  who  married  Miss  Sarah, 
one  of  the  twin  daughters  of  John  Vannest, 
came  from  Ohio,  and  resided  here  until  his 
death  a  few  years  ago. 

Simeon  Taylor,  horn  in  Indiana  in  1818, 
settled  in  this  county  in  1831,  and  died  a  few 
years  ago.  His  brother,  John  F.,  born  in 
Ohio,  in  1816,  came  in  1833,  and  is  yet 
living. 

In  1832  there  settled  in  Clinton  Township, 
Thomas  G.  Wilson,  born  in  Yirginiain  1804; 
William  J.  Noblitt,  born  in  Tennessee  in 
1825,  and  still  living  here;  Benjamin  Harri- 
son, born  in  Virginia  in  1805,  was  justice  of 
the  peace  many  years,  and  is  still  living:  his 
M'ife  died  this  year  (1887);  their  son  Robert, 
born  in  the  "  Old  Dominion"  in  1831,  is  still 
a  resident  of  this  township. 

Eobert  H.  and  Adaliue  (West)  Nichols, 
came  in  1835.  He  died  here  in  1872,  aged 
fifty-live  3'ears,  and  she  in  1874,  aged  sixty- 
five. 

Huram  B.  Cole,  John  Ferral  and  John 
Marks  were  early  merchants  of  Clinton.  The 
latter  went  South.  Ferral- died  February  25, 
1832,  at  the  age  of  thirty-six  years. 

In  1836  came  William  Payton  and  Philo 
Harkness,  who  are  still  living  here.  Payton 
was  born  in  Kentucky  in  1814,  and  Harkness 
in  New  York  in  181G. 

In  1837  came  Reuben  Propst,  and  the  next 
year  Isaac  Propst,  natives  of  Virginia,  but 
finally  moved  away. 

Aquilla  Nebekerjborn  in  Delaware  in  1815, 


located  in  Clinton  Township  in  1837.  lie 
was  a  man  of  liberal  views,  a  good  citizen 
and  a  kind  neighbor.  He  died  February  10, 
1880,  after  a  long  period  of  illness.  II  i.-^ 
widow  died  in  January,  1881,  an  exempl:;iv 
member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 

Jesse  Spangler,  born  in  Pennsylvania  in 
1807,  settled  here  in  1837,  and  died  about 
1881. 

D.  F.  Fawcett  came  from  Virginia  in  1833, 
settling  near  Goshen,  Vigo  County,  and  then, 
in  1837,  in  this  county,  near  the  southwest 
corner.  He  died  in  1845,  in  Jasper  County. 
Illinois.  Mrs.  Fawcett  died  in  1837,  in  this 
township. 

Many  others  we  could  mention  who  came 
in  pioneer  times,  resided  liere  many  years, 
becoming  prominent  citizens,  and  died  in 
honored  old  age,  or  are  still  living. 

MISCELLANEOUS  ITEMS. 

The  opening  of  the  iron  mines  and  build- 
ing of  the  "  Indiana  Furnace,"  in  section  27, 
township  14,  range  10,  Clinton  Township, 
commenced  in  1837.  In  1839  the  furnace 
was  in  full  blast.  Stephen  P.  Uncles  was 
the  chief  owner  and  superintendent.  Asso- 
ciated with  him  were  Hugh  Stuart  and  Ches- 
ter Clark,  the  firm  name  being.  Uncles  &  Co. 
Years  later,  the  lands  and  works  passed  into 
the  hands  of  Stuart  &  Sprague,  and  still  later 
to  E.  M.  Bruce  &  Co.,  the  Co.  being  David 
Sinton. 

In  1859,  George  B.  Sparks,  now  a  resi- 
dent of  Clinton,  bought  a  controlling  interest, 
and  under  the  firm  name  of  G.  B.  Sparks  (N: 
Co.,  the  business  was  continued  until  1864. 
Captain  John  Lindsey,  who  still  resides  near 
the  site  of  the  old  Furnace,  was  many  yeais 
its  superintendent.  He  relates  that  of  the 
hundreds  of  men  employed  then,  all  but  one, 
a  pattern-maker,  voted  regularly  the  Demo- 
cratic  ticket,  and  jokingly  says,  no  others 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


could  get  eniploymeat.  The  company's  office 
and  large  general  supply  store,  and  a  score  or 
two  of  cabins  of  more  or  less  pretensions, 
made  quite  a  village.  Castings  of  nearly  all 
kinds,  largely  stoves,  were  turned  out.  Pig 
iron  in  large  quantities  were  also  produced. 

The  works  were  among  tlie  early  enter- 
prises of  the  Wabash  Valley,  and  distributed 
a  large  amount  of  money  among  the  early 
settlers  as  well  as  furnishing  employment  to 
all  comers — of  the  right  political  ftvith  (ac- 
cording to  Captain  Lindsey)!  The  1,700 
acres  of  land  connected  with  the  plant  is  now 
owned  by  George  B.  Sparks,  and  devoted  to 
agricultural  purposes,  and  all  that  remains  to 
indicate  the  site  of  the  old  "  Indiana  Fur- 
nace" is  here  and  there  debris  of  rotting 
and  rusting  machinery,  and  one  or  two  log 
cabins. 

The  "  Norton  Creek  Coal  Mines  "  are  lo- 
cated on  the  line  between  Clinton  and  Helt 
townships,  on  section  5  of  Clinton  Township, 
and  section  32  of  Helt  Township.  Their  de- 
velopment commenced  in  December,  1884. 
F.  A.  Bowen  was  the  proprietor,  and  Charles 
P.  Walker,  of  Clinton,  the  superintendent 
and  manager.  In  the  spring  of  1885,  under 
the  general  laws  of  Wisconsin  the  "  Norton 
Creek  Coal  Mining  Company,"  was  organ- 
ized, with  a  paid  up  capital  of  $40,000,  with 
its  general  office  at  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin. 
II.  M.  Benjamin,  of  that  city,  is  the  presi- 
dent of  the  company,  and  Charles  P.  Walker, 
of  Clinton,  superintendent  and  treasurer,  and 
general  agent  for  Indiana.  Connected  with 
the  property  are  255  acres  of  land.  The 
mines  are  about  two  and  one-half  miles  west 
of  the  "  Eastern  Illinois  Railroad,"  and  con- 
nected by  a  spur  track.  The  company  also 
own  the  old  "  Briar  Hill "  mines,  on  section 
'J,  Clinton  Township,  but  they  are  not  now 
operated. 

On  the   southeast  portion   of  section  5  is 


located  the  company's  large  mercantile  estab- 
lishment and  local  office,  which,  with  twenty- 
seven  tenement  houses,  constitutes  quite  a 
village,  called  "Geneva,"  named  in  honor  of 
a  daughter  of  Superintendent  Walker.  The 
sales  of  coal  in  1886  reached  $160,000,  and 
and  the  mei'cantile  establishment  $42,000. 
Near  the  mines  are  several  tenement  houses, 
and  at  the  Briar  Hill  mines  eleven  houses. 
All  are  occupied  by  employes  of  the  com- 
pany. The  business  is  increasing,  owing  to 
the  excellent  quality  of  coal  produced.  Com- 
mencing with  the  winter  of  1887-'88  an 
average  working  force  of  300  men  are  em- 
ployed. 

In  Clinton  Township  there  are  three  or 
four  saw-mills,  besides  two  in  town,  and  one 
grist-mill. 

One  of  the  chief  business  interests  of 
Clinton  Township  is  the  immense  stock  farm 
of  Claude  Mathews  at  Hazel  Bluff,  on  Brouil- 
et's  Creek,  some  three  miles  from  Clinton. 

It  is  said  that  in  early  day  crime  became  so 
prevalent  in  the  southern  part  of  Vermillion 
County  that  a  vigilance  committee  was  organ- 
ized, wjio  executed  a  lynching  or  two  and 
thus  effectually  checked  the  evil. 

Some  years  ago  the  Indianapolis  &  St. 
Louis  Bail  road  Company  talked  some  of  run- 
ning a  track  through  this  portion  of  the 
county',  but  no  subscriptions  were  taken. 
When  the  Cleveland  &  St.  Louis  railroad  was 
projected  via  Clinton,  a  little  effort  was  made 
for  it,  but  nothing  accomplished.  Now  the 
Anderson,  Lebanon  &  Paris  Kailroad  is  pro- 
posed, by  way  of  Clinton,  and  A.  V.  Brown 
is  the  leading  citizen  of  the  place  working 
for  it,  in  conjunction  with  Eockville.  Sec- 
tions of  this  line,  in  other  counties,  are 
already  bnilt  and  used. 

In  this  township,  outside  of  Clinton,  Henry 
C.  Eaton,  of  Brouillet's  Creek,  has  been  the 
principal   practicing   physician.     Ilev.  S.  S. 


Sims  is  a  United  Brethreti  minister  residing 
also  on  this  creek.  Betliel  United  Brethren 
Cluircli  is  located  five  miles  southwest  of 
Clinton,  and  the  "Union  Class,"  of  the  same 
church,  worsliip  at  a  point  six  and  a  half 
miles  southwest  of  Clinton. 

The  Centenary  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
is  located  about  five  miles  west  of  Clinton, 
where  Lewis  Walraven  is  class-leader;  and 
Trinity  Church,  nearly  south  of  Clinton,  is  a 
place  wliere  a  prosperous  class  worships,  of 
whom  John  Ryan,  Harrison  Cole  and  William 
'Wright  are  official  members.  These  two 
classes  are  in  the  Clinton  Circuit,  of  which 
Kev.  J.  B.  Combs  is  preacher  in  charge,  with 
residence  at  the  parsonage  in  Clinton.  This 
is  in  the  Greencastle  District,  Northwest 
Indiana  Conference,  of  which  Rev.  A.  A. 
(lee  is  presiding  elder.  Clinton  Circuit,  in- 
cluding the  town,  had  300  members  lastyear. 

CLINTON. 

The  town  of  Clinton  was  laid  out  in  1824, 
liy  William  Harris,  a  resident  of  Martin 
County,  Indiana,  who  was  a  Government 
surveyor,  and  named  the  place  in  honor  of 
DeWitt  Clinton,  of  New  York. 

Up  to  the  time  the  railroad  was  assured, 
about  1868,  the  growth  of  Clinton  was  slow, 
hut  during  all  that  long  ante-railroad  period 
it  was  nevertheless  the  entrepot  for  an  agri- 
cultural district  around  it  fifty  miles  or  more 
in  diameter.  Across  the  Wabash  the  peoi:)le 
traded  mostly  at  Terre  Haute,  only  fifteen 
miles  distant  from  Clinton,  and  always  an 
absorbing  factor  in  the  country  trade. 

The  first  mercantile  establisiiment  opened 
at  this  point  was  by  John  and  Benjamin  R. 
Whitcomb,  who  kept  a  general  store.  Other 
early  business  men  of  Clinton  were  John 
Payton,  John  R.  Whitcomb,  Huram  B.  Cole, 
Jolm  Ferrel,  and  John  Marks.  Later,  were 
James  McCnliocli,  Ctis  il.  Conkoy.  Jones  & 


Chestnut,  from  Paris,  Illinois,  Leander  Mun- 
sell,  from  the  same  place,  Alanson  Baldwin, 
of  Baldwinsville,  Illinois,  O.  &  D.  Bailey, 
of  Bloomfield,  Illinois,  who  were  exten- 
sive pork-packers  at  this  point.  This  was 
for  a  long  period  a  prominent  shipping  point 
for  pork. 

Minor  business  men  were,  J.  W.  and  Field- 
ing Shepard,  and  Volney  Hutchison,  me- 
chanics, who  afterwai'd moved  into  the  country 
and  became  successful  farmers;  S.  E.  Patton, 
cooper;  H.  F.  Redding,  carriage-maker  and 
blacksmith,  and  others. 

Many  of  the  buildings  occupied  by  the 
above  parties  are  still  standing,  on  the  bank 
of  the  river  near  tlie  wagon  bridge,  where  tiie 
old  boat  landing  was,  as  monumental  2'elies 
of  the  steamboat  period.  How  many  scenes 
of  the  past,  and  associations  concerning  the 
characteristics  of  the  early  business  men  of 
Clinton,  does  their  venerable  presence  still 
suggest! 

Clinton  is  now,  and  has  long  been,  the 
largest  town  in  Vermillion  County;  but  what 
its  population  is  we  cannot  ascertain.  It  is 
variously  estimated  at  1,200  to  1,800.  The 
town  is  beautifully  located,  streets  running 
"  square  with  the  world,"  and  withal  it  is  a 
pleasant  place  in  every  respect. 

It  was  first  incorporated  about  1848  or 
1849,  by  a  special  act  of  the  Legislature, 
which  empowered  the  trustees  to  prohibit 
the  sale  of  intoxicants.  In  later  years,  about 
1879,  the  town  was  re-incorporated,  under 
the  general  law.  It  is  divided  into  five 
wards,  from  each  of  which  one  trustee  is 
elected  biennially.  The  general  officers  are 
elected  annually, — the  president  being  elect- 
ed by  tlie  board,  and  the  other  officers  by  the 
people  directly. 

On  account  of  the  absence  of  the.  old  rec- 
ords, we  are  unable  to  give  a  complete  list 
of  officers.     Since  1880  the    following  have 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


I 


served:  Presidents — Neil  J.  McDougall, 
1880-'84;  Decatur  Downing,  1885;  W.  L. 
Morev,  1886-'87.  Clerks— D.  C.  Johnson, 
1880  j  L.  O.  Bishop,  1881;  Decatur  Downing, 
1882;  J.  M.  Hays,  1883-'8-i;  Ed.  H.  John- 
son, 1885-'87. 

Here,  as  elsewhere,  have  been  the  usual 
contests  with  the  liquor  traffic.  The  most 
remarkable  movement  in  modern  times  was 
the  "woman's  crusade"  of  187'^'76.  In 
1874  a  band  of  praying  women  laid  siege  to 
a  saloon  day  and  night,  being  on  duty  in  di- 
visions and  by  turns.  The  proprietor  sur- 
rendered. In  April,  1875,  a  company  of 
forty  hidies,  headed  by  Mrs.  Maloneand  Mrs. 
Kibby,  marched  in  double  file  to  the  saloon 
owned  by  Tice  &  Mechler,  to  hold  an  inter- 
view with  the  proprietors;  but  on  arrival 
found  the  fbrt  evacuated  and  the  doors  wide 
open.  The  ladies  guarded  the  place  until 
evening  and  then  retired.  The  next  night 
one  of  the  proprietors  was  arrested,  and  while 
he  was  in  custody  the  citizens  gathered  at 
the  point  of  contest  and  demolished  every- 
thing that  contained  intoxicating  liquor.  Tlie 
proprietor  sued  fifteen  of  the  citizens  for 
$5,000  damages,  but  the  case  was  compro- 
mised or  dismissed.  Otlier  events  of  this 
crusade  occurred,  but  of  minor  importance. 

"While  on  the  subject  of  municipal  govern- 
ment, we  may  notice  that  under  corporate 
management  the  streets  have  been  graded  and 
macadamized,  nuisances  generally  kept  in 
abeyance,  and  a  satisfactory  government  gen- 
erally administered. 

pnrsiciANS. 

Dr.  Joseph  Hopkins,  from  Ohio,  was  the 
first  physician  to  locate  in  Clinton,  in  1830 
or  previously.  He  was  an  acceptable  practi- 
tioner. Died  out  West,  leaving  a  wife  and 
two  daualiters. 


Dr.  Erstman  was  here  a  short  time,  about 
the  same  period. 

Dr.  I.  S.  Palmer,  a  well  educated  graduate 
of  a  medical  college  at  Philadelphia,  settled 
in  Clinton  during  its  pioneer  period,  accumu- 
lated some  property,  but  finally  became  in- 
temperate and  lost  it,  althongh  he  was  a 
gentleman  of  a  shrewd  intellect.  He  finally 
lost  his  life  in  a  horrible  manner,  althoiigh 
not  drunk  at  the  time.  Visiting  &  patient 
across  the  "Wabash  one  day  about  fifteen  years 
ago,  he  noticed  on  his  return  many  squirrels 
in  the  woods.  On  arriving  home  he  took 
his  gun,  and  started  out  to  indulge  in  the 
sports  of  the  chase.  "While  crossing  the  river 
on  the  ice,  he  broke  through,  but  held  him- 
self from  being  drawn  under  by  clinging  to 
the  edge  of  tlie  ice;  and  there  he  lield  fast 
until  parties  had  arrived  from  points  a  mile 
or  more  distant  for  his  rescue.  But  his 
strength  gave  out  and  he  went  nnder,  never 
more  to  be  seen;  his  body  was  never  re- 
covered. Charles  Knowles  nearly  lost  his 
life  in  his  efforts  to  save  him. 

Dr.  "William  Kile,  from  Ohio,  was  a  man 
of  great  energy  and  industry,  and  with  an 
extended  practice  he  accumulated  a  handsome 
amount  of  property.  This  lie  finally  sold 
and  went  to  Paris,  Illinois,  where  he  engaged 
in  mercantile  business,  and  also  ftirming  and 
handling  live-stock,  for  a  number  of  years, 
and  ultimately  banking.  In  visiting  patients 
on  the  other  side  of  the  Wabash  he  would 
sometimes  swim  his  horse  across  the  river  on 
his  return,  rather  than  to  come  a  few  miles 
out  of  his  way  to  the  wagon  bridge.  One 
tinie  he  was  violently  attacked  with  small- 
])ox,  when  scarcely  any  one  expected  he  could 
survive;  but  his  "vitativeness"  was  so  large 
that,  as  he  was  being  taken  out  into  the 
country  for  treatment,  passing  a  store,  he 
called  out  to  the  proprietor,  "Save  me  that 
largest  pair  of   boots,   v.'ill   yon  V     He    had 


B?g«««w»«»B»a 


.a»,MiM«nai«»w»»«" 


imsTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


L 


vory    large   feet.     He   died    at   Paris    many 
years  afterward. 

Dr.  Perkins,  a  botanic  physician,  practiced 
liere  a  number  of  years,  and  finally  removed 
to  Oregon. 

Dr.  Rollin  Whitcomb,  a  botanic  physician 
from  New  York,  came  in  1841,  and,  after 
practicing  here  a  number  of  years,  moved 
away,  and  returned  again  and  remained  until 
his  deatli. 

Dr.  I.  B.  Hedges  was  a  boy  when  his 
parents  brought  him  here  from  New  York  in 
1824:.  Commencing  practice  about  1845,  he 
])roved  to  be  a  successful  physician  as  well  as 
business  man.  On  dying  here  three  or  four 
years  ago,  he  left  considerable  property  to 
his  family,     lie  was  a  man  of  high  standing. 

Dr.  P.  R.  Owen  came  to  Clinton  about 
1854,  from  New  GoshcL,  Indiana,  but  was  a 
native  of  Ohio.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
war  lie  enlisted  in  the  army,  was  elected 
Captain  of  Company  I,  Fourteenth  Indiana 
Infantry,  promoted  Major  and  then  Lieuten- 
ant Colonel  of  his  regiment;  came  home  and 
jH-acticed  his  profession  until  1871,  when  he 
died,  leaving  a  widow  and  several  children. 
He  was  also  an  excellent  Methodist  preacher. 
The  Grand  Army  post  at  Clinton  is  named 
in  his  honor. 

Dr.  Corkins,  after  practicing  here  a  while, 
moved  to  Texas. 

Dr.  William  Reeder  practiced  medicine  at 
Clinton  for  a  period  before  the  war,  in  which 
he  enlisted  and  held  some  ofhce.  About 
1874  he  moved  to  Texas,  where  he  is  now 
following  his  profession. 

Dr.  J.  C.  Crozier  ai-rived  here  also  some 
time  before  the  war,  entered  the  army  as  a 
Surgeon,  continued  in  the  service  until  the 
;dose,  then  practiced  here  a  number  of  years, 
and  finally  went  to  Washington,  D.  C,  where 
he  has  for  a  number  of  years  been  engaged  I 
in  the  pension  department.  | 


Dr.  William  H.  Stewart,  who  came  from 
Illinois  and  practiced  medicine  here  two  or 
three  years,  was  in  Terre  Haute  when  last 
heard  from. 

The  present  physicians  of  Clinton  are  Drs. 
Henry  Nebeker,  J.  H.  Bogart  and  C.  M. 
White. 

LAWYERS. 

James  R.  Baker,  although  he  did  not  prac- 
tice law  a  great  deal,  may  be  counted  among 
the  bar.  He  left  here,  entering  the  Method- 
ist ministry. 

Lyman  J.  Smith  practiced  law  at  Clinton 
three  or  four  years,  and  moved  to  Paris, 
Illinois. 

"Judge"  John  Porter,  who  lived  in  the 
country  in  this  township,  followed  the  law  to 
some  e.xtent,  was  a  man  of  considerable  lit- 
erary attainments,  a  member  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, etc.  He  died  some  time  before  the  war 
period. 

Also,  some  time  before  the  last  war,  a  man 
named  Ragan  was  a  practitioner  of  law  at 
Clinton  for  about  a  j-ear. 

Henry  D.  Washburn  was  born  in  Yermont, 
in  March,  1832;  came  to  this  county  about 
1S50;  taught  school  three  or  four  years — 
principally  in  Helt  Township  and  some  at 
Newport;  studied  law  while  teaching,  with 
Thomas  C.  W.  Sale  at  Newport;  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1853,  and  opened  office  at  New- 
port; was  in  partnership  with  M.  P.  Lowry 
for  a  time;  elected  auditor  of  the  county  in 
1854,  serving  one  term;  entered  the  army  as 
Captain  of  Company  C,  Eighteenth  Indiana 
Infantry,  promoted  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and 
then  Colonel,  and  Brevetted  General  and 
then  Major  General,  serving  in  the  army 
about  four  years,  first  in  Missouri,  next  in 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  then  in 
Georgia;  but  in  1864,  before  the  termination 
of  the  war,  was  elected,  while  a  resident  of 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


S37 


Clinton,  to  the  lower  house  of  Congress, 
against  Daniel  W.  Voorhees,  serving  from 
March,  1865,  to  March,  1869,  having  been 
re-elected;  was  appointed  in  the  latter  year 
by  President  Grant  to  the  office  of  Surveyor- 
General  for  the  Territory  of  Montana;  and 
while  holding  this  office  he  died,  in  January, 
1871,  at  Clinton,  leaving  a  wife  and  two 
children.  Commanding  a  company  of  fifty 
men,  he  made  the  first  thorough  exploration 
of  tlie  Yellowstone  Valley,  in  1870,  in  which- 
journey  the  exposure  brought  on  the  illness 
which  proved  fatal.  In  his  religion  he  was  a 
Methodist,  in  his  social  relations  a  Knight 
Templar,  and  in  his  politics  a  Republican, 
and  a  good  campaignist  for  his  party.  Mrs. 
Washburn  now  resides  in  Greencastle,  this 
State.  Dr.  A.  A.  Washburn,  her  son,  is 
practicing  medicine  at  Atwood,  Illinois;  and 
her  daughter  is  the  wife  of  Professor  J.  B. 
De  Motte,  of  De  Pauw  University,  at  Green- 
castle. 

Henry  A.  White,  a  native  of  lielt  Town- 
ship, this  county,  practiced  law  at  Clinton  a 
number  of  years,  and  is  now  in  Kansas. 

M.  B.  Davis,  a  native  of  this  county,  and 
a  graduate  of  Asbury  University  at  Green- 
castle, was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1881,  com- 
menced practice  while  a  very  young  man, 
and  was  in  partnership  for  a  short  time  with 
11.  H.  Conley,  of  Newport,  and  in  1885  left 
for  Beatrice,  Nebraska,  where  he  is  now  prac- 
ticing law  and  has  an  interest  in  the  Beatrice 
liejniblican. 

Tiie  present  lawyers  of  Clinton  are  Daniel 
C.  Johnson,  Piatt  Z.  Anderson,  Benjamin  R. 
AVhitcomb,  I.  II.  Strain  and  Melvin  B.  Davis. 


In  1873  the  Clinton  Exponent  was  estab- 
lished by  B.  S.  Blackledge  and  James  R. 
Baker,    Esq.,  in   Allen's    picture    gallery,    a 


short  distance  west  of  the  present  Argus 
office,  and  was  Republican  in  politics.  F.  L. 
Whedon,  from  Ohio,  edited  the  paper  for  a 
short  time.  After  a  time  Baker  sold  his  in- 
terest to  his  partner,  and  Mr.  Blackledge 
conducted  the  paper  alone  until  the  first 
week  of  November,  1876,  when  he  sold  to 
Lyman  E.  Knapp.  In  June,  1877,  he  sold 
to  R.  S.  Knapp,  but  King  Alcohol  foreclosed 
a  mortgage  on  the  institution  and  killed  it. 
It  raised  its  fainting  form  at  Perrysville,  as 
the  Perrysville  Exponent,  gasped  a  few 
months,  and  breathed  its  last.  In  1877  H. 
A.  White,  a  lawyer  of  Clinton,  bought  the 
office  material,  returned  with  it  to  Clinton, 
and  started  the  Western  Indianian,  in  the 
building  now  occupied  by  Harry  Dudley  as  a 
meat  market.  Subsequently  it  was  removed 
to  the  room  now  occupied  by  the  Argus.  By 
this  time  the  organ  was  "National"  in  its 
politics. 

White  sold  out  to  T.  A.  Kibby,  H.  S. 
Evans  and  John  McMahon.  The  last  men- 
tioned soon  left,  and  Evans  became  editor  and 
publisher,  Kibby  remaining  as  a  silent  part- 
ner. Then  Evans  left,  and  Mr.  Kibby,  in 
September,  1879,  leased  the  off.ce  to  L.  O. 
Bishop  and  Mont.  L.  Casey.  In  June,  1880, 
this  firm  bought  the  Clinton  .Herald,  to 
which  the  Western  Indianian  had  been 
changed  by  Mr.  Evans,  and  published  it 
until  July  1,  1882,  when  Mr.  Bishop  sold  to 
Casey.  August  31,  Mr.  Bishop  started  the 
Saturday  Argots.  In  twelve  or  fifteen  montlis 
the  Herald  suspended.  Shortly  afterward 
Alexander  Myers  tried  his  hand  at  the  busi- 
ness of  journalism,  by  starting  the  Toma- 
hawh  and  Scalping-Knife,  which  he  imme- 
diately changed  to  the  Democrat:  died  in 
six  weeks.  In  June,  1884,  Mr.  Casey  came 
out  with  the  Clinton  Siftlngs,  which  sifted 
occasionally  and  irregularly  along  for  about 
three  years,  when  it  entirely  sifted  out. 


HISTORY    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


All  the  above  nsM-spapers,  except  the  Argiis, 
were  pi-inted  upon  the  same  press. 

During  the  summer  of  1887  Mont.  L. 
Casey  started  "  Caser/s  Si/tings,"  as  an  organ 
laboring  for  the  "elevation  of  morals  and 
horse-thieves,"  and  as  tlie  only  "  religious  " 
paper  iu  the  county  and  the  "best  advertising 
medium  on  earth,"  published  every  Friday 
evening,  "  the  Lord  permitting,"  and  on 
Saturday  morning  "  any  %vay." 

It  seems  that  the  ^4/yHS-eyed  journal  has 
come  to  stay,  having  a  clear  tield  and  run- 
ning steadily.  It  is  a  "  free,  untrammeled 
newspaper  for  the  people,"  handicapped  by 
no  idiosyncrasy.  In  connection  with  the 
paper,  Mr.  Bishop  has  also  a  good  job  office. 

Lucius  0.  Bishop  was  born  iu  Clinton,  a 
son  of  Francis  M.  and  Melinda  (Anderson) 
Bishop,  April  17,  1859.  Approaching  the 
years  of  manhood  he  began  the  study  of  law 
in  the  office  of  Henry  A.  White,  in  his  native 
town,  but,  before  completing  his  course,  he, 
in  partnership  with  Mont.  L.  Casey,  leased 
the  printing  office  of  the  Clinton  Herald,  in 
1879,  since  which  time  he  lias  been  engaged 
as  a  journalist  and  job  printer,  as  above  re- 
lated. He  is  a  rising  young  man,  and  being 
endowed  with  energy  and  mental  activity,  he 
is  destined  to  make  a  mark  in  this  world  of 
life.  lie  is  a  member  of  the  order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  and  takes  an  active  interest  in  the 
literary  societies  and  other  local  enterprises  of 
the  community. 

LATE     ENTEEPEISES. 

The  Clinton  Building  and  Loan  Associa- 
tion was  organized  in  March,  1882,  and  is 
still  alive.  William  L.  Morey  is  president, 
and  J.  W.  Robb,  secretary. 

Clinton  Building  and  Loan  Association 
Xo.  2  was  organized  January  1,  1887,  with  a 
capital  stock   of    $50,000.     David  McBeth, 


President;  J.  W.  Robb,  Secretary;  and  W. 

A.  Hays,  Treasurer. 

The  Clinton  Natural  Gas  Company  was 
organized  in  the  spring  of  1887,  witli  a  capi- 
tal stock  of  $2,000  to  $1,000.  C.  Mathews, 
President;  John  Whitcomb,  Vice-President; 
W.  H.  Hamilton,  Secretary;  N.  C.  Anderson, 
Treasiirer.  The  other  directors  ai"e  J.  J.  Hig- 
gins,  Decatur  Downing,  J.   E.  Knowles,  C. 

B.  Knowles  and  W.  A.  Hays.  The  material 
for  the  derrick,  etc.,  is  now  (June)  on  the 
ground,  and  the  company  intend  to  com- 
mence drilling  within  a  few  days,  in  the 
western  portion  of  the  town. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The  first  school-house  in  Clinton  Township, 
as  elsewliere  described,  was  a  log  structure 
of  the  most  primitive  kind,  located  at  tlie 
Davidson  hill,  a  mile  west  of  town,  when  the 
only  school  books  were  the  English  Reader, 
AVebster's  Elementary  Spelling  Book  and  tlie 
New  Testament,  and  sometimes  a  copy  of 
Daboll's  Aritlimetic.  Since  then  a  remark- 
able growth  of  the  present  free-school  system 
has  taken  place.  In  the  meantime,  according 
to  the  character  of  the  respective  periods,  two 
or  three  attempts  have  been  made  toward  the 
establishment  of  special  or  select  schools  of 
an  advanced  order.  For  example,  just  pre- 
vious to  tlie  war,  Myrain  G.  Towsley's  Mili- 
tary Institute  and  the  Farmers'  College,  which 
went  down  on  account  of  the  war  coming  on. 
Part  of  the  building,  a  large  frame,  was 
afterward  converted  into  an  opera  house,  and 
the  wings  into  dwelling-houses. 

The  present  fine  school  building,  of  six 
rooms,  v/as  erected  in  1881,  at  a  cost  of  about 
$8,000,  including  seating,  furnishing  and 
the  ground.  The  enrollment  last  year  was 
368.  The  school  is  divided  into  ten  or  twelve 
grades,  and  prepares  its  graduates  for  admis- 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


239 


sion  into  the  State  University.     The  principal 
is  J.  H.  Tomlin,  who  has  six  assistants. 

SOCIETIES. 

Freemasonry  was  organized  in  Clinton  pre- 
vious to  D.  A.  Eanger's  arrival  here  in  1843, 
but  interest  in  it  declined  and  the  charter 
was  surrendered. 

Jerusalem  Lodge,  No.  9D,  F.  cfi  A.  M., 
received  its  charter  May  29,  1850,  and  has 
ever  since  then  been  kept  alive.  The  charter 
members  were — Sylvester  Redlield,  Worship- 
ful Master,  who  afterward  moved  to  Nebraska, 
John  N.  Perkins,  Hiram  Barnes,  John  li. 
Whitcomb,  Benjamin  E.  Whitcorab,  William 
S.  Price,  James  Gazsoway,  James  McCuUoch, 
Nathan  Sidwell,  J.  J.  Moore  and  William 
Barrick.  The  present  membership  is  fifty- 
six,  with  these  officers:  James  Robert,  Wor- 
shipful Master;  Eobert  B.  Bailey,  Senior 
Warden;  Jasj)er  Frisk,  Junior  Warden;  N. 
C.  Anderson,  Treasurer;  D.  A.  Eanger,  Sec- 
retary; II.  I).  Dudley,  Senior  Deacon;  John 
Ilorney,  Junior  Deacon;  and  William  Hughes, 
Tyler. 

Ainant  Lodge,  No.  35G,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was 
instituted  November  16,  1870,  with  about 
twelve  members,  who  have  increased  to  about 
seventy-five.  The  present  officers  are — A.  V. 
McWethy,  Noble  Grand;  J.  II.  Black,  Vice 
Grand;  Frank  Swinehart,  Eecordiug  Secre- 
tary; W.  H.  Hill,  Permanent  Secretary;  John 
II.  Birt,  Treasurer.  The  past  grands  num- 
ber twenty-three.  The  lodge  has  an  unusu- 
ally nice  room  for  their  meetings. 

Clinton  Encampment,  No.  US,  was  char- 
tered May  16,  1876.  Present  officers— W. 
II.  Hill,  Chief  Priest;  ^N.  II.  Cale,  Senior 
Warden;  Harry  Swinehart,  Junior  Warden; 
J.  il.  Blagg,  High  Priest;  W.  F.  Wells,  Per- 
manent Secretary;  Ed.  II.  Johnston,  Scribe; 
J.  II.  Black,  Treasurer. 


Vermillion  Lodge,  No.  182,  Degree  of 
Rebekah,  was  organized  July  9,  1877.  It  has 
at  present  about  forty  active  members.  The 
officers  are — Mrs.  Anna  Davis,  Noble  Grand; 
Miss  Ella  Bishop,  Vice-Grand;  Mrs.  Katie 
McWethy,  Treasurer;  Lillie  Birt,  Recording 
Secretary;  Miss  Lulu  Allen,  Permanent  Sec- 
retary. 

F.  E.  Owen  Post,  No.  3^9,  G.  A.  R.,  was 
instituted  April  15,  1884.  (See  a  j)recedinf,r 
page  for  a  sketch  of  Dr.  Owen).  The  Post 
was  organized  X)j  Captain  li.  B.  Sears, 
of  Newport,  mustering  officer,  with  about 
twenty-five  or  tliirty  members.  They  now 
number  fifty-four,  and  are  in  prospei'ous 
condition.  Officers — L.  H.  Beckman,  Post 
Commander;  Cornelius  Quick,  Senior  Vice 
Commander;  T.  B.  Wells,  Junior  Vice  Com- 
mander; S.  Weatherwax,  Adjutant;  J.  II. 
Wilson,  Quartermaster;  William  Kelp,  Chap- 
lain; D.  A.  Ranger,  Quartermaster  Sergeant; 
Enoch  Whitted,  Sergeant.- 

Cotmcil  No.  3,  Sovereigns  of  Indiistni. 
was  organized  May  5,  1874,  with  twenty-five 
members.  James  A.  Greenwalt  was  elected 
President;  David  McBeth,  Vice-President; 
J.  C.  Campbell,  Secretary;  T.  Victor,  Treas- 
urer; S.  B.  Blackledge,  Lecturer;  J.  C.  Hall. 
Steward;  D.  Moore,  Inside  Guard. 

The  A.  O.  IT.  W.  organized  here  eight  or 
ten  years  ago;  soon  had  thirty  or  forty  mem- 
bers, but  in  about  a  year  they  practically  dis- 
banded. Perry  Jones,  superintendent  of  a 
coal  mine  in  tiie  vicitiity  at  the  time,  Avas 
master  workman  of  the  lodge.  He  moved 
away  some  years  ago.  Probably  he  constituted 
the  soul  of  the  lodge,  and  \vlien  he  went  away 
the  body  died. 

Some  eight  years  ago  an  orchestra  was  or- 
ganized in  Clinton,  which  is  still  efficient, 
and  more  recently  a  cornet  band,  led  by  White 
and  Wells. 


Methodism. — Itinerant  Methodist  minis- 
ters of  pioneer  times  were  especially  marked 
fur  their  energy  and  daring  in  threading  the 
wild  woods  and  prairies  in  search  of  the  iso- 
lated settler,  for  the  purpose  of  preaching  to 
liiin  the  gospel  and  of  organizing  "classes" 
(church  congregations)  as  soon  as  he  could 
iind  three  or  four  residents  who  were  zealous 
enough  to  meet,  coming  from  far  and  from 
near.  The  first  Methodist  class  in  Yermill- 
ion  Connty  was  organized  some  time  previ- 
ous to  1830,  at  the  house  of  John  Tannest, 
the  first  settler  of  the  county,  comprising 
besides  Mr.  Vaniiest  himself,  also  his  brother, 
and  George  Eush,  James,  Amos  and  Joseph 
Reeder,  the  Brannons,  etc.  The  minister, 
who  walked  his  rounds,  preached  here  every 
four  weeks.  Revs.  Smith  and  McGinnis  are 
remembered  as  being  among  the  early  Meth- 
odist preachers  in  this  section. 

Not  having  space  to  detail  the  particulars 
of  Methodist  history  from  that  time  to  the 
present,  we  are  obliged  to  leap  in  our  imagi- 
nation over  half  a  century,  to  the  present 
period. 

At  the  present  time  the  Clinton  society 
comprises  ninety-four  members.  Class-leader, 
L.  II.  Beckman.  Stewards,  James  M.  Hayes 
and  Robert  Allen.  The  flourishing  Sunday- 
school  is  superintended  by  John  Whitcomb 
and  L.  IT.  Beckman.  Pastor,  Rev.  J.  B. 
Combs,  now  in  his  second  year  here,  and  oc- 
cupying the  parsonage,  a  neat  residence  in  a 
retired  place.  This  circuit  is  in  the  Green- 
castle  District,  Northwest  Indiana  Conference. 
Rev.  A.  A.  Gee,  of  Greencastle,  is  the  pre- 
siding elder. 

As  to  a  house  of  worship,  the  Methodists 
jiassed  from  the  log-cabin  residence  and 
f-chool-house  to  a  frame  church,  erected 
mainly  by   the  Presbyterians  in   1831;  and 


next  into  a  frame,  38  x  60  feet,  built  about 
1852,  at  a  cost  of  about  $1,400,  which  is  now 
used  as  a  dwelling;  and  finally,  in  1883,  they 
reared  their  present  massive  and  imposing 
brick  edifice,  40  x  80  feet  in  ground  area,  at 
a  cost  of  §6,500. 

The  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Churdt 
of  Clinton,  was  organized  in  1876,  by  Kev. 
W.  S.  Langford,  of  Rockville,  at  the  time,  who 
was  also  pastor  for  a  while.  The  class,  led 
by  George  Harris,  started  out  with  only  six 
members,  but  now  numbers  about  twenty, 
with  Mrs.  Lida  Brown  as  class-leader.  Stew- 
ards, "William  Bowen,  John  Cooper,  Elbert 
Brown,  John  Bowen  and  John  Walker.  Sun- 
day-school, of  about  fifteen  pupils  generally, 
is  superintended  by  James  Bowen.  The 
pastor  is  Rev.  W.  R.  Hutchison,  now  a  resi- 
dent of  Lost  Creek,  Yigo  County;  this  is  his 
third  year.  The  church  building,  26  x  80 
feet  in  dimensions,  was  erected  in  1881,  at 
a  cost  of  $250,  and  is  free  from  debt.  It  is 
located  in  the  central  part  of  town. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  at  Clinton  was 
also  organized  in  pioneer  times,  being  the 
first  to  erect  a  house  of  worship  in  the 
county,  in  1831,  with  the  aid  of  the  Method- 
ists. Ennning  down  somewhat  in  the  course 
of  years,  they  were  re-organized  about  1850, 
by  Rev.  John  Gerrish,  of  Ilelt  Township,  who 
died  in  the  spring  of  1887,  in  Kansas.  There 
are  now  fifty-five  members.  The  ruling 
elders  are  E.  V.  lirown  and  David  McBeth. 
They  maintain  a  Sunday-school  the  year 
round,  with  an  average  attendance  of  ninety 
pupils,  superintended  by  D.  C.  Johnson.  The 
present  pastor  is  Rev.  L.  G.  Hay,  D.  D.,  of 
Terre  Haute,  who  has  been  serving  as 
"  stated  supply  "  since  the  first  of  February 
1887.  Former  pastors  (or  supplies)  have 
been,  so  far  as  can  be  conveniently  remem- 
bered, Revs.  James  Boggs,  in  1855;  John 
A.    Tiffner,    of  Bono,    two   or    three  years; 


3  ' 


CLINTON    TOWNSHIP. 


John  Hawks,  of  Eockville,  two  or  three 
years;  Thomas  Griffith,  of  Montezuma,  three 
or  four  years,  and  L.  H.  Davidson,  who  re- 
sided here  at  the  time,  two  years.  The  first 
church  bnikling  was  converted  into  a  barn,  and 


is  still  used  as  such.  The  present  house  of 
worship  was  erected  about  1852,  is  a  frame 
40x70  feet  in  dimensions,  and  located  cen- 
trally, on  the  school-house  lot. 


EARLY  SETTLERS. 


'HE    following    list    of 
early    settlers  of  Kelt 
Township,   altliougli 
apparently  systematic, 
can   not    be    supposed 
to  be  complete  or  free 
fruiii  error, but  it  is  as  accurate, 
we  trust,  as  such  data  can  gen- 
erally be  made.     The  years  in- 
dicated at  the  head  of  the  re- 
spective  paragraphs    are    the 
years  in  which  those  mentioned 
came   liere   as  settlers,  except 
where  otherwise  specified. 

1817-'18.— In  the  winter  of 
1817-'18  came  Obadiah  Swayze, 
who  occupied  as  a  "squatter"  one  of  the 
three  cabins  just  built  by  the  Helts,  spoken 
of  in  the  next  paragraph.  He,  however,  re- 
mained as  a  permanent  citizen.  His  remains 
now  lie  buried  in  Helt's  Prairie  Cemetery, 
with  his  wife,  two  sons  and  a  daughter.  He 
has  a  grandson,  "Wesley  "Wright,  living  in 
Kansas  City. 

1818. — Daniel  Holt,  after  wliom  the  prai- 
rie and  the  township  Avere  named.  He  was 
born  in  Pennsylvania,  in  1791,  was  a  soldier 


in  the  war  of  1812  under  General  Harrison, 
and  died  March  25,  1879,  a  good  man  and  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 
George,  John  and  Michael  Helt — all  now  de- 
ceased. C.  B.,  Thomas,  Hiram,  E.  B.  and  F. 
M.  Helt  were  all  born  here  in  pioneer  times. 
Augustus  Ford,  from  Ohio,  long  since  de- 
ceased. His  son  John,  born  in  Ohio  in  1809, 
came  with  him,  and  died  May  6,  1882,  an 
exemplary  member  of  the  Methodist  Episco- 
pal church,  after  having  lived  upon  the  farm 
first  occupied  lor  half  a  century.  Mr.  Rod- 
ney, from  Maine.  John  Skidmore,  who  died 
at  the  age  of  eighty  years.  Hon.  "V\'illiam 
Skidmore,  who  was  born  February  19,  1819, 
died  several  years  ago.  George  Skidmore 
was  born  in  1824,  and  Josiah  Skidmore  in 
1831.  Samuel  Eush,  father  of  James,  who 
was  born  in  Ohio  in  1817.  This  year,  or  soon 
afterward,  C.  C.  Hiddle  (or  John  Hiddle,  ac- 
cording to  one  authority),  and  John  Martin 
came  and  built  the  first  cabins  on  Hiddle's 
Prairie. 

1819 — Samuel  Ryerson,  who  died  January 
31,  1862,  at  Clinton.  His  wife,  Phebe,  died 
in  the  fall  of  1874,  at  the  age  seventy-nine 
years.     She  wa*  a  remarkable  woman.     At 


UELT    TOWNSHIP. 


tlie  age  of  twelve  years  she  had  never  heard 
one  pray.  At  that  time  she  attended  a 
Methodist  meeting,  where  the  expected 
preacher  did  not  arrive,  and  the  class-leader 
sang  and  prayed,  which  was  tlie  means  of  her 
conviction  and  conversion,  and  she  remained 
a  zealous  member  of  tlie  church  all  her  life. 
She  and  her  husband  formed  the  first  Method- 
ist class  on  Helt's  Prairie,  consisting  of 
eight  persons,  soon  after  their  settlement 
here.  A  short  time  before  her  death  she  willed 
§1,500  to  the  Missionary  Society,  $500  to 
Asbury  University,  $200  to  the  educational 
fund  of  this  county,  and  $200  to  the  Biblical 
Institute  at  Evanston,  Illinois,  besides  other 
sums,  to  various  individuals. 

Matthew  Harbison  came  this  year.  Joseph 
Harbison  was  born  in  this  township  in  1834. 

1820.— Mr.  Hood,  father  of  Charles  D. 
and  S.  S.,  both  of  whom  were  born  in  Ten- 
nessee, in  1814  and  1815,  and  are  still  living 
here.  According  to  one  authority,  Joel  IIol- 
lingsworth  arrived  in  Ilelt  Township  this  year. 

1821.— Abraham  and  Enoch  White.  The 
latter  was  born  in  Kentucky,  in  1814.  James 
Harper.  Stephen  Harrington,  who  was  born 
in  Ohio  in  1814,  was  a  resident  here  during 
most  of  the  connty's  existence.  Warham  (or 
"  Wirnm ")  Mack,  born  in  Ohio  in  1801, 
died  here.  The  other  Macks  came  later:  see 
under  1832  and  1886. 

1822. — William  Andrews,  Sr.,  tanner  and 
farmer,  born  in  Ohio  in  1807,  (see  under 
1832),  and  died  of  heart  decease  in  De- 
cember, 1879,  two  miles  southwest  of  St. 
Bernice,  a  member  of  the  United  Brethren 
church.  (For  others  by  the  name  of  Andrews, 
see  under  1832.)  John  Conley.  M.  A.  Con- 
ley,  long  a  resident,  was  born  in  this  town- 
ship this  year.  James  Conley,  born  in  Ohio 
in  1817,  is  still  living  here.  William  Conley 
was  another  pioneer. 

1823. — Alanson  Church.     Ills  son  Josiah 


was  born  here,  September  29,  1823,  and  died 
January  7,  1884,  two  and  a  half  miles  west 
of  Summit  Grove.  Eleven  of  his  twelve 
children  are  still  living.  John  Peer,  Sr., 
born  in  Virginia  in  1803,  and  deceased.  John 
Peer,  Jr.,  a  resident,  was  born  here  in  1834. 
The  Pearman  family;  of  the  younger  mem- 
bers, John  is  living,  I'enjamin  is  dead,  and 
besides  these  there  M-ere  S.  D.  and   AVilliam. 

1824. — John  Van  Camp,  whose  house  this 
year  was  where  the  first  township  election 
was  held,  moved  to  Missouri.  John  Langs- 
ton,  father  of  Oliver,  of  Dana.  William  L. 
Malone,  born  in  Ohio  in  1805,  deceased. 
Richard,  his  son,  was  born  in  the  same  State, 
in  1826,  and  lives  in  Dana. 

1825.— Caleb  Bales,  Sr.,  from  Virginia, 
died  in  1836.  Caleb  Bales,  Jr.  is  living. 
George  Bales,  early  settler,  father  of  Robert, 


is  dead.     William  Bales,  boru  in  Vi 


rginia  in 


1827,  settled  in  this  county  in  1831.  Will- 
iam F.  Bales  was  born  here  in  1829. 
Chandler  Tillotson,  who  came  to  the  county 
abont  this  pei'iod,  is  dead.  Daniel  G.  and 
G.  B.  Tillotson  were  born  here  in  1825. 
1826.— Edwin  (or  Edmund),  William  and 
Elijah  James.  S.  R.,  Joseph,  W.  A.  and  S. 
S.  James  are  all  natives  of  this  C(ninty.  Mr. 
Keyes,  father  of  Dr.  C.  F.  Keyes.  The 
doctor  was  born  in  Indiana,  in  1822,  brought 
up  in  Ilelt  Township,  became  a  competent 
physician,  although  somewhat  eccentric  in 
style,  and  died  at  Dana,  February  8,  1884, 
leaving  a  wife  and  five  children.  John  Van- 
duyn  born  in  New  Jersey  in  1803,  still  i-e- 
sides  in  this  township.  M.  Thompson.  Mr. 
Rhoades,  father  of  Stephen,  was  born  in 
Kentucky  in  1822.  William  Kearns,  born 
in  Kentucky  in  1806,  is  dead.  John,  his 
son,  was  born  in  1832,  and  is  still  living  here. 
Samuel  Pyle,  was  two  years  old  at  this  time, 
when  he  was  brought  here;  he  is  still  a  resi- 
dent of  this  township. 


1827. — Washington  Engram,  bom  in  Ken- 
tucky in  1812.  John  0.  Rogers,  born  this 
year  in  Helt  Township,  resides  in  Dana. 
Asa  Mack  came  this  year  or  previouely.  His 
son,  Dr.  Erastus  Mack,  was  born  this  year, 
and  another  son,  N.  B.,  born  in  1832,  went  to 
California. 

1828. — Joel  Ilollingsworth,  who  was  born 
in  South  Carolina  in  1801,  died  May  30, 
1875,  in  this  township.  (See  sketch  of 
Simon  Hollingsworth,  in  the  biographical  de- 
partment of  this  work.)  George  Hollings- 
worth, a  carpenter,  was  born  in  1827,  In- 
diana, and  was  brought  here  in  1839. 

1829.— The  French  family.  Eelix  French, 
born  here  this  year,  went  to  Michigan.  Sam- 
uel French,  long  a  resident.  Joseph  and 
John  Staats,  brothers,  are  still  living  here. 
Joseph,  born  in  Virginia  in  1801,  came  in 
1830,  and  John,  who  was  born  in  Ohio  in 
1806,  came  in  1829.  Israel  and  Abraham 
Leatherman  were  lads  when  they  arrived  this 
year.  Samuel  Hoagland  (deceased),  was  born 
in  this  county  in  1829,  and  was  a  citizen  here 
for  a  life  time.  Wesley  Southard  (deceased), 
was  born  in  Virginia  in  1811.  William 
Ruisell,  Sr.,  born  in  Virginia  in  1797,  is  still 
living  here.  David  and  Mahlou  Russell 
were  born  here,  in  1830  and  1833. 

1830. — James  L.  Wishard,  born  in  Ken- 
tucky in  1794,  was  a  soldier  of  the  war  of 
1812,  and  died  two  or  three  years  ago.  John 
O.  Wishard,  born  in  the  same  State,  in  1805, 
came  in  1834,  and  is  now  deceased.  J.  H. 
Wishard,  a  life-long  resident,  born  this  year. 
James  L.  Payton,  born  in  Kentucky  in  1800, 
is  dead.  James  Payton,  born  in  1835,  also 
deceased.  A.  M.  Payton,  born  in  Kentucky 
in  1823,  was  seven  years  of  age  when  brought 
here.  James  A.  Edmanston,  born  in  Indiana 
in  1828,  was  brought  here  in  1830  and  lived 
here  many  years,  but  is  now  living  in  Illinois. 
Robert  Norris,  born    in   South   Carolina  in 


1796,  died  here  in  1878.  His  sons,  John 
and  Lewis,  are  living.  John  T.  Boren,  Sr., 
born  in  Tennessee  in  1800,  is  not  living.  J. 
T.  Boren,  Jr.,  was  born  in  this  county  in 
1831.  Jacob  Miller,  born  in  Kentucky  in 
1818,  is  still  a  resident  here.  Mary  E.  Mil- 
ler, born  in  North  Carolina  in  1816,  came  iu 
1831.  John  and  O.  R.  Blakesley,  born  here 
in  1830  and  1833,  remained  as  residents  until 
their  death. 

1831. — Joseph  Jones,  born  in  Kentucky  in 
1810;  Matthew  Jones,  born  in  North  Carolina 
in  1818;  Thomas  Jones,  shoemaker,  born  in 
the  same  State  in  1820;  and  AViley  Jones, 
born  also  in  the  same  State  in  1824,  all  came 
this  year.  Wiley  soon  moved  on  to  Illinois. 
William  Jones,  an  old  resident,  was  born  in 
Indiana  in  1829. 

1832. — James  Andrews  came  previously 
to  1834.  John  Andrews,  still  living  here. 
Sara  Eliza  Andrews,  born  in  1820,  married 
Mr.  Dethrick  and  moved  West.  Hannah 
Andrews,  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1823, 
came  to  this  county  in  1839.  John  W.  Reed, 
born  in  North  Carolina  in  1822,  resided 
here  from  1832  until  his  death  September  14, 
1885,  at  Dana.  David  Reed,  born  in  North 
Carolina  in  1825,  is  still  living.  P.  M. 
Stokesberry,  born  in  Ohio  in  1808,  is  not 
now  living.  James  H.  White,Vho  was  born 
in  Teunessee^in  1805;  and  O.  J.  White  was 
born  this  year  in  Helt  Township.  William 
Higbie,  born  in  Ohio  in  1814,  lived  here 
until  recently. 

1833. — J.  S.  Fisher  (deceased),  born  in 
Kentucky  in  1808.  Benjamin,  James  and 
Joseph  Fisher,  pioneers,  and  life-long  citizens, 
are  all  deceased.  Benjamin  Miles,  born  in 
Kentucky  in  1813,  is  still  living  here.  Mr. 
Foncannon,  from  Virginia.  H.  W.  and  John 
R.  Roshstan,  living  in  Dana.  James  A. 
Elder  and  James  R.  Finnell,  the  former  from 
Ohio,   and  the   latter  from  Kentucky,  were 


both  eleven  years  of  age  when  brought  here 
in  1833,  and  are  still  living  in  Helt  Town- 
ship. O.  Chambers  and  Charles  Craig  were 
burn  here  tliis  year. 

1834. — Saninel  Aiknian,  born  in  Indiana 
in  1814,  is  living  in  Dana.  Robert  Mc- 
Dowell, born  in  Kentucky  in  1820,  is 
deceased.  J.  D.  McDowell,  born  in  this 
county  in  1836,  is  a  life-long  resident.  Mr. 
Johnson,  some  time  this  year  or  previously. 
John  R.  Jolmson,  born  in  Ohio  in  1833,  was 
brouglit  here  in  1834;  and  S.  Johnson  was 
born  liere  in  1835. 

1835. — Samuel  Tullis,  born  in  Virginia  in 
1794,  resided  here  until  his  death,  at  Bono, 
October  14,  1877,  a  member  of  the  Christian 
ciiurch.  His  wife  died  two  months  previously. 
Jolm  Jenks,  born  in  Vermont  in  1803,  is  not 
living.  S.  Ponton,  born  in  A'irginia  in 
1787,  is  deceased.  John  8.  Ponton,  born  in 
Ohio  in  1831,  died  here  about  a  year  ago. 
John  Jackson,  who  had  several  sons,  and  is 
deceased.  Anflrew  Jackson,  born  in  Oliio  in 
1823,  is  still  living  here.  Joseph  Jackson. 
James  C.  Burson.  Isaac  N.  BuUington,  born 
in  Kentucky  in  1807. 

1836. — Cephas  Mack,  born  in  Massachu- 
setts in  1815,  died  April  29,  1885,  in  Ilelt 
Township.  His  brother,  Spencer,  born  in 
the  same  State,  in  1818,  settled  here  in  1838, 
and  is  not  living. 

1837. — Benjamin  Harper,  born  in  Virginia 
in  1796,  died  August  2,  1877.  His  wife, 
Charlotte,  died  March  2,  1884,  aged  nearly 
eighty-two  years.  John  R.  Porter,  born  in 
Massachusetts  in  1824,died  in  1878.  James  F. 
Barnett,  Sr.,  born  in  Kentucky  in  1815,  after 
settling  here  became- a  merchant  in    Eugene. 

1838. — Henry  Mitchell,  blacksmith,  born 
in  New  York  in  1809,  died  here,  June  20, 
1881.  AVilliam  M.  Price,  born  in  Maryland 
in  1811,  is  still  a  resident  of  this  township. 
W.  C.  and  Abel  Randall,  from  Oiiio. 


1839. — William  Thompson,  born  in  Ken- 
tucky in  1818,  died  here  in  the  spring  of  1887. 
David  D.  Thompson,  born  in  the  same  State, 
in  1827,  died  i^^ebruary  1,  1880.  Erastus 
Crane,  born  in  Vermont  in  1804,  resided  in 
Helt  Township  from  1839  to  the  time  of  his 
death.  Elijah  and  N.  E.  Taylor,  Reuben 
Puffer,  F.  S.  Aye  and  many  others. 

1840. — Stephen  Milliken,  born  in  Pennsyl- 
vania in  1803;  deceased.  J.  L.  Powers,  born 
in  Virginia  in  1803;  also  deceased. 

Other  early  settlers  were — Samuel  Rice, 
William  Hays,  Peter  Higbie,  Henry  Bogart, 
Richard,  Isaac  and  John  Sliort,  Carmack, 
etc.,  etc.,  nearly  all  of  whom  are  dead. 

MISCELLANEOUS    ITEMS. 

The  first  white  child  born  in  Helt  Town- 
ship was  Honorable  William  Skidmore,  in 
1819;  and  it  is  not  a  settled  point  whether 
he  or  Jolm  Vannest,  Jr.,  of  Clinton  Town- 
ship, was  the  first  born  in  the  county. 

The  first  church  building  in  the  township 
was  the  Salem  Church,  on  Helt's  Prairie, 
erected  in  1848. 

The  first  school  was  taught  on  this  prairie, 
prior  to  1830. 

The  first  mill  in  the  township  was  built 
upon  the  bank  of  Coal  Branch,  a  little  stream 
which  takes  its  rise  in  the  central  part  of  the 
township  and  flows  southwest.  This  mill 
was  built  by  William  Anderson  in  1836,  but 
it  has  long  since  fallen  into  disuse,  and  Coal 
Branch  looks  as  if  it  could  never  have  run  a 
mill. 

The  Davis  Ferry,  at  Opeedee,  about  three 
and  a  half  miles  below  Newport,  was  a  fa- 
mous place  in  early  day,  as  it  was  the  favorite 
place  of  crossing  the  Wabash  for  those  who 
were  traveling  north,  the  second  bottoms  on 
the  west  side  of  the  river  attbrding  much 
better  wagon  roads  than  the  east  side.     By 


! 


this  route  some  teaming  was  done  even  to 
Chicago. 

Helt  Township  has  contributed  an  inter- 
esting share  to  the  science  of  archseology.  In 
the  summer  of  1884,  a  number  of  workmen, 
while  digging  gravel  in  the  mound  Just  east 
of  William  Bales'  place,  brought  to  light  the 
skeletons  of  more  than  half  a  dozen  of  the 
aborigines.  Various  relics  were  found,  con- 
sisting of  bone  and  stone.  There  was  no 
metallic  tool  of  any  sort  in  the  grave.  Under 
the  skull  of  the  first  skeleton  found, —  un- 
doubtedly the  chief  or  sachem  of  the  tribe, — 
was  perhaps  half  a  bushel  of  arrow-heads.  A 
pipe  was  found,  the  bowl  of  which  was  per- 
fectly hollowed.  It  was  made  of  a  hard 
species  of  soapstone. .  Was  it  his  calumet  of 
peace?  Two  pieces  of  what  one  would  sup- 
pose to  be  a  tish-spear,  made  from  the  aiitler 
of  a  deer,  was  procured  from  the  heap  of 
arrow-heads,  together  with  the  jaw-bones  of 
a  dog  and  several  beaver  teeth.  One  spear- 
head, six  inches  long,  the  middle  portion  of 
which  was  gone,  had  barbs,  about  an  inch 
apart,  on  one  side  only.  The  absence  of  fire- 
arms indicates  that  these  remains  have  been 
lying  here  since  a  period  prior  to  the  advent 
of  the  white  man. 

March  31,  1883,  occurred  the  first  "  fox 
drive"  ever  held  in  Vermillion  County.  The 
citizens  placed  themselves,  according  to  ad- 
vertised programme,  in  a  kind  of  circle  around 
a  large  section  of  territory,  mostly  in  Helt 
Township.  They  started  forward  at  9:30  A. 
M.  All  the  marshals  exercised  due  diligence 
to  keep  the  uien  in  proper  shape,  none  of 
whom  wei-e  allowed  to  be  intoxicated  or  to 
have  a  dog  or  gun.  The  east  and  north  di- 
visions, having  to  travel  over  a  very  broken 
section  of  the  country,  and  some  of  the  men 
also  disobeying  orders,  permitted  eight  foxes 
to  escape.  At  half  past  11  o'clock  men  and 
boys  could  be  seen   in  every  direction,  about 


800  strong,  approaching  the  center;  and  it 
was  also  observed  at  this  moment,  that  three 
red  foxes  were  surrounded.  Forming  into  a 
ring  about  forty  yards  in  diameter  on  the 
meadow  near  the  Conley  school-house,  three 
of  the  most  active  young  men  entered  the 
ring  to  captvire  the  game  by  their  unassisted 
hands.  One  fox,  which  was  crippled  in  try- 
ing to  pass  out,  was  soon  caught;  but  the 
other  two  were  chased  for  some  time,  when 
finally  one  of  them  broke  the  line  where 
some  women  were  standing  and  got  away. 
The  remaining  one,  after  being  chased  fur 
some  time  by  dififerent  ones,  was  finally  caught 
by  Fred  Ford. 

William  Darnell  was  called  for,  who  at 
auction  sold  the  two  foxes  to  the  highest 
bidder,  Richard  Wimsett,  of  Opeedee.  Every 
one  present  enjoyed  the  sport. 

It  could  plainly  be  seen  that  many  impor- 
tant improvements  could  be  made  in  the  plan 
and  execution  of  the  "  drive,"  and  accordingly 
the  next  spring,  March  15,  1884,  they  tried 
it  again,  on  a  larger  scale,  Muthout  catching 
a  single  fox.  The  conclusion  was  that  there 
were  no  foxes  on  the  ground  to  be  caught; 
but  some  say  the  territory  was  too  large.  It 
comprised  a  portion  of  Helt  and  Vermillion 
Townships. 

In  looking  through  the  ijlesoi  the  Iloosicr 
State  five  to  twenty  years  back,  one  finds 
many  crimes  and  misdemeanors  reported  from 
every  part  of  the  county, — appropriate  enough 
for  a  newspaper  but  inappropriate  in  a  general 
history  like  this.  The  execiition  of  Walter 
Watson,  for  the  murder  of  Ezra  Compton  at 
Highland,  has  already  been  related  in  this 
w'ork.  AVe  hope  every  reader  will  pardon  us 
for  introducing  one  more  item  from  that 
newspaper,  as  an  example  of  the  amusing 
style  in  which  many  of  the  squabbles  in  this 
county  were  related. 

"  Hair   Pulling:  a  Church  Scene  in  Helt 


BELT    TOWNSHIP. 


Township:  Two  Belligerent  Females  Get  on 
Their  Muscle  and  Make  the  Hair  Fly.  It 
becomes  our  sad  duty  this  week  to  record  a 
big  hair  pulling  by  a  couple  of  young  women 
of  Helt  Township.  Both  bear  a  respectable 
character,  and  also  a  first-class  temper.  The 
time  was  Sunday,  December  20,  1874,  and 
the  Brick  Church,  three  miles  west  of  High- 
land, was  the  place.  The  young  ladies  met 
in  the  aisle  after  services  were  over,  and,  after 
a  few  hot  words,  the  hair  pulling  commenced, 
and  was  continued  with  fury  for  several 
minutes,  hair,  ciirls  and  chignons  flying  in 
every  direction,  to  the  dismay  of  the  as- 
sembled multitude.  Both  will  now  have  to 
wear  wigs  for  a  spell,  to  conceal  their  prairie 
heads  from  public  gaze.  It  is  through  fear 
that  we  withhold  their  names  from  the  public; 
for  we  don't  want  to  be  put  to  the  necessity 
of  buying  a  wig  these  hard  times." 

TORONTO. 
This  is  the  name  of  the  postoffice  at  the 
village  called  Bono,  in  the  southwestern  part 
of  the  township.  The  village  was  started  in 
1848,  by  Tilly  Jenks  and  others,  when  the 
site  was  covered  with  a  thick  growth  of  tim- 
ber and  under-brush.  The  first  store  was 
established  by  James  Bacon,  between  1850 
and  1860.  In  the  spring  of  1863,  Edward 
English  established  a  grocery,  selling  out  in 
August  of  the  same  year  to  Francis  M. 
Austin,  who  now  keeps  a  "general  store"  at 
the  place.  John  F.  Hays  is  another  merchant 
here.  The  village,  although  never  laid  out 
and  platted,  has  all  the  elements  of  a  little 
town.  The  population  now  is  over  eighty. 
There  is  one  physician  here,  three  church 
organizations,  —  Presbyterian,  Baptist  and 
Methodist, — one  church  building,  a  school- 
house,  blacksmith  shop  and  a  post  of  the 
Grand  Army  of  the  Republic.  In  early  day 
a  society  of  Sons  of  Temperance  existed  here, 


and  later,  in  the  '60s,  a  lodge  of  the  Good 
Templars.  The  postoflice  was  established 
here  in  1871,  with  Francis  M.  Austin  as  post- 
master, who  still  holds  the  office.  There 
being  anotlier  Bono  in  Indiana,  the  postoffice 
was  named  Toronto,  the  office  by  this  name  a 
mile  and  a  half  north  having  been  previously 
discontinued. 

John  C.  Jenl-s  Post,  No.  263,  G.  A.  7?., 
was  chartered  with  the  following  officers 
and  members:  Francis  M.  Austin,  Post 
Commander;  William  L.  Kerns,  Senior  Yicc- 
Commander;  Henry  Barnhart,  Junior  Vice- 
Commander;  George  W.  Campbell,  Quarter- 
master; Edwin  Tiffany,  Chaplain;  Lewis  II. 
Beckman,  Adjutant;  Henry  H.  Aye,  Ofiictr 
of  the  Day;  A.  J.  Pitts,  Surgeon;  Solomon 
Carpenter,  John  Beard,  William  F.  Morrison, 
Francis  C.  Combs,  William  A.  Goodwin  and 
John  Myers.  The  post  is  in  good  working 
order,  enjoying  peace  and  hainiony.  Mem- 
bership, twenty-six,  meeting  the  first  Satur- 
day of  each  month.  Present  officers — Henry 
H.  Aye,  Post-Commander;  W.  F.  Kerns, 
Senior  Vice-Commander;  Henry  Barnhart, 
Junior  Vice-Commander;  Stej^hen  Jenks, 
Quartermaster;  William  A.  Goodwin,  Chap- 
lain; L.  L.  Goodwin,  Adjutant;  F.  M.  Austin, 
Officer  of  the  Day ;  Edwin  Tiffany,  Officer  of 
the  Guard. 

This  is  the  most  appropriate  place  we  can 
find  for  the  list  of  deceased  soldiers  of  tlie 
last  war,  from  Helt  Township,  compiled 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the 
Republic. 

Aikman,  Elijah  Andrews,  Edward 

Aikman,  James  Andrews,  John 

Aikman,  William  Andrews,  James 

Amerman,  Henry         Anderson,  John  P. 
Bride,  James  Blakesley,  Albert, 

Brady,  James  Burnett,  Samuel 

Burnett,  William  Clark,  John 

Castle,  Dirah  Crane,  Benjamin 


HISTOriT    OF     VEItMILLION    COUNTY. 


Dorsliam,  Christopher 
Ford,  Josephus,  Lean- 

der  and  Perry- 
Fisher,  James 
Gerrish,  Charles 
Gosnold,  Oscar 
Harbison,  James 
Harris,  John 
Hamilton,     Benjamin 
James,  Joseph  L. 
Jackson,  Ross 
Longfellow,      "William 
JIalone,  William  C. 
Millikin,  Lintott 
Miller,  H.  B. 
Martin,  William 
Morgan,  Marion 
Osborn,  William 
Pollard,  Absalom 
Price,  David 
Staats,  George 
Smith,  John 
Strain,  George 
Spriggs,  Enoch 
Taylor,  Leroy 
Thompson,  James 
White,  Frank 
Winesburg,  Henry. 
Ashnry  Lodge,  JS^o.  320,  F.  db  A.  M.,  was 
organized  at  Bono  in  1861,  but  the  meraber- 
sliip  is  now  transferred  to  Dana,  which  see. 
Toronto  Presbyterian   Church  was  organ- 
ized as  early  as  1850  or  '51,  by  Kev.  Gerrish, 
the  house  of  worship   was    built  during   the 
latter  year.     It  is    a  frame,  36x40   feet   in 
dimensions,  and  is  still    in  a   good   state  of 
preservation.     Among  the  early  members  of 
the  church  were   James  A.    Elder  and  wife, 
Samuel  Elder  and  wife,  etc.     Rev.   John  A. 
Tiflany  was  pastor  from  1858  to  1866.  There 
are  now  about  twenty  commnnicants;  a  large 
proportion  are  changing  their  membership  to 
Dana.     Rev.  Thomas   Griffith  is   the  present 


Curry,  John 
Ford,  Henry 
Foncannon,  Joseph 
Foticannon,  John 
Gamell,  Charles 
Gerrish,  Lucien 
Hendrixon,  Elliott 
Harper,  Daniel 
Homida}',   David 
Hunter,  Solomon 
James,  Solomon  R. 
Luck,  Edward 
Malone,  William 
Mitciiell,  Benson 
Mack,  Reuben 
McNamer,  John 
Martin,  Levi 
Nebeker,  Jasper 
Pearman,  Sebert 
Potterofi",  Marion 
Paulley,  James 
Skid  more,  Asa 
Smitli,  William 
Southard,  John  P. 
Straight,  Elmor 
Tullis,  Samuel 
Wellman,  Louis 
Whiteliead,  Thomas 


pastor.  A  union  Sunday-school  is  kept  up 
throughout  the  year:  Edwin  Tiflany,  super- 
intendent. A  union  prayer-meeting  is  sus- 
tained in  the  church  by  the  Presbyterians, 
Baptists  and  Methodists. 

laddie's  Prairie  Baptist  Chitrch. — In 
1852  a  branch  or  "  mission  "  of  the  Bloom - 
field  Baptist  Church  was  established  at 
Toronto,  and  July  23,  1853,  it  was  organized 
as  a  separate  body  in  the  Toronto  Presby- 
terian Chapel,  by  Rev.  G.  W.  Riley.  The 
constituent  members  were  Chandler  Tillotson, 
John  Depuy,  James  Drinen,  Reiiben  Pufter, 
Daniel  G.  Tillotson,  John  Newton,  A.  II. 
Depuy,  Hannah  Martin,  Mary  Newton,  Eliza 
J.  Depny,  Harriet  Puffer,  Elizabeth  Tillotson, 
Rebecca  Tillotson,  Rametha  Scott,  O.  Z. 
Derthic,  Harriet  Derthic,  Adalinc  Derthic 
and  Mary  Derthic. 

Revs.  John  and  G.  W.  Riley  were  preach- 
ers in  1852,  the  latter  being  the  first  pastor. 
Up  to  August,  1861,  the  following  were  either 
pastors  or  supplies:  Revs.  Joseph  Shirk, 
William  McMasters  and  A.  J.  Riley;  thence 
to  the  present.  Revs.  William  McMasters 
1861-'62;  Melvin  McKee,  1862-'63;  Will-' 
iam  McMasters,  1863-'65;  Melvin  McKee, 
1865-'66;  D.S.French,  1866-'68;  William 
McMasters,  1868-'77;  A.  J.  Riley,  1877-'79; 
G.  T.  Willis,  1879-'82;  J.  M.  Kendall,  1883; 
no  pastor,  1882-'86,  except  a  few  months  in 
1883;  W.  T.  Cuppy,  1886-'87. 

Services  every  fourth  Sunday. 

Toronto  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was 
organized  in  February,  1853,  by  Rev.  John 
Lach,  who  had  just  conducted  a  successful 
series  of  revival  meetings  here.  He  died 
twenty  years  ago.  Among  the  first  members 
were  John  Jenks  and  family,  William  Jordan 
and  wife,  Mrs.  Tiller  Jenks,  John  R.  Wish- 
ard  and  wife,  Almeda  Jenks  (now  Eatoii), 
and  others.  In  1875  a  great  revival  was  held 
by  Rev.  Jacob  Musser.     There  are  now  about 


/'S-'^-^'^'^' 


KELT    TOWNSHIP. 


sixty  members,  Avitli  Stephen  Jenks  as  class-, 
leader.  Services  every  two  weeks,  by  Rev. 
William  Smitb,  in  the  Presbyterian  church. 
Sunday-school,  union:  Peter  Aikman,  super- 
intendent. 

JONESTOWN. 

Tliis  point  is  at  the  southwest  corner  of 
Ilelt  Township.  It  was  named  for  Philip 
Jones,  who  owned  a  part  of  the  ground  upon 
which  it  was  founded.  It  was  laid  out  in 
1862,  by  Junes  tt  Wellman,  the  surveying 
being  done  by  James  Osburn,  now  of  Dana, 
assisted  by  Josepli  C.  Lane  and  DeWitt  Wat- 
son. A  log  cabin  was  upon  the  site,  and  also 
a  better  dwelling,  erected  by  Dr.  Grimes  the 
previous  year.  John  Amnierman  established 
the  first  store.  There  are  now  two  general 
stores,  one"  drug  and  grocery  store,  a  flouring- 
mill,  built  in  1879,  a  blacksmith  shop,  a  car- 
penter and  a  cabinet-maker,  a  post  of  the 
Grand  Army  of  the  Kepublic,  a  brick  school- 
house,  a  United  Brethren  church,  one  phy- 
sician, a  justice  of  the  peace,  a  constable,  and 
a  postoffice,  named  St.  Bernice,  there  being 
another  Jonestown  in  the  State.  The  office 
was  established  here  in  1863,  with  Dr.  Wil- 
son Grimes  as  postmaster.  It  was  first  named 
"Jones,"  but  it  was  soon  found  that  there 
was  already  a  Jones  postoffice  in  Indiana. 

The  population  is  about  100.  There  are 
four  brick  buildings  in  the  place, — the  school- 
house,  a  store  and  two  dwellings.  The  store, 
a  fine  business  block,  was  built  in  1880,  by 
William  D.  JVIcFall,  who  occupies  it  with  his 
large  stock  of  goods  and  the  postoffice,  he 
being  the  present  postmaster. 

Dr.  Tliomas  M.  Lownsdale,  practicing  phy- 
sician at  Jonestown,  was  born  in  Petersburg, 
Indiana,  August  12,  1841,  graduated  at  the 
Cincinnati  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery 
in  February,  1875,  and  came  to  this  place  in 
October,  1885. 


Pleasant  Chaj^el  United  Brethren  Church 
was  organized  first  at  Sugar  Grove,  Edgar 
County,  Illinois,  in  pioneer  times,  and  re- 
moved to  Pleasant  Hill  School-house,  No. 
13,  about  1867.  Their  present  commodious 
church  edifice,  30.\42  feet  in  size,  and  cost- 
ing SI, 350,  was  erected  in  1875.  There  are 
now  eighty  or  ninety  members.  Services 
every  two  weeks,  conducted  by  Rev.  S.  S. 
Sims.  Prayer-meeting,  Wednesday  evening. 
Sunday-school  all  the  year,  at  9:30  A.  M. 
Class-meeting  when  there  is  no  preaching. 

A  Christian  Church  was  organized  here  in 
April,  1883,  with  nineteen  members,  now 
increased  to  fifty-two.  Elders — Walter  Paul- 
ley  and  James  Holston.  Pastor — Elder 
Williams,  of  Parke  County.  Sunday-school 
during  the  summer. 

HILLSDALE, 

situated  mostly  on  section  2,  Township  15 
north,  range  9  west,  Ilelt  Township,  was  laid 
out  in  1873,  by  E.  Montgomery.  The  first 
house  was  built  by  Hart  Montgomery  soon 
afterward,  and  the  same  year  he  and  his  son 
established  the  first  store,  comprising  a  gen- 
eral stock.  A  saloon  came  next,  and  the  third 
building  was  a  dwelling,  erected  by  Levi 
Bonenbrake.  There  are  now  two  general 
stores,  a  restaurant,  a  church  (Methodist), 
and  one  physician.  Dr.  Erastus  Mack.  The 
Chicago  &  Eastern  Illinois  and  the  Indian- 
apolis, Decatur  &  Springfield  Eailroads  cross 
at  this  point,  having  a  union  depot. 

Just  across  the  Little  Kaccoon  Creek  south 
is  the  hamlet  of  Alta,  where  there  are  a 
blacksmith  and  a  machinist.  The  two  vil- 
lages are  regarded  as  one,  and  taken  together 
they  contain  a  population  of  200. 

The  mineral  resources  are  good,  coal, 
building  stone  and  fire-clay  being  mined  in 
abundance.  The  fire-clay  is  of  the  very  liest 
quality,   and    there   is    an  excellent   opening 


ii 


liere  for  the  investment  of  capital.  A  mile 
nortli  is  a  fire-brick  factory  doing  a  profitable 
business.  Coal,  wood  and  M'ater  being  plen- 
tiful here,  a  flonring-inill  would  also  do  well 
at  this  point. 

The  factory  referred  to  is  the  Montezuma 
Fire-Brick  Works,  Iniilt  in  1872-'73,  by 
Burns,  Porter  A:  Collett.  It  is  now  owned 
and  run  by' Joseph  Burns.  The  main  build- 
ing is  70.\90  feet,  \vi4;h  an  addition  30x40 
feet,  used  as  a  boiler  and  machinery  room. 
The  proprietor  uses  the  Foster  A:  Kinehart 
crushers,  the  Martin  brick  machine  and  the 
Totten  dry-pan.  The  power  is  fLirnished  by 
the  Sinker-Davis  fifty-horsc-power'  engine. 
Capacity,  10,000  lirick  daily.  The  brick 
made  at  this  factory  will  not  glaze  or  melt, 
are  of  the  best  quality  and  used  in  several 
States.  The  drying  rooms  are  underlaid  with 
a  series  of  furnaces,  which,  when  heated, 
transmit  the  heat  through  the  tile  flooring 
upon  which  the  damp  l)rick  are  laid  for  dry- 
ing. 

JIaJo,'  Ami  Post,  No.  370,  G.  A.  L'.,  was 
chartered  July  13,  1884,  with  the  following 
members:  J.  A.  Souders,  L.  Xewell,  J.  Y. 
Whitson.  AV.  A.  James,  T.  S.  King,  B.  G. 
Senders,  W.  J.  Lake,  A.  B.  Casebeer,  J.  W. 
Justice,  II.  Casebeer,  Cooper  Jackson,  J.  W. 
.A[iddlebrook,  Dr.  E.  Mack,  J.  A.  Luce,  E. 
Short,  A.  Pearman,  F.  M.  Lake,  William 
Pearman  and  W.  A.  lioeback, — nineteen  in 
all.  The  first  officers  were — Cooper  Jackson, 
Post  Commander;  W.  A.  James,  Senior  A'ice- 
Commauder;  J.  A.  Luce,  Junior  Vice-Com- 
mander; A.  B.  Casebeer,  Adjutant;  J.  F. 
Whitson,  Quartermaster;  J.  A.  Senders,  Ofli- 
cer  of  the  Day.  There  are  now  twenty-one 
members,  who  meet  on  the  second  and  fourth 
Saturday  evenings  of  each  month,  in  the 
Hillsdale  school-house.  The  present  ofiicers 
..re — W.  A.  James,  Post  Commander;  A.  B. 
Casebeer,    Senior    Vice-Commander:     B.    G. 


Senders,  Junior  Vice-Commander;  J.  F. 
Wliitson,  Adjutant;  Samuel  Lane,  Quarter- 
master; Cooper  Jackson,  Officer  of  the  Day. 

The  Methodist  Ejnscojxd  Church  at  Hills- 
dale was  organized  July  11,  1880,  by  Eev. 
Thomas  Bartlett,  with  the  following  mem- 
bers: J.  W.  Casebeer,  class-leader;  S.  E. 
James,  Matilda  James,  Margaret  Owens,  Dr. 
E.  Mack,  Mrs.  Mack,  Martha  Strowbridge, 
Ella  Casebeer,  Martha  Casebeer,  A.  B.  Case- 
beer, C.  M.  Casebeer,  E.  M.  Casebeer,  Sarah 
Wilson,  Mary  McLaughlin,  Jane  Williamson, 
Wallace  Thompson,  Mrs.  Thompson,  Eliza- 
beth Newell,  E.  Wilson,  Thomas  J.  William- 
son, Bertie  Casebeer,  Billy  Ponton,  Charles 
Bassett  and  Mrs.  Mary  Marvin. 

The  present  church  edifice,  a  fine  frame 
34  X  40  feet,  and  costing  $1,650,  was  built  in 
1883-'84,  principally  with  money  bequeathed 
by  a  Sister  Bricker.  The  ground  was  dona- 
ted by  Mrs.  Mary  Gibson.  Trustees — J.  W. 
Casebeer,  J.  T.  Ponton,  S.  E.  James,  W. 
A.  James,  E.  Mack,  A.  B.  Casebeer  and 
Charles  Bassett. 

The  first  pastor  was  Eev.  J.  F.  McDaniels, 
two  years  or  more;  the  second,  E.  R.Johnson, 
two  years,  or  until  1884;  tlien  Eev.  Joy 
was  pastor  from  the  fall  of  1884  until  the 
fall  of  1885,  J.  T.  AYoods  till  March,  1887, 
since  which  time  W.  A.  Smith  has  liad  charge. 
Preaching  every  two  weeks.  Sunday-sclioo! 
is  maintained  throughout  the  year.  The 
membership  of  the  clinrch  is  now  about 
twenty-five.     Class-leader.  William  TiucheK 


is  a  hamlet  of  about  150  inhabitants  a  mile 
north  of  Hillsdale.  It  is  one  of  the  oldest 
trading  points  in  the  county,  having  been  in 
pioneer  days  a  stage  station  on  the  route 
between  Terre  Haute  and  La  Fayette.  For 
many  years  a  postofiice  was  tliere,  but  when 
Hillsdale  was  started  it  was  transferred  to  the 


EELT    TOWNSHIP. 


latter  place,  and  the  name  correspondingly 
changed.  Tlie  leading  merchant  of  Highland 
is  W.  J.  Hendrix,  who  keeps  a  full  line  of 
general  merchandise,  and  has  a  good  trade. 
There  are  also  a  small  grocery  and  drug  store 
here,  and  a  blacksmith  shop. 

A  "  Christian"  Church  exists  at  this  point, 
organized  in  early  day.  The  present  mem- 
bership is  estimated  at  about  thirty;  but  tliey 
are  not  strong.  Elders — John  Pearman  and 
Israel  Leatherman.  Minister — Elder  Mar- 
shall, who  resides  near  Eockville,  Park 
County.    Sunday-school  througliout  the  year. 

SUMMIT    GROVE, 

is  a  hamlet  situated  on  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  26,  and  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  27,  township  15  north,  i-ange  9  west, 
Holt  Township.  It  was  surveyed  by  A.  Fitch, 
March  14,  1871,  and  tlie  plat  recorded  De- 
cember 23  following.  The  first  house  was 
a  store  I'oom  bnilt  by  A.  H.  Depuy,  in  the 
spring  of  1872.  The  second  was  a  residence 
bnilt  -by  N.  T.  Leiton,  the  same  year.  The 
first  blacksmith  shop  was  built  by  Otho 
Chambers.  William  Skidmore  also  built  a 
warehouse  earl^^  in  1872,  which  burned  down 
in  May  of  the  same  year.  The  present  ware- 
house was  erected  by  Leiton  &  Depuy,  in  the 
fall  of  that  year.  Tiiere  are  now  two  stores, 
one  blacksmitli  shop,  one  harness  and  shoe 
shop  combined,  a  saw-mill,  a  warehouse,  and 
a  postoffice.     Population,  sixty-four. 

Sale  in  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  meet- 
ing a  mile  north  of  Summit  Grove,  is  a 
])ioueer  institution.  The  first  Methodist 
preaching  in  the  neighborhood  was  by  Pev. 
Mr.  Chamberlain  in  1821-'22.  The  next 
preacher  was  Ilev.  Dr.  William  James,  a 
N'irginian,  who  had  lived  awhile  at  Mansfield, 
Ohio,  and  then  in  Butler  Coun'ty,  that  State, 
and  came  to  this  county  in  October,  1822, 
when  he  preached  in    the  log  barn  of  John 


Helt,  and  later  in  a  small  log  cabin  school- 
house  with  split-pole  seats.  He  preached 
and  practiced  medicine  until  1826,  when  he 
started  for  New  Orleans  with  a  boat  load  of 
corn,  and  died  on  the  way.  The  next  minis- 
ter was  Rev.  Warner,  from  Parke  County, 
who  organized  the  class  in  this  neighborhood 
in  the  spring  of  1828,  in  the  log  school- 
house  on  Kelt's  Prairie,  under  the  name  of 
Kelt's  Prairie  Class.  Samuel  Ryerson  and 
wife  were  the  leading  members.  Other 
members  were  John  Kelt  and  wife,  Samuel 
Rush  and  wife,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Helt,  Mrs. 
Mary  Helt,  Edmund  James  and  wife,  Collon 
James  and  John  James  and  wife. 

These  people  worshiped  in  the  school- 
house  and  in  the  house  of  Samuel  Rush  until 
1846,  when  they  built  a  frame  house  at  the 
center  of  section  22,  township  15  north,  9 
west.  In  1878  this  building  was  sold  and  a 
commodious  brick  structure  erected  on  the 
same  foundation,  about  32  x  60  feet  in 
dimensions,  at  a  cost  of  $2,838.36.  The 
present  trustees  are  Robert  Davis,  A.  L.  Mack, 
Wright  James,  N.  T.  Leiton,  Albert  Miller 
and  D.  E.  Strain,  Jr.  There  are  now  over 
100  communicants.  Public  services  and 
class-meeting  every  two  weeks.  Pastor — 
Rev.  W.  A.  Smith.  Class-leaders— James 
Harrington,  James  A.  Miller,  Wright  James, 
Martin  Harper  and  Frank  Kelt.  Sunday- 
school  sustained  throughout  the  year  and 
superintended   by  N.  T.  Leiton. 

OTHEE  CnUECHES    IN    IIELT  TOWNSHIP. 

Spring  Hill  Class,  Methodist  Ediscojxd., 
was  organized  in  1834,  in  the  house  of  Joel 
Blakesley,  with  Samuel  Rush  and  wife,  Joel 
P>lakesley  and  wife,  Zachariah  D.  James  and 
wife,  Jane  Ford,  Sarah  Ponton,  Stephen  Har- 
rington and  wife,  William  Kearns  and  wife, 
Lydia  Jackson,  Enoch  White  and  wife,  Mar- 
tha Ponton,  Betsey    Ponton,  and  Nathaniel 


Biinies  and  wife.  In  1835  they  built  a  liewcd- 
log  house,  near  the  center  of  section  10, 
township  15,  range  9,  which  tliey  used  sev- 
eral years.  The  class  was  then  known  as 
"  Goshen."  They  next  removed  to  the  scliool- 
house  a  half  n^ile  north.  The  present  house, 
of  worship,  a  frame  30x40  feet,  w-as  built  in 
1879,  at  a  cost  of  $1,775.  There  are  now 
about  tliirty  members.  Sunday-scliool  all 
the  year,  with  A.  Harvey  Kearns  as  superin- 
tendent. Trustees — William  A.  James  and 
Moses  Thompson.  Pastor — Kev.  James 
Smith.  The  present  name  of  the  class, 
"  Spring  Hill,"  was  adopted  at  the  time  of 
tlie  building  of  the  present  church. 

Ashunj  Chapel,  Methodist  Episcopal. — 
The  class  meeting  here  was  organized  as  early  as 
1830.  One  of  the  iirst  ministers  was  Rev. 
DeLap.  Services  were  held  at  private  resi- 
dences and  in  school-houses  until  1850,  wlien 
a  frame  church,  80  x  40  feet  was  erected  on 
tlie  southeast  quarter  of  section  36,  township 
16,  range  10.  The  most  successful  revival 
was  held  in  1852,  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev. 
Arthur  Badley,  who  was  living  in  Iowa 
wh.en  last  heard  from.  Among  the  pastors 
who  have  had  charge  of  this  church  since  the 
building  of  the  present  house  of  worship 
have  been  Revs.  J.  W.  Parrett,  Shaw, 
Thomas  I'artlett,  Salsbury,  Clark  Skinner, 
McDaniel,  Wood,  Barnard,  Nebeker,  Barnett, 
Morrison  and  E.  R.  Johnson.  The  class  has, 
of  later  years,  been  considerably  reduced  in 
number,  and  they  now  have  no  regular 
preacliing. 

The  Center  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
was  organized  about  fifty  years  ago,  at  the 
residence  of  James  Wishard,  where  services 
were  held  for  many  years.  In  1853  the 
present  commodious  frame  structure  was 
erected,  30  x  40  feet  in  size,  at  a  cost  of  about 
ftl,400.  Present  membership,  ninety-seven. 
Class-leaders,  George  Campbell  and   Alanson 


Church.  Stewards,  H.  P.  McCown,  B.  F. 
Smith  and  Henry  Shaffer.  Class-meeting 
every  two  weeks,  and  public  sevices  every 
two  weeks.  Prayer  meeting  every  Thursday 
evening  during  the  winter.  Sunday-school 
all  the  year,  at  9:30  a.  m.  Rev.  J.  B.  Combs, 
of  Clinton,  is  the  present  pastor. 

Liberty  Class,  United  Brethren  Ch^irch, 
was  organized  in  1878,  by  Rev.  Henry  ]S'o- 
lan,  with  about  sixteen  or  eighteen  members, 
in  Liberty  school-house,  on  section  15,  town- 
ship 15,  range  10.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev. 
Thomas  0.  Baty,  who  served  from  the  fall  of 
1878  to  the  fall  of  1880;  W.  A.  Wainscott, 
1880-'83;  James  Smith,  1883-'84;  Levi  Byrd, 
1884-'86;  S.  S.  Sims,  1886  to  the  present. 
Membership  twenty-six,  worshipping  still  in 
Liberty  school-house.  Class-leader,  Frank 
Skidmore.  Thomas  Skidmore,  superintendent 
of  the  Sunday-school,  which  is  at  present 
maintained  only  during  the  summer,  but 
efforts  are  made  to  continue  it  the  year  round. 
Public  service  every  three  weeks.  A  prayer- 
meeting  is  also  sustained. 

Midwaij  United  Brethren  Church  was 
organized  in  1857,  by  Rev.  Joel  Cowgill, 
with  probably  fifteen  or  twenty  members,  in 
the  Castle  school-house,  which  is  still  their 
place  of  worship,  though  it  has  been  pur- 
chased by  them  and  converted  into  a  church. 
Its  size  is  22  x  30  feet,  and  is  situated  on 
section  13,  township  15,  range  10.  Public 
services  were  discontinued  August  28,  1887, 
with  no  definite  plans  for  the  future. 

United  Brethren  Chnrcli  at  Ilancman 
Chapel. — As  the  nucleus  of  this  society, 
services  were  first  held  here  over  fifty  years  ago, 
in  the  house  of  Christopher  Haneman,  de- 
ceased, the  principal  founder.  The  class  was 
organized  as  early  as  1837,  with  a  few  mem- 
bers, among  whom  were  Christopher  Hane- 
man and  wife,  Harriet -McDowel,  George 
AVellman  and  wife,  Jeremiah  Hammond  and 


HBLT    TOWNSHIP. 


wife,  Silas  Hollingsworth  and  wife.  Emily 
Bales  and  Isaac  Johnson  and  wife.  The 
present  church  edifice,  a  brick  structure,  was 
begun  in  1842,  but  not  completed  until  1872, 
thirty  years  afterward.  It  stands  on  section 
6,  township  15,  range  9. 

Among  the  many  ministers  who  have 
preached  here  were  Revs.  John  Shoey,  Will- 
iam Eckles,  Andrew  Wimset,  Mr.  Conoyer, 
John  Miller,  Thomas  Hamilton,  Joseph  Nye, 
Mr.  Nugen,  John  A.  Mast  and  Samuel  Potts. 
There  are  now  twenty-eight  communicants  in 
good  standing.  Class-leader,  "William  Under- 
wood. Trustees,  Jacob  Underwood,  William 
Underwood  and  Richard  Malone.  Sunday- 
school  half  the  year,  superintended  by  Miss 
Delia  Boren.  Pastor,  Rev.  S.  S.  Sims. 
Public  services  once  in  three  weeks.    ■ 

Tennessee  Valley  Baptist  Church  was 
organized  in  September,  1872,  in  the  Staats 
school-house,  by  Rev.Wil]iamMcMasters,who 
had  been  preaching  here  some  time  previ- 
ously, sustaining  the  point  as  a  "mission" 
of  iliddle's  Prairie  Baptist  Church.  The 
first  members  were  Thomas  Dugger  and  wife, 
Benjamin  T.  Dugger  and  wife,  James  G. 
Lewis  and  wife,  Henry  J.  Howard  and  wife, 
Rosa  J.  Pierce  (now  Underwood),  James  A. 
Dugger  and  wife  and  John  F.  Dugger,  all  of 
whom  came  by  letter  from  the  Kiddie's 
Prairie  Church.  Rev.  McMasters  was  the 
pastor  of  this  new  church  from  the  date  of 
its  organization  until  his  death  in  1886.  He 
was  an  industrious,  earnest  worker,  endearing 
himself  to  all.  Rev.  John  H.  Rusraisel  suc- 
ceeded him,  and  is  the  present  minister. 
Public  services  on  the  second  and  fourth 
Sunday's  of  each  month.  Sunday-school 
throughout  the  year,  with  James  G.  Lewis 
as  superintendent.  Trustees,  Benjamin  T. 
and  John  F.  Dugger  and  James  G.Lewis. 
Deacons,  Benjamin  T.  Dugger,  James  G. 
Lewis  and  L.  L.  Goodwin.     Clerk,    John   F. 


Dugger.  Communicants  about  ninety.  The 
present  house  of  worship,  a  neat  frame  30  x 
45  feet  in  size,  was  erected  in  1875,  at  a  cost 
of  $1,600.  It  is  situated  on  the  northeast 
quarter    of  section  18,   township  15,  range  9. 

DANA. 

The  Indianapolis,  Decatur  iz  Springfield 
Railroad  was  completed  through  Vermillion 
County,  laterally,  and  through  Helt  Township 
longitudinally,  in  1873.  In  April,  1874,  the 
railroad  company  fixed  upon  a  point  on  their 
road  near  the  head  of  the  Little  Raccoon 
Creek  and  about  two  and  a  half  miles  east  of 
the  western  boundary  of  the  township  for  a 
"  town,"  naming  the  place  "  Dana,"  after  one 
of  the  stockholders  in  the  road.  For  a  depot 
Samuel  Aikman  donated  a  half  interest  in 
forty  acres,  John  B.  Aikman  a  half  interest 
in  twenty  acres,  and  Samuel  Cofland  a  half 
interest  also  in  twenty  acres.  Besides,  these 
gentlemen  gave  $1,500  cash.  The  land  thus 
donated  became  the  town  plat. 

The  next  year  W.  M.  Taylor  built  the  first 
business  house  in  the  place,  a  frame,  in  which 
he  kept  a  general  store  and  the  postofliee. 
The  postmasters  since  Mr.  Taylor's  period  of 
service  have  been  John  Bilsland  and,  since 
April  18,  1885,  John  W.  Redman. 

Dana  is  the  most  rapidly  growing  town  in 
Vermillion  County,  comprising  a  shrewd  and 
enterprising  class  of  business  men,  and  sur- 
rounded by  an  unusually  good  agricultural 
district. 

It  was  incorporated  in  January,  1886,  since 
w'hich  time  the  trustees  have  been  John  Linn, 
President,  D.  W.  Finney  and  W.  T.  Davis; 
II.  Wells,  Clerk;  J.  E.  Bilsland,  Treasurer; 
and  John  Malone,  Marshal. 

The  school  trustees  are  G.  O.  Newton, 
Charles  Hunt  and  J.  O.  Rogers,  appointed 
by  the  above  town  board.  The  school-house, 
a  brick  structure  27  x  62  feet .  in  dimensions 


and  two  twelve- foot  stories  high,  was  built 
hy  the  towuship  in  1879,  the  contract  price 
being  $2,200.  It  is  now  the  property  of  the 
town  corporation.  It  has  three  rooms.  The 
enrollment  of  pupils  is  about  150.  Fred 
Rush  is  the  principal. 

(By  the  way,  the  historian  was  referred  to 
the  stone  over  the  door  for  the  date  ot  the 
building.  Repairing  thitlier,  he  found,  in- 
stead of  any  date,  only  the  legend,  "  Keep 
out  of  debt!") 

The  Dana  News  was  established  in  October, 
1885,  by  M.  L.  Griffith,  from  Monticello, 
Illinois,  as  a  Democratic  organ.  April  15, 
1887,  he  sold  it  to  the  present  proprietor, 
J.  L.  Smith,  who  immediately  enlarged  it  to 
a  six-column  quarto,  making  it  the  largest 
paper  in  the  county,  and  during  the  first  ten 
weeks  (up  to  date  of  this  writing)  increased 
the  subscription  list  by  250!  He  has  in 
every  way  improved  the  paper,  still  conduct- 
ing it  in  the  interests  of  the  Democracy.  In 
connection  with  the  paper  Mr.  Smith  has  a 
nice  little  job  office. 

Mr.  Smith  was  born  in  New  England,  in 
1860.  When  he  was  an  infant,  his  father 
was  hilled,  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion.  His 
mother  then  returned  with  her  three  children 
to  New  York,  and  placed  them  for  six  months 
in  an  orphans'  home  on  Randall's  Island. 
In  May,  1867,  he  and  one  sister  were  brought 
to  Wiliiamsport,  Indiana,  where  they  were 
indentured  out.  Mr.  Smith  was  in  the  care 
of  various  parties, — of  Hugh  James  for  eight 
years.  Up  to  the  conclusion  of  this  period 
he  had  had  no  educational  advantages,  and 
his  noble  nature  asserted  itself  in  an  effort  to 
educate  himself  in  spite  of  his  poverty  and 
the  absence  of  sympathizing  relatives.  Ac- 
cordingly, during  the  school  year  of  1875-'76 
!ie  worked  for  his  board  and  sent  himself  to 
school.  lie  came  to  Vermillion  County  in 
1878,   whore  he   worked   for  one  man,  on  a 


farm,  for  five  years,  attending  school  during 
the  winter  seasons.  In  1881-'82  he  attended 
the  Terre  Haute  Normal  School,  and  in  the 
fall  of  1882  he  began  teaching,  in  Helt 
Township,  continuing  in  the  profession  five 
consecutive  years, — up  to  the  time  of  his 
purchase  of  the  Dana  News.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Masonic  fraternity. 

Mr.  Griffith  returned  to  Monticello,  Illi- 
nois, where  he  became  foreman  of  a  printing- 
office. 

Dana  has  a  cornet  band,  organized  in 
1885  and  led  by  Carl  Temple. 


Dr.  Hiram  Shepard  was  born  in  Newport, 
this  county,  graduated  at  the  Miami  Medical 
College  at  Cincinnati,  and  has  been  practic- 
ing at  Dana  since  1874. 

Dr.  Granville  O.  Newton  M-as  liorn  in  Helt 
Township,  this  county,  graduated  at  the  above 
mentioned  college,  and,  after  practicing  in 
the  country  in  this  township  for  a  time,  came 
to  Dana,  in  September,  1885. 

Dr.  Thomas  C.  Hood,  also  a  native  of  this 
township,  graduated  at  Jefferson  Medical 
College  at  Philadelphia  in  1884,  located  in 
Terre  Haute  for  a  short  time,  and  moved  to 
Dana  in  1885. 

A  full  sketch  of  Dr.  Otis  M.  Keyes  appears 
in  the  biographical  department  of  this  work. 

Dr.  John  C.  Harrison  was  born  in  Craw- 
fordsville,  Indiana,  was  a  soldier  in  the  late 
war,  graduated  in  medicine  at  the  Eclectic 
Medical  College  of  Cincinnati,  began  to 
practice  in  partnersliip  with  his  brother  in 
1868,  and  located  in  Dana  in  1886. 

Dr.  A.  H.  DePuy,  who  practiced  in  licit 
Township  1856-'71,  is  now  a  resident  of 
Chicago,  but  sometimes  re-visits  this  point 
as  a  physician.     He  is  a  regular  graduate. 

Dr.  Frank  Foncannon,  another  native  of 
Helt  Township,    practiced  in   this   township 


ii^ 


-^—71! 


HELT    TOWNSHIP. 


Sou 


but    a   sliort    time,    and    went    to    Emporia, 
Kansas. 

Dr.  Cadle,  from  Newport,  was  here  during 
tlie  season  of  1885,  and  went  to  Terre  Haute. 

SOCIETIES. 

Ashay  Lodge,  No.  3S0,  F.  &  A.  J/".,  was 
ori;;inized  at  Bono  in  1865,  the  charter  being 
dated  May  24,  that  year.  fSelah  (or  Sahla) 
Temple  was  the  first  master,  for  two  years. 
Tliomas  Edmanston  (or  Edmnntson)  was  the 
Jirst  senior  warden  and  Thomas  S.  Hood, 
juniur  warden.  The  lodge  was  instituted  by 
Aquilla  Nebeker,  assisted  by  others.  Some 
years  ago  the  place  of  meeting  was  removed 
to  Dana.  The  present  membership  is  about 
thirty,  and  the  officers,  George  W.  Sturm, 
AVorshipful  Master;  C.  N.  Hunt,  Senior 
Warden;  Joel  Hollingsworth,  Junior  War- 
den; W.  M.  Taylor,  Secretary;  C.  Bales, 
Treasurer;  O.  M.  Keyes,  Senior  Deacon; 
AVilliam  F.  Ford,  Junior  Deacon;  William 
P>.  Wood,  Chaplain;  G.  W.  Allen,  Tyler. 

Bana  Lodge,  No.  581,  L.  0.  0.  F.,  was 
instituted  February  10,  1881,  with  eighteen 
members,  and  Hiram  Shepard,  Noble  Grand; 
Julius  C.  Groves,  Vice  Grand;  and  Fred 
Rush,  Secretary.  The  present  membership 
is  forty,  and  officers,  Solon  Johnson,  Noble 
Grand;  L.  H.  Eeed,  Vice  Grand;  H.  AVells, 
Secretary;  G.  H.  Fisher,  Permanent  Secre- 
tary; J.  M.  Taylor,  Treasurer;  Samuel  Jack- 
son, Inner  Guard;  T.  J.  Hutchinson  and  H. 
Herbin,  Supporters.  The  lodge  has  a  very 
nicely  furnished  room  in  the  Peer  Block. 
Tlie  furnishings  and  regalia  cost  about  §2,000. 

//.  D.  Washhurn  Post,  No.  220,  G.  A.  R., 
was  organized  in  1883,  with  about  eighteen 
members,  and  the  following  officers:  William 
B.  Hood,  Post  Commander;  G.  H.  Fisher, 
Senior  Vice-Commander;  O.  13.  Lowry,  Quar- 
termaster; H.  Wells,  Adjutant;  J.  B.  Fillinger, 
Officer  of  the  Day.     The  present  member- 


ship is  twenty-six,  and  the  officers:  J.  B. 
Fillinger,  Post  Commander;  G.  W.  Saxtou, 
Senior  Vice-Commander;  James  Burnett, 
Junior  Vice-Commander;  J.  N.  McClure, 
Adjutant;  James  Knight,  Officer  of  the  Day; 
Henry  Thomasmeyer,  Quarter-master;  G.  H. 
Fisher,  Quarter-master-Sergeant;  Daniel  Ri- 
land.  Officer  of  the  Guard;  J.  C.  Harrison, 
Surgeon ;  W.  B.  Hood,  Chaplain.  Financially, 
the  post  is  in  fair  condition.  This  year  they 
are  building  a  hall,  being  the  second  story  of 
the  brick  business  block  to  be  erected  by 
Charles  Norris,  wliich  is  to  be  22  x  50  feet  in 
dimensions.  For  a  sketch  of  H.  D.  Wash- 
burn, in  honor  of  whom  the  post  is  named, 
see  historv  of  Clinton. 


Methodism  in  Helt  Township  has  of  course 
existed  from  the  earliest  pioneer  period,  and 
has  always  been  strong  and  influential.  The 
Methodist  class  in  Dana  was  organized  in 
1879  by  Rev.  Daniel  Morrison,  of  the  Green- 
castle  District,  Northwest  Indiana  Confer- 
ence. The  pastors  since  liis  time  have  been 
Revs.  Elijah  Johnson,  J.  C.  McDaniels,  Mr. 
Woods  and  William  Smith,  the  present  in- 
cumbent, wlio  lives  west  of  Terre  Haute,  al- 
though there  is  a  parsonage  at  Ilelt's  Prairie. 
There  were  about  forty  members  at  the  time 
of  organization,  led  by  J.  O.  Rogers.  Tlie 
present  membership  is  about  sixty,  and  the 
class-leaders,  J.  O.  Rogers  and  Andrew  Car- 
mack.  Sunday-school  is  maintained  through- 
out tlic  year,  with  an  attendance  of  sixty  to 
100,  superintended  by  J.  O.  Rogers.  The 
liouse  of  worship,  30  x  50  feet,  was  erected  in 
1882,  at  a  cost,  including  grounds,  of  $1,800. 

The  Toronto  Presbyterian  Church,  at 
Bono,  was  organized  many  years  ago,  but  the 
members  are  now  changing  their  places  of 
meeting  to  Dana,  wlu^-e  they  have  just  com- 
pleted one  of  the  most  beautiful  frame  church 


Bistort  of  vermillion  county. 


edifices  in  the  nation.  Its  size  is  32  x  54 
feet,  besides  a  "rostrum"  8x14  feet;  its 
style  is  of  course  modern  and  of  fancy  finish, 
and  the  cost  about  |l2,800,  not  counting  the 
pews  and  other  funiture.  It  was  dedicated 
June  26,  1887,  by  Rev.  T.  D.  Fyfle,  of  Eose- 
ville  Indiana.  The  location  is  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  village,  in  Samuel  Aikman's 
addition.  The  leading  men  in  building  this 
church  were  "W.  M.  Taylor,  Samuel  Aikman 
and  Samuel  Hall. 

Dana  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in 
1880,  with  twelve  members,  by  Rev.  G.  T. 
Willis,  of  Hoopeston,  Illinois.  Pastors,  Revs. 
Willis,  Cartwright,  of  Fountain  County,  In- 
diana, William  McMasters  of  Montezuma, 
Palmer,  of  Waveland,  and  Mr.  Franklin.  At 
present  there  is  a  vacancy.  The  membership 
numbers  twenty.  Charles  Thompson  has 
been  deacon  from  the  time  of  organization, 
and  G.  H.  Fisher,  at  the  first  clerk,  is  now 
also  deacon,  Elizabeth  Thomas  Meyer,  clerk. 
The  church,  a   fancy  brick  structure,  in    the 


northern  part  of  the  village,  is  36  x  60  feet  in 
dimensions,  and  was  erected  this  year  (18S7) 
at  a  cost  of  about  $2,500,  not  counting  the 
pews. 

Dana  Christian  Church  was  organized 
temporarily  about  the  first  of  September, 
1886.  A  Sunday-school  of  about  sixty  pupils 
is  superintended  by  Prof.  A.  J.  Wilson.  A 
few  zealous  Christians,  led  by  Rev.  J.W.  Jarvis 
and  his  business  partner,  John  Morris — al- 
though the  latter  is  not  a  member  of  the 
church — have  just  built  a  tine  house  of  wor- 
ship at  Dana,  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the 
town,  the  first  church  erected  by  this  people 
in  Vermillion  County.  It  is  a  brick  struct- 
ure, 32  X  54  feet  in  ground  area,  neatly  fin- 
ished and  furnished  in  modern  style,  and  cost 
$2,335.38.  It  was  dedicated  April  17, 1887, 
by  Elder  L.  L.  Carpenter,  of  Wabash,  Indi- 
ana. The  present  membership  of  the  church 
is  about  fifty.  Elder  J.  W.  Jarvis  is  the 
"  temporary  "  pastor. 


VERMILLION    TOWNSHIP. 


I  VERMILLION  TOWNSHIP 


PIONEERS- 


ONCERNING  some  of 
the  earliest  dates  in  tlie 
owing    compilation, 
there  is,  as  is  always  the 
ease  in    such   sketches, 
some  doubt,  as  it  is  iin- 
pofe'iible  for  tlie  historian  to   rec- 
oncile   contradictory    accounts,    to 
\erify  all  the  guesses  or  to  fill  out 
the  blanks  desired. 

1819. — Alexander  and  Elizabeth 
Morehead,  natives  of  Ohio,  settled 
in  Vermillion  Township  either  this 
year  or  in  1822  (authorities  vai-y). 
They  died  in  184i  and  1849  re- 
spectively. Their  son  Samuel  is  now  a  resi- 
dent of  ISTewiJort.  Jacob  A.  Morehead,  who 
died  many  years  ago,  and  Joseph  A.  More- 
head,  still  living,  were  both  born  in  this 
county  in  1826. 

1820. — Richard  and  Susan  (Henderson) 
Ilaworth,  said  also  to  be  the  first  settlers  of 
Vermillion  Township,  came  from  Tennessee 
in  the  fall  of  1820.  Mr.  Haworth  died  in 
1850,  aged  fifty- seven  years,  and  his  wife  died 
in  1854,  also  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven.     (See 


biography  of  George  F.  Ilaworth.)  John 
Hopkins,  who  died  in  1873,  at  the  age  of 
sixty-eight  years,  was  a  lad  of  fifteen  years 
when  in  1820  he  became  a  resident  of  this 
couhty.     His  mother  is  yet  living. 

1821. — Joel  Dicken  came  from  Prairie 
Creek,  Kentucky,  settling  where  Newport 
now  stands.  His  son,  Benjamin  K.,  long  a 
resident  in  the  vicinity,  was  born  in  1818, 
and  died  recently  in  Michigan  or  AVisconsin. 
Daniel  V.  Dicken,  born  in  this  county  in 
1822,  find  Simeon  Dicken,  both  died  in  this 
township.     M-irtha  E.,  widow  of  the  latter,  \ 

was  born  in  North  Carolina,  September  1, 
1821,  brought  to  this  county  in  1826  or 
1827,  and  died  December  30,  1881.  Another 
Martha  Dicken  was  born  in  Kentucky  in 
1804,  and  emigrated  to  this  county  in  1822, 
and  died  February  18,  1882.  Joseph  Eggle- 
ston,  father  of  William  the  lawyer,  came  to 
this  county  in  1821,  and  died  many  years 
ago.  John  L.  Eggleston,  boru  in  1827,  is  a 
resident  of  Newport. 

1822.— To  this  year  is  credited  John  Wim- 
sett,  from  Virginia,  who  died  many  years 
ago.     Jacob  Wimsett,  boru  January  8,  1827, 


(S 


is  still  a  resident.  Jacob  Ciistar  settled  this 
year  on  the  Vermillion  about  a  mile  and  a 
half  above  Newport.  Philemon  Thomas 
came  this  year  and  remained  a  resident  until 
his  death  in  1860.  His  wife,  n4e  Catharine 
Custar,  came  in  1828,  and  is  still  living.  (See 
sketch  of  Jacob  Thomas.)  Nathan  Thomas 
was  five  years  old  when  in  1827  he  was 
brought  to  tliis  county. 

1823. — Carter  and  Catharine  Ilollings- 
worth,  from  North  Carolina.  Mrs.  Ilollings- 
worth  died  in  1880,  aged  eighty-eight  years. 
Eber  IloUingsworth,  born  in  Union  County, 
Indiana,  in  1822,  was  brouglit  to  this  county 
the  next  year.  He  is  a  well  known  farmer 
and  stock-trader  two  miles  west  of  Newport. 
Henry  Hollingsworth,  born  in  this  State  in 
1830,  recently  died  in  Newport. 

1824. — Anna,  widow  of  William  Hender- 
son, became  a  resident  of  this  county  in 
1824. 

1826. — Adam  Zener,  born  in  Kentucky  in 
1803,  came  to  Clark  County,  this  State  in 
1812,  and  in  1826  to  this  county,  where  he 
remained  until  his  death,  March  14,  1877,  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 
Either  this  year  or  next  came  Philip  W.  Os- 
mon,  who  was  born  in  Kentucky  in  1803. 
His  son,  Archibald  W.,  born  in  1829,  is  a 
farmer  ten  miles  southwest  of  Newport,  and 
Jabez  B.,  born  in  1836,  resides  at  Newport. 
(See  sketch.)  Jeremiah  and  Mary  (Taylor) 
Highfill,  from  Maryland:  he  died  about  1867, 
aged  eighty-five  years,  and  she  in  1852,  at 
the  age  of  about  sixty  years.  See  sketch  of 
their  son  John,  who  was  born  here  in  1828. 

1827.— Richard  Potts,  who  was  sheriff  two 
terms,  and  died  in  1875.  His  widow  died  in 
1883,  at  the  old  homestead  two  and  a  half 
miles  south  of  Newport.  Of  their  two  chil- 
di-en,  Thomas  died  a  number  of  years  ago, 
and  Charles  P.  survives. 

1828.— Robert  Wallace,    a  native  of  Vir- 


ginia, became  a  resident  of  Vermillion  Town- 
ship this  year,  and  died  at  Newport,  May  27, 
1881,  at  the  age  of  ninety-one  years.  Hu 
was  a  man  of  line  physical  appearance,  and 
was  never  sick  to  exceed  a  week  during  hi> 
life.  William  Wallace,  who  was  born  in 
Ohio  in  1817,  and  was  ten  or  eleven  years  of 
age  when  brought  to  this  county,  died  several 
years  ago.  Joshua  Nixon,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1813,  came  to  Newport  this  year,  and  resided 
here  until  his  death.  May  23,  1875,  a  faith- 
ful member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church.  James  Asbury,  born  in  Virginia  in 
1815,  is  still  residing  on  section  21.  (Sec 
sketch.)  Aaron  Jones,  from  New  Jersey, 
and  William  Jones,  from  Union  County,  In- 
diana, both  came  this  year;  the  former  is 
dead  (see  sketch),  and  the  latter  is  still  living 
in  this  township.  Samuel  Jones,  born  in 
Ohio,  came  in  1830,  and  died  about  1881. 
George  Brindley,  born  in  Kentucky  in  1800, 
died  in  1878;  and  his  wife  Sarah,  born  in 
1806,  died  in  1867.  (See  sketch  of  John 
Brindley,  a  son.)  Benjamin  Shepherd,  born  in 
Kentucky  in  1808,  and  David  Brown,  born 
in  Indiana  in  1823,  are  still  living  in  this 
township. 

1829. — Robert  Stokes  settled  in  this  town- 
ship in  1829,  and  is  still  an  active  man,  re- 
siding in  Newport.  His  wife,  whose  maiden 
name  was  Rebecca  Wallace,  was  born  June 
8,  1809,  in  Virginia,  and  died  November  25, 
1884.  They  were  married  January  31,  1833. 
Of  their  five  children,  none  are  living  except 
Finley.  Samuel  Davis,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1811,  is  also  still  living  in  Newport.  Eliza- 
beth Frazer,  widow  of  William,  who  died  in 
1873,  aged  fifty-seven,  was  born  in  this  State 
in  1822,  and  is  still  living. 

1830. — Jacob  Sears  came  from  North  Car- 
olina, and  died  in  1859,  aged  eighty-five.  His 
wife,  nee  Mary  Hofstetter,  died  in  1856,  aged 
eighty.     (See    sketch  of  Daniel    Sears.)    E. 


Jackson,  Sr.,  born  in  Ohio  in  1807,  lives  in 
Dana.  Thomas  J.  Brown,  born  in  Kentucky 
in  1801,  died  in  this  township.  Iloss  Clark, 
born  in  Ohio  in  1797,  died  in  this  township 
in  the  fall  of  1878;  the  farm  is  still  occupied 
by  his  son,  G.  W.  Jacob  and  Mary  (Harlin) 
Groves,  from  East  Tennessee;  he  was  born 
in  1794,  and  died  in  1843;  she  died  in  1873. 
(See  sketch  of  William  C.  Groves  who  was 
born  in  Tennessee  in  1817,  and  has  been  a 
resident  here  since  1830.)  William  L. 
Tincher,born  in  Kentucky  in  1814,  was  living 
in  Montezuma  a  short  time  ago.  William 
W.  Doss,  born  in  Kentucky  in  1817,  is  living 
in  Montezuma;  his  sou  Winchester  still 
resides  in  this  township.  Eobert  S.  JSTorris, 
from  South  Carolina,  died  in  1877,  seventy- 
three  years  old.  See  sketch  of  his  son  John, 
who  was  born  here  in  1834.  Other  life-long 
residents  of  this  township,  who  came  this 
year  when  children,  are  Richard  and  John 
W.  Clearwater,  John  L.  White,  James  H. 
Hutson,  George  Weller,  etc. 

1831. — William  Nichols,  born  in  Virginia 
in  1804,  died  October  11,  1876.  Isaac  and 
Henry  Nichols,  boys  when  brought  here  in 
early  day,  lived  here  many  years  and  are 
both  now  deceased.  Isaac  and  Mary  Carraack, 
from  Tennessee,  settled  in  the  Lebanon  neigh- 
borhood, he  died  in  1863.  Alfred,  a  son, 
born  in  Tennessee  January  8,  1814,  died  May 
18,  1817;  and  Andrew,  another  son,  lives  in 
Dana.  Henry  Wiltermood,  born  in  this 
State  in  1821.  Charles  Herbert,  from  Ken- 
tucky; his  son,  William  J.,  born  in  1819,  is 
still  living  here,  on  eection  27.  (See  sketch.) 
John  Henderson,  from  Ohio,  still  living,  on 
section  7.  (See  sketch.)  Archibald  B.  and 
Melissa  Edmoiiston;  the  latter  died,  a  widow, 
at  the  age  of  seventy-three,  in  1865.  Samuel 
Deheaben  lives  near  Newport,  Charles  S. 
Little  is  deceased. 


1832.— H.  F.  Jackson,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1798,  died  in  Missouri.  John  Jackson  and 
wife  Lydia,  from  Ohio;  the  latter  died  De- 
cember 21,  1880,  at  the  age  of  seventy-four 
years.  Joseph  Jackson,  from  England,  de- 
ceased. Ezra  Clark,  born  in  Ohio  in  1811, 
lives  in  Highland.  John  G.  Gibbon,  born 
in  Oliio,  1819,  remained  here  till  his  decease, 
Julius  Bogart,  born  in  Tennessee  in  1811, 
still  living  here.  William  B.  Hall,  who  died 
here  in  1863,  aged  forty-two;  his  wife  died  in 
1872.  (See  sketch  of  Samuel  J.  Hall.)  James 
A.  Elder,  born  in  Brown  County,  Ohio;  de- 
ceased. James  Reniley,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1823,  who  finally  committed  suicide. 

1833. — Eli  Newlin  came  from  North  Caro- 
lina to  Montezuma,  Indiana,  in  1828,  and  to 
this  county  in  1833,  where  he  died  in  1872, 
aged  seventy  years.  His  wife,  nee  Mary 
Edwards,  died  in  1886,  at  the  age  of  eighty 
years.  (See  sketch  of  Alfred  R.  Newlin.) 
Alexander  Dunlap,  born  in  Maryland  in 
1813,  is  still  living  in  this  township. 

1834.— John  C.  Johnson,  born  May  16, 
1807,  in  Belmont  County,  Ohio,  married 
February  24,  1833,  Miss  Elizabeth  Shaver,  a 
lady  of  superior  education,  and  the  next  year 
located  in  this  county,  arriving  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Little  Vermillion,  April  8.  Here  he 
entered  a  small  tract  of  land,  built  a  cabin 
and  began  life  on  what  is  known  as  the  "  first 
bottom."  In  1854  he  built  a  new  liouse, 
which  he  occupied  until  1880,  when  he 
moved  to  Newport,  where  he  died  February 
22,  1883,  after  having  brought  up  an  exem- 
plary family  of  children.  In  1834  came  also 
Benjamin  Davis,  who  died  in  1854,  at  thj 
age  of  sixty-four  years.  His  wife,  whose 
maiden  name  was  Rusha  Sears,  died  in  1869, 
at  the  age  of  sixty-two  years. 

1835.— John  S.  Bush,  born  in  this  State  in 
1828,  still  living  here,  blind.     William  Huff, 


i 


V'\ 


■■■i«"oi»ia"»"M"«"«« 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


born  in  Kentucky  in  1812,  and  Jained  Duzan, 
born  in  the  same  State  six  years  later,  both 
now  residing  in  Newport. 

1836. — David  Aldridge,  born  in  North 
Carolina  in  1790,  and  died  September  11, 
1877,  being  at  the  time  about  the  oldest  citi- 
zen in  the  county.  lie  was  a  soldier  in  the 
war  of  1812. 

1837. — Isaac  Tropts,  long  a  resident  of  this 
townsiiip,  was  nine  years  old  when  he  came 
to  the  county  in  1837. 

1838. — Hiram  Hastey,  born  in  Indiana  in 
1818,  was  a  harness-maker  at  Newport,  where 
he  died.  J.  F.  Weller,  merchant  at  Newport, 
now  at  Petersburg,  Indiana,  was  born  in 
Kentucky  in  1818. 

1839.— T.  W.  Jackson,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1816,  still  living  here. 

1840.— Hugh  Dallas,  born  in  Ohio  in  1813, 
still  living.     (See  sketch.) 

Mr.  Dillow  came  some  time  prior  to  1810, 
from  Virginia.  Abel  Sexton,  still  one  of  the 
most  prominent  citizens  of  Newport,  was 
born  in  New  York  in  1820,  and  settled  in 
tliis  county  in  1813.  (See  sketch.)  Other 
prominent  citizens  of  Vermillion  Township, 
who  either  settled  here  or  were  born  here  in 
pioneer  times,  are  Alvah  Arrasmith,  living; 
Tiionias  G.  Arrasmith,  wagon-maker  at  New- 
port, now  in  Terre  Haute;  Samuel  and  G.  W. 
Clark,  living;  David  Fry,  living;  James 
Kaufman,  who  now  lives  in  Dana;  Leonard 
Sanders,  deceased;  his  sons,  Samuel,  Daniel 
and  William,  are  living;  John  Rice,  who  died 
in  1880,  at  the  age  of  seventy  years;  his  son, 
William  Z.,  is  sketched  in  the  biographical 
department  of  this  work:  Daniel  E.  Jones, 
who  became  a  wealthy  citizen  of  Chicago  and 
died  there;  Major  John  Gardner,  IFenry 
Betson,  etc. 

Colonel  William  Craig  was  born  in  New- 
port in  1831,  graduated  at  West  Point  in 
1853,   having  for   his   class-mates   Generals 


McPiierson,  Philip  Sheridan  and  Schofield; 
crossed  the  western  plains  in  1854  as  Lieuten- 
ant and  Aid-de-Carap  on  General  Garland's 
staff;  served  in  the  regular  army  ten  years, 
being  one  of  the  best  Indian  fighters,  ami 
greatly  admired  by  Kit  Carson  and  others; 
and  finally  died  in  the  Southwest,  in  1880. 


The  above  are  the  initials  of  one  of  tlie 
most  prominent  citizens  of  Vermillion  Coun- 
ty; namely,  Oliver  P.  Davis,  and  have  also 
become  the  name  of  the  1,300  acre  farm 
which  he  owns  tliree  to  four  miles  below 
Newport,  and  of  the  railroad  station  at  that 
point,  when  it  is  generally  spelled  Opedee. 

Hon.  O.  P.  Davis  was  born  in  New  Hamp- 
shire in  1814;  learned  the  art  of  paper- 
making;  came  to  Indiana  in  1838,  traveling 
by  coach,  steamboat,  canal  and  horseback, 
througli  the  States  of  New  York,  Ohio, 
Michigan  and  the  province  of  Canada.  In 
New  York  he  rode  behind  the  first  locomo- 
tive built  in  that  State,  then  running  out  of 
Albany.  At  Toronto,  Canada,  he  was  em- 
ployed in  a  book  bindery  and  mill,  doing  the 
work  more  rapidly  and  efiiciently  than  any  of 
the  native  hands.  In  Ohio  he  fell  in  with  a 
jolly  dentist,  of  whom  he  began  to  learn  the 
art  of  dentistry,  afterward  practicing  his  new 
trade  at  Fort  Wayne.  After  residing  at 
Logansport  and  Delphi,  this  State,  for  a  time, 
he  went  to  Greencastle  and  commenced  the 
study  of  law  in  the  oflice  of  Edward  W. 
McGoughey,  read  two  years,  and  then  in 
1840,  moved  to  this  county  and  began  the 
practice  of  his  profession,  continuing  for  five 
years.  Since  then  he  has  been  a  tradesman 
and  agriculturist.  At  first  he  purchased  forty 
acres,  to  which  he  has  since  made  additions 
until  he  has  1,300  acres  of  rich  Wabash  bot- 
tom, whereon  he  sometimes  raises  immense 
crops  of  corn,  occasionally  50,000  bushels  or 


more,  and  sometimes,  by  flood  or  frost,  he 
also  loses  immense  crops.  The  sediment  de- 
posited by  the  Wabash  floods  keeps  the  soil 
very  rich.  During  the  year  of  the  famine  in 
Ireland,  Mr.  Davis  took  to  New  Orleans  by 
llat-boat  25,000  bushels  of  corn,  some  of  which 
he  bought  at  18  cents  a  bushel,  and  sold  it  at 
45  cents  to  §1  per  bushel.  He  is  said  to 
have  sold  in  one  season  §18,000  worth  of 
corn  raised  by  his  own  hands. 

Mr.  Davis  is  familiar  with  legislation, 
being  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Con- 
vention of  1850,  a  member  of  the  General 
Assembly  three  terms,  a  delegate  to  various 
important  conventions,  etc.  In  his  politics 
he  has  been  a  Democrat,  Republican,  Nation- 
al, etc.,  and  in  his  religion  he  is  a  "  free- 
thinker." He  is  a  man  of  firm  principles 
and  a  high  sense  of  justice. 

MISCELLANEOUS     ITEMS. 

One  night  some  years  ago,  Mr.  H.  F.  Jack- 
son, residing  about  three  and  a  half  miles 
south  of  Newport,  heard  his  dog  making  a 
terrible  noise.  About  midnight  he  arose, 
went  out,  and  discovering  the  smoke-house 
dour  open,  concluded  it  had  been  inadvert- 
ently left  open  by  the  family,  closed  it,  and 
returned  to  bed,  thinking  all  was  safe.  But 
by  closing  the  smoke-house  door  he  unawares 
locked  up  a  thief  within.  Next  morning  Mr. 
Jackson  reconnoitering  around  to  see  what  he 
could  discover,  noticed  a  hole  in  the  ground 
dug  out  under  the  wall  of  the  smoke-house. 
The  thief  had  to  work  his  way  through  a 
large  puddle  of  water  in  order  to  get  out, 
thinking  doubtless  that  he  was  lucky  to  get 
off  as  well  as  he  did. 

In  September,  1873,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Brennan, 
living  a  mile  west  of  Newport,  received  a 
visit  from  their  daughter,  whom  they  thought 
they  had  lost  twenty-one  years  previously, 
when  they  left  her  temporarily  in  the  care  of 


some  one  at  New  Orleans  during  a  fearful 
siege  of  cholera.  She  had  been  found  during 
the  preceding  summer  by  a  relative  in  Ohio, 
advertising  in  the  Irish  Republic,  a  Boston 
newspaper.  She  was  then  a  resident  of  New 
Orleans  and  the  mother  of  four  children. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Brennan,  on  learning  their 
daughter  was  still  alive  and  residing  in  New 
Orleans,  immediately  concluded  to  visit  her; 
but  before  starting  they  received  a  letter  from 
her  stating  that  she  was  coming  to  see  them. 
Accordingly  she  soon  arrived  at  Newport, 
late  at  night,  on  her  way;  and  such  was  her 
an.xiety  to  see  her  parents  that  night,  although 
it  was  dark  and  raining,  that  she  engaged  a 
team  and  was  immediately  taken  out  to  the 
desired  goal,  where  a  meeting  occurred  too 
exciting  to  describe.  The  daughter  remained 
until  spring.  Her  mother  died  a  few  weeks 
after  the  visit. 

Of  anecdotes  of  the  chase,  perhaps  the 
latest  is  the  account  of  the  "  fox  drive  "  had 
February  26,  1886,  in  this  township,  when 
200  men,  women  and  children  succeeded  in 
catching  one  fox. 

A  great  human  curiosity  exists  in  Vermil- 
lion Township.  Ludia  J.  Clark,  about  three 
and  a  half  miles  southwest  of  Newport,  was 
born  in  March,  1882,  and  at  the  age  of  five 
years  weighed  105  pounds,  and  was  apparent- 
ly as  mature  in  her  intellect  and  physical 
development  as  a  girl  in  her  'teens.  At  the 
date  of  writing,  July,  1887,  she  is  still 
gaining  in  weight  as  rapidly  as  ever.  Her 
parents  do  not  seem  to  be  characterized  by 
anything  abnormal. 

Quaker  Hill,  sometimes  called  Quaker 
Point,  is  the  name  of  a  fine  neighborhood  in 
a  romantic  section  of  country  on  Jonathan 
Creek  near  the  western  boundary  of  Vermill- 
ion Township.  The  place  takes  its  name 
from  the  fact  that  an  unusual  proportion  of 
the  settlement  consists  of  "  Quakers."     The 


postoffice  is  at  a  cross  road  on  low  ground 
in  the  woods,  but  in  a  beautiful  situation,  and 
is  called  "  Quaker  Hill." 

Dr.  Joseph  C.  Cooke,  of  the  Willow  Brook 
farm  near  Quaker  Hill,  was  an  influential 
physician  here  for  a  number  of  years.  He 
was  born  in  Piqua  County,  Ohio,  in  1819, 
emigrated  to  this  county  in  1845,  died  Janu- 
ary 22,  1875,  and  was  buried  under  the 
honors  of  the  order  of  Patrons  of  Husbandry, 
his  funeral  being  attended  by  probably  a 
thousand  persons. 

Drs.  John  Gilniore,  Hiram  and  Lewis 
Shepard  and  P.  H.  Swaim  are  or  have  been 
practitioners  of  medicine  at  Quaker  Hill  or  in 
the  vicinity. 


The  Hopewell  FrleniVs  Chiirch  was  or- 
ganized many  years  ago,  and  is  of  the  same 
"monthly  meeting"  with  Friends'  Chapel 
and  Pilot  Grove  in  Hlinois.  The  present 
membership  here  is  230.  Ministers,  James 
P.  Haworth,  William  F.  Henderson  and 
Kuth  R.  Ellis.  The  minister  at  Friend's 
Chapel  is  Noah  Dixon,  and  at  Pilot  Grove, 
John  Folger,  and  meetings  are  held  at  each 
of  these  places  in  turn.  The  overseers  at 
Hopewell  (or  Quaker  Hill)  are  Jonathan  E. 
and  Kate  E.  Ellis,  and  Albert  and  Jane  Hen- 
derson. Dinah  T.  Henderson  is  recorder. 
The  church  building,  a  frame,  was  erected  in 
1873,  at  a  cost  of  $1,250. 

The  Lehanon  Methodist  Exjhcopal  Church, 
east  of  Quaker  Hill,  was  organized  in  pioneer 
days.  The  present  membership  is  about  thirty_ 
Class-leader,  Robert  Holliday;  stewards,  R. 
P.  Little,  J.  L.  Thomas,  Frank  Carmack  and 
Samuel  R.  AVhite.  Pastor,  Rev.  R.  S.  Martin, 
of  Newport.  The  church  building,  a  frame, 
30  X  36  feet  in  dimensions,  was  built  over 
thirty  years  ago.  Sunday-school  is  main- 
tained all  the  year,  with  an  average  attendance 


of  fifty   pupils  and    superintended    by  Miss 
Ella  Little. 

Vermillioii  Chajjel,  Methodist  Ejpiscoj'il 
Church,  three  and  a  half  miles  south  and  a 
little  west  of  Newport,  has  a  membership  of 
about  twenty.  Class-leader,  W.  P.  Carmack ; 
steward,  Allen  Clearwaters;  Pastor,  Rev.  R. 
S.  Martin,  of  Newport.  The  Sunday-schuil 
was  recently  organized.  The  old  churcli 
building,  erected  about  forty  years  ago,  has 
recently  been  sold,  to  give  place  to  a  flue 
brick  church,  costing  $1,500  or  $1,800, 

Bethel  Church,  United  Brethren,  two 
miles  southwest  of  Newport,  was  organize! 
many  years  ago.  Present  number  of  mem- 
bers, forty-seven  or  forty-eight.  Class-leadtT, 
Levi  Erindley;  steward,  Thomas  White.  Nn 
Sunday-school  at  present.  The  house  c!' 
worship,  about  28  x  36  feet  in  ground  arcvi, 
was  built  twenty-four  or  twenty-five  years  ago. 

0_pedee  Church,  United  Brethren,  organ- 
ized about  1880,  has  increased  in  membership 
from  eight  to  sixteen.  No  class-leader  at 
present.  Steward,  Miss  Ella  Wimsett.  A 
good  Sunday-school  has  recently  been  estab- 
lished, of  which  E.D.Brown  is  superintendent. 
Meetings  are  held  in  a  school-house. 

Ira  Mater,  of  Hillsdale,  is  a  local  preacher 
of  this  denomination. 

A  few  United  Brethren  are  meeting  at  the 
Eggleston  school-house,  preparatory  to  organ- 
ization. They  have  a  Sunday-school,  of  whii-li 
Mr.  Dixon  is  superintendent. 

Rev.  B.  F.  Dungan,  of  Newport,  is  pastur 
of  all  the  United  Brethren  churches  in  Ver- 
million Township. 

NEWPORT. 

The  location  of  the  county  seat  of  govern- 
ment at  this  point  has  already  been  sketched. 

The  first  dry-goods  store  here  was  opened 
by  Daniel  E.  Jones,  with  a  lot  of  goods  so 
small  that  it  seemed  one  could  carry  them  all 


VERMILLION    TOWNSHIP. 


in  an  arni-fiiU  or  two.  He  obtained  his  start 
thus:  He  was  shipping  some  hogs,  a  part  of 
which  died.  These  were  rendered  into  soap, 
which  was  sold  for  the  goods.  Mr.  Jones 
afterward  became  wealthy,  and  went  to 
Chicago,  where  he  became  a  millionaire  and 
finally  died. 

The  first  good  residence  built  at  jS^ewport 
was  the  building  nortli  of  the  present  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  church,  recently  occupied  by 
Mrs.  Hiram  Hasty  and  now  by  Frank  Turner- 
Conspicuous  in  this  town  are  several  very 
old,  large  planted  trees.  A  number  of  locust 
trees  were  planted  here  in  1832,  which  are 
now  over  two  feet  in  diameter,  and  one  apple 
tree,  near  the  soTithwest  corner  of  the  public 
square,  appears  to  be  over  three  feet  in  diame- 
ter four  feet  from  the  ground,  though  at  this 
point  the  tree  bifurcates  and  is  hollow.  Decay 
will  soon  overtake  the  growth  and  bring  the 
venerable  old  tree  down. 

The  old  court-houses  and  jails  are  noticed 
in  a  previous  chapter.  The  present  tine 
court-house  was  built  in  1866,  at  a  cost  of 
over  §30,000.  County  ofiices  below,  large 
and  neatly  kept,  court-room  above.  The  old 
log  jail  was  many  years  ago  superseded  by  a 
brick  building  on  the  hill,  which  is  now  used 
as  a  residence.  The  present  jail,  and  sheriflf's 
residence,  built  in  1868,  is  a  good,  substantial 
brick  structure  on  East  Market  street. 

Newport  was  incorporated  as  a  town  early 
in  the  spring  of  1870.  By  the  records  of 
March  28,  that  year,  we  find  that  the  first 
trustees  were — AVilliam  E.  Liven  good,  Presi- 
dent, Clark  Leavitt,  Benjamin  K.  Dicken  and 
E.  Y.  Jackson;  J.  A.  Souders,  Clerk.  The 
presidents  and  clerks  serving  since  that  time 
have  been:  Presidents — E.  Y.  Jackson,  1871; 
James  A.  Bell,  1872-'73;  F.  M.  Bishop, 
1874;  S.  H.  Dallas,  1875;  James  A.  Foland, 
1876-'78;  William  P.  Henson,  1879;  Oliver 
Knight,    1880;      James    Hasty,     1881-'82; 


Robert  Landon.  1883;  Calvin  Arrasmith, 
1884;  Kobert  B.  Sears,  1885;  John  W.  Cross, 
1886-'87.  Mr.  Landon  died  in  1885;  all  the 
rest  are  living.  The  clerks  have  been — 
Eobert  B.  Sears,  1871;  J.  Jump,  1872-'74; 
J.  A.  Souders,  1875-'78;  J.  C.  Sawyer,  1879; 
John  JSr.  Hartman,  1880;  Oliver  H.  Knight, 
1881;  J.  C.  SaA\7er,  1882;  O.  B.  Gibson, 
1883-'86;  William  F.Thornton,  1887. 

Newport  is  divided  into  four  wards,  with 
one  trustee  from  each  ward. 

Three  attempts  have  been  made  to  dissolve 
the  corporation.  The  last  one  was  made 
June  21,  1877,  when  the  question  was  put  to 
vote,  and  a  majoi'ity  of  nineteen  was  given  in 
favor  of  continuing  the  corjiorate  capacity  of 
the  town. 

The  population  of  Newport  is  estimated  at 
600  to  700.  The  village  is  beautifully  situ- 
ated but  retired, — rather  more  so  than  the 
citizens  wish.  Its  only  railroad  passes  nearly 
a  mile  distant. 

There  was  for  a  long  time  a  good  grist- 
mill at  Newport,  on  Market  street,  named 
the  "  Eureka  Mills,"  run  by  steam.  It  was 
built  by  James  A.  Bell,  deceased,  who  sold 
to  Curtis  &,  White;  who  in  turn  sold  to 
B.  J.  Abbott;  and  while  it  was  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  latter,  January  26, 1882,  it  was 
burned  down,  by  a  careless  act  of  some  em- 
ployee, and  has  never  since  been  rebuilt.  The 
loss  was  $3,500. 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Newport  was 
organized  in  1871,  by  Josephus  and  John 
Collett,  Abel  Sexton,  Isaac  Porter,  R.  H. 
Nixon  and  Clark  Leavitt,  and  opened  their 
place  of  business  in  a  fine  brick  building, 
erected  and  fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  the  public  square.  Its 
"  national "  character  was  afterward  surren- 
dered, and  the  bank  changed,  by  the  same 
board  of  directors,  into  the  "Vermillion 
County    Bank,"    with    a    paid  up  capital  of 


$60,000  and  a  surplus  of  over  $6,000,  con- 
tiiiuiug  to  do  a  general  banking  business.  In 
January,  1880,  it  was  again  changed,  taking 
tiio  name  of  »  Collett  &  Co.'s  Bank,"  and 
comprising  Prof.  John  Collett,  of  Indianapo- 
lis, Stephen  S.  Collett,  of  Newport,  Mrs. 
Mary  H.  Campbell,  of  Crawfordsville,  and 
Joshua  Jump  of  Newport.  Since  then  Mrs. 
Campbell's  stock  has  been  transferred  to  Mrs. 
Lieutenant  M.  T.  May,  of  Greencastle;  and 
now  S.  S.  Collett  is  general  manager,  and  J. 
D.  Collett,  cashier.     Capital,  $27,000. 

THE  OLIVE    BRANCH. 

The  predecessor  of  the  Hoosier  State  was 
the  Olive  Branch,  the  iirst  paper  printed  in 
Newport,  and  established  by  A.  J.  Adams, 
now  of  Danville,  Illinois,  and  edited  by  A.  D. 
Patten.  The  number  for  December  29, 1853, 
which  we  presume  was  the  first  number, 
sliows  the  motto  of  the  organ  to  have  been, 
"  We  hold  the  balance  with  an  equal  hand, 
And  weigh  whatever  justice  doth  demand." 
The  paper  was  AVhiggish  in  politics,  becom- 
ing Kepublican  on  the  organization  of  that 
party. 

The  number  above  referred  to,  like  all  the 
country  papers  of  that  day,  has  but  little 
local  news  or  original  matter  in  it,  the  salu- 
tatory, a  column  in  length,  being  about  all 
the  original  matter  in  this  number.  The 
following  gentlemen  were  advertised  as  con- 
tributors to  the  paper:  Rev.  David  Taylor, 
Terre  Haute;  Eobert  Eoss,  Principal  of  the 
Terre  Haute  graded  school;  Samuel  Taylor, 
Principal  of  the  Newport  Seminary;  Dr.  H. 
H.  Patten,  Princeton,  Indiana;  and  Dr.  J.  S. 
Sawyer,  Vincennes,  Indiana. 

The  latest  telegraph  news  in  the  paper  was 
dated  December  17,  twelve  days  before  the 
date  of  issue.  A  long  letter  from  W.  S. 
Turner,  Bodega,  California,  dated  October  31, 
1853,  is  published.     Charity  Moss  and  Susan- 


nah Dyke  give  notice  that  they  will  apply  at 
the  next  term  of  the  common-pleas  court  for 
a  divorce;  "William  Utter,  the  county  treasurer^ 
gives  notice  that  he  will  be  at  Perrysville  the 
5th,  Eugene  the  6th,  Indiana  Furnace  the 
10th,  and  Clinton  the  11th,  days  of  January. 
1854,  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  taxes  due 
for  the  year  1858;  Joseph  Eeeder,  of  Clinton 
Township,  advertises  an  astray  mare  taken  up 
liy  him,  and  appraised  at  $55  before  Esquirt' 
Ben  Harrison;  Eichard  Potts,  Sheriff,  adver- 
tises a  tract  of  land  in  Clinton  Township  for 
sale,  belonging  to  Isaac  Van  Nest,  and  in 
favor  of  Benjamin  E.  and  John  Whitcomb. 
At  that  time  James  A.  Bell  was  county 
clerk. 

W.  A.  Henderson  was  the  only  merchant 
of  Newport  who  had  an  advertisement  in  tlie 
paper.  He  occupied  about  one  inch  of  space 
in  notifying  the  people  that  he  kept  drugs, 
all  kinds  of  patent  medicines,  groceries  and 
flour.  J.  M.  Hood  gives  notice  that  he  is  a 
notary  public,  and  also  keeps  the  telegraph 
office,  on  the  east  side  of  the  public  square, 
with  ^Y.  A.  Henderson.  Dr.  J.  E.  AVillitts 
flings  his  card  to  the  breeze  as  a  physician 
and  surgeou.  T.  C.  W.  Sale,  H.  D.  Wash- 
burn, S.  CI.  Malone  and  D.  M.  Jones  have 
cards  in  this  number  advertising  themselves 
as  attorneys  at  law. 

Most  of  the  advertisements  are  of  Terre 
Haute  business.  There  is  an  item  of  news 
stating  that  the  Evansville  &  Terre  Haute 
Eailroad  was  completed  between  those  two 
points. 

The  price  of  the  Olive  Branch  was  placed 
at  $1.50  a  year  if  paid  in  advance,  $2  at  the 
end  of  six  months  and  $2.50  at  the  end  of  a 
year. 

THE  HOOSIER  STATE. 

The  Olive  Branch  was  changed  to  the 
Hoosier   State  in   1855,   and   published   at 


/S./d,^Si>v^ 


■■■■■■■■■■■"■^ 


VERMlLLloi^    TOWNSHIP. 


Clinton  for  a  time,  but  brought  back  to  New- 
port, where  it  has  since  remained.  The 
proprietors  and  editors  have  been  Pratt  & 
Adams,  James  M.  Hood,  Samuel  II.  Huston 
(1855,  at  Clinton),  Mr.  Campbell,  Mitchell, 
Vaul  (1858),  a  company,  William  E.  Liven- 
good,  George  W.  English  (1862-'63),  Colonel 
II.  D.  Washburn,  S.  B.  Davis,  Joseph  B. 
Cheadle  and  S.  B.  Davis  again.  It  is  almost 
impossible  now  to  give  all  the  above  names 
in  exact  chronological  order. 

Pratt  returned  to  Ohio.  Hood,  who  was 
brought  up  in  this  county,  left  here  for  the 
West.  Vaul  moved  to  La  Fayette,  continu- 
ing in  the  newspaper  business.  Washburn 
died  in  1871  (see  sketch  of  him  in  the  history 
of  Clinton).  Cheadle,  Congressman  elect,  is 
now  editing  the  Frankfort  Banner. 

The  number  of  the  Hoosier  for  January 
17, 1863,  for  an  example  ot  the  straightness  of 
the  times,  had  only  four  columns  to  the  page, 
was  but  little  larger  than  a  sheet  of  foolscap, 
and  was  filled  with  war  news.  In  the  winter 
and  spring  of  1875,  "  Buffalo  Bill"  wrote  for 
the  Hoosier  State  a  history  entitled  "  Three 
Years  in  Utah,"  which  was  published  serially. 
Samuel  Brenton  Davis,  editor  and  pro- 
prietor of  the  Hoosier  State,  was  born  June 
3,  1842,  in  Parke  County,  Indiana,  and 
named  after  a  Methodist  minister,  a  favorite 
of  his  parents.  The  latter  are  Robert  and 
Melvina  (Taylor)  Davis,  natives  of  Virginia, 
who  reside  in  Ilelt  Township,  this  county, 
which  was  also  the  the  home  of  Samuel 
Brenton  from  1856  to  1861. 

Mr.  Davis  was  brought  up  on  the  farm, 
educated  in  the  common  schools  and  at 
Bloomingdale  Academy.  In  July,  1861,  he 
enlisted  in  Company  C,  Eighteenth  Indiana 
Volunteer  Infantry,  participated  in  the  battle 
of  Pea  Ridge,  and  the  siege  of  Vicksburg, 
besides  a  number  of  skirmishes,  and,  after  a 
service  of  one  and  a  half  years,   he  sufi'ered 


an  attack  of  the  measles,  when  on  a  force 
march,  and  he  took  cold,  whicli  settled  in  his 
right  arm  and  leg,  crippling  him  for  life. 
He  is  obliged  to  use  crutches.  After  his 
return  from  the  army,  he  was  clerk  for  a 
time  in  a  store  at  Clinton.  In  1866  he  was 
first  elected  county  treasurer,  and  in  1868  re- 
elected to  the  office.  While  he  held  the 
office  the  treasury  was  robbed  of  about  $36,- 
000  (see  full  account  elsewhere),  by  experts 
who  wedged  the  vault  doors  open  during  the 
night;  over  §21,000  of  the  money  was  re- 
covered from  the  Wabash  River,  in  which 
stream  the  robbers  had  dropped  it  when  hard 
chased  by  citizens.  In  1868,  Mr.  Davis  pur- 
chased the  office  of  the  Hoosier  State.  On 
the  close  of  his  term  as  treasurer,  October, 
1870,  he  devoted  his  whole  attention  to  this 
paper.  In  1870,  Joe  B.  Cheadle  purchased 
it,  but  nine  months  subsequently  Mr.  Davis 
bought  it  again,  and  has  ever  since  been  the 
editor  and  proprietor.  He  raised  the  circu- 
lation from  216  on  the  credit  system  to  912 
on  the  cash  system. 

As  an  editor,  Davis  is  enterprising,  fearless 
and  witty.  The  file  of  the  Hoosier  State, 
exhibits  to  the  historian  an  extraordinary 
amount  of  lively  local  correspondence,  and  of 
editorial  patience  and  liberality.  While  Mr. 
Davis  has  ever  been  a  staunch  Republican,  he 
can  acknowledge  a  victory  gained  by  the 
opposite  party  with  better  grace  than  any 
other  editor  known  to  the  writer.  Besides 
the  office  above  referred  to,  Mr.  Davis  has 
also  been  chosen  trustee  of  Vermillion  Town- 
ship, being  elected  in  April,  1886,  by  ten 
majority  in  a  Democratic  township.  Is  a 
a  member  of  the  order  of  United   Workmen. 

The  subject  of  our  sketch  married  Sarah  C. 
Canady,  daughter  of  Lewis  and  Elizabeth 
Canady, — parents  now  deceased.  She  is  a 
native  of  this  township.  The  children  of 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Davis  are — Bird  II.,  a  well  edu- 


VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


cated  young  man;  Ora  DeLos,  a  lad  exhibiting 
considerable  talent  as  a  draftsman  and 
mechanic;  Fred,  Ren  M.,  liobert  Enoch,  who 
died  at  the  age  of  one  and  a  half  years,  and 
Melvina. 

About  1871-'72  an  attempt  was  made  to 
start  an  opposition  paper  in  Newport,  Dem- 
ocratic in  politics,  under  the  name  of  the 
VfrmilUon  Transcn'j)t,  by  Harrison  Jump, 
who  ran  it  some  fifteen  months,  sinking 
si, 900,  an  1  sold  the  office  to  other  parties, 
who  took  it  away.  Mr.  Jump  returned  to 
Ohio,  where  he  entered  the  grocery  business. 

But  we  are  not  yet  done  with  the  Iloonler 
State.  It  has  been  a  remarkable  paper  for 
local  correspondence  and  terse  editorials,  and 
we  cannot  refrain  from  giving  two  or  three 
of  the  most  innocent'but  amusing  specimens: 

"  We  learn  through  the  medium  of  a  pot- 
bellied gander  from  the  jungles  of  Brown  town 
that  G.  "\V.  Rodenbaugh  intended  to  demand 
our  name  for  cliarging  him  witli  getting 
drunk  and  flogging  his  wife.  We  never 
made  any  such  charge,  and  appeal  to  the 
columns  of  the  Iloosier  State  to  prove  it.  A 
lew  meddlers  are  trying  to  make  a  fool  of 
Rodenbaugh  by  telling  him  that  every  per- 
sonal item  in  the  Iloosier  is  directed  at  him. 
We  will  make  him  'a  present  of  a  pair  of 
heavy  boots  if  he  will  agree  to  wear  them  out 
in  kicking  the  —  coat-tail  of  every  meddling 
sneak  who  mentions  such  things  to  him  in- 
cluding Mr.  Brown[town],  who  will  merit 
and  receive  onr  sincere  thanks  by  simply 
minding  his  own  business." 

In  December,  1874,  an  amusing  incident 
occurred  in  Newport,  thus  wittily  reported 
by  the  Iloosier  State: 

"Somnambulism,  or  One  Night  in  Walter 
Place's  Bar  Room.  A  young  trump  card 
from  Clinton,  named  Jaqnes,  came  up  to 
attend  the  big  dance  at  tlie  hotel  Place;  and 
after  he  had  exercised   nature  about  all  she 


was  able  to  bear,  lie  concluded  to  rest  his 
weary  bones  on  a  bench  in  the  bar-room.  In 
a  short  time  he  was  in  the  arms  of  Morpheus, 
and  soon  afterward  he  arose,  as  usual  in  his 
somnambulistic  fits,  walked  around  the  room, 
then  took  a  seat  on  the  bench,  and,  in  the 
presence  of  several  persons  divested  himself 
of  most  of  the  clothing,  preparatory  to  lying 
down  again,  supposing  the  bench  was  a  bed. 
At  this  juncture  he  was  aroused  from  his 
sleep  by  the  deafening  roars  of  laughter  by 
those  present.  On  coming  to,  he  looked 
worse  than  a  defeated  candidate,  and  proposed 
to  '  set  up '  the  cigars  if  the  boys  would  keep 
'mum.'  Of  course  the  boys  accepted  of  the 
treat,  '  pledging  their  sacred  honor  '  never  to 
hint  it  to  Bren  Davis  of  the  Iloosier  State, 
or  to  any  one  else!  " 

Another  extract  is  given  in  the  history  of 
Helt  Townshij),  on  a  preceding  page. 

KEMARKABLE    CASES    OF    ROBBERY. 

The  three  following  accounts  are  also  from 
the  famous  Iloosier  State: 

On  Monday  night,  April  18,  1870,  over 
$35,000  was  stolen  from  the  county  treasury 
vault,  which  had  been  faithfully  closed  and 
locked.  The  treasurer  was  S.  B.  Davis,  then 
and  now  the  editor  of  the  Iloosier  State. 
The  doors  were  forced  open  by  steel  wedges, 
which  were  driven  by  a  sledge.  Neighbors 
heard  the  noise  but  not  distinctly  enough  to 
have  their  suspicions  aroused. 

The  next  day  Orville  White,  who  had  just 
learned  of  the  burglary,  saw  two  men  carry- 
ing a  sachel  across  the  i'arms  about  three 
miles  north  of  Clinton.  Calling  two  railroad 
hands  to  his  assistance,  they  gave  chase,  call- 
ing upon  the  suspected  fugitives  to  halt. 
They  struck  for  the  river,  and  leaving  a  por- 
tion of  their  clothing  upon  the  bank,  began 
to  swim  across.  Mr.  White  an.d  his  com- 
panions arriving,  saw   a  farmer    on    the  op- 


VERMILLION    TOM'KSHIP. 


posite  bank  whom  they  knew,  and  halloed 
to  him  to  kill  the  rascals  as  they  came  oi;t. 
The  man  approached,  but  the  rascals,  getting 
into  shallow  water,  drew  their  revolvers  and 
iired  at  him.  Mr.  White  then  requested  his 
assistant  to  watch  the  thieves  until  lie  could 
raise  a  posse  to  take  them.  Discovering  a 
wallet  in  the  river,  Mr.  White  waded  in  and 
obtained  it,  and  found  it  contained  $16,354. 
He  then  went  home,  mounted  a  horse  and 
started  for  Clinton  to  raise  a  posse;  but  in 
the  meantime  the  scoundrels  reached  the  op- 
posite shore,  about  a  mile  below  where  they 
entered  the  stream,  soon  found  two  railroad 
hands,  and  drew  their  revolvers  upon  them, 
commanding  them  to  give  up  their  clothing 
in  great  haste,  as  they  "had  got  into  a  row 
and  had  to  swim  the  river  to  save  their 
lives."  Returning  to  the  river  they  got  into 
a  skiff  and  floated  down  past  Clinton  under 
the  cover  of  the  night,  and  tlius  succeeded 
in  getting  away. 

The  event  created  a  great  sensation 
throughout  the  country.  It  seems  that,  from 
the  elaborate  and  systematic  execution  of  the 
burglary,  very  skillful  operators  were  en- 
gaged in  it. 

It  turned  out  the  very  next  day  after  Mr. 
White's  discovery  of  the  fugitive  criminals, 
that  one  of  the  assistants,  whom  he  hastily 
picked  out  from  a  company  of  railroad  hands 
near  by,  was  the  receiver  of  a  large  amount 
of  money  at  that  time,  in  a  mysterious  man- 
ner, but  was  not  present  at  the  robbery. 

May  13,  §5,210  more  of  the  money  was 
found  in  a  sachel  lodged  on  the  roots  of  a 
Cottonwood  a  mile  and  a  half  below,  where 
the  thieves  commenced  to  swim  the  river; 
!?15,320  were  never  recovered. 

During  the  latter  part  of  the  night  of  Oc- 
tober 12,  1883,  a  most  brutal  outrage  was 
committed  by  a  band  of  robbers  upon  Elias 
Lamb  and  his  family  at  their  residence  near 


Newport.  In  the  house  were  Mr.  Lamb  and 
wife  and  a  married  daughter  from  Wayne 
County  visiting  them.  Between  three  and 
four  o'clock  the  dog  made  considerable  noise. 
Mrs.  Lamb  went  to  the  window  to  see  what 
was  the  matter,  and  hist  the  dog,  which 
would  only  plunge  out  into  the  darkness  and 
then  retreat.  Not  discovering  anything,  she 
returned  to  bed.  But  the  dog  kept  up  a 
howling,  and  acted  as  if  some  one  was  en- 
croaching upon  the  premises.  In  a  few  min- 
utes Mr.  Lamb  went  out  to  see  whether  he 
could  discover  anything  wrong.  Returning 
to  his  room  he  had  scarcely  lain  down  when 
the  door  to  an  adjoining  room,  against  which 
stood  a  large  bureau,  was  burst  open,  and  the 
bureau  fell  to  the  floor  with  a  terrible  crash, 
breaking  everything  that  was  upon  it.  Be- 
fore the  two  could  get  out  of  bed  they  were 
seized  by  two  burglars  and  a  demand  made 
for  their  money.  Mr.  Lamb  gave  them  all 
he  had,  $25.  The  demand  being  repeated  to 
his  wife  she  said  she  had  §1.75  up  stairs. 
The  villiains  made  her  get  it  without  light- 
ing a  lamp,  at  the  point  of  her  life.  They 
then  declared  that  there  was  more  money  in 
the  house,  and  that  they  would  kill  them  if 
they  did  not  give  it  up.  Mr.  Lamb  an- 
swei-cd  that  they  might  kill  them,  l)ut  could 
not  get  any  more  money,  for  there  was  no 
more  in  the  house.  Then  they  assaulted  him 
and  threatened  to  kill  them  both  if  tb.ey  did 
not  pay  over  more  money.  They  first  pom- 
meled him  awhile  and  then  fired  two  shots, 
one  of  them  grazing  Mrs.  Lamb's  head,  split- 
ting open  her  ear.  Mr.  Lamb,  although 
bodly  bruised  and  one  eye  closed,  managed 
to  get  out  of  doors,  where  he  pulled  the  bell- 
rope,  which  frightened  the  burglars  away. 

The  daughter  referred  to,  who  was  sleeping 
in  another  room,  crawled  under  the  feather 
bed  and  thus  escaped  discovery.  Their  son 
John,  who  was  sleeping  in  a  house  a  hundred 


yards  distant,  upon  hearing  the  bell,  ran  over 
to  his  parents'  house;  and,  finding  that  they 
were  suffering  for  want  of  medical  treatment, 
proposed  to  go  immediately  for  a  physician, 
but  they,  fearing  the  rascals  might  return 
and  do  further  mischief,  begged  liim  to  re- 
main with  them  until  daylight. 

During  the  morning  the  tracks  of  the  rob- 
bers were  traced  both  ways  between  their 
residence  and  town,  but  no  further  clew  was 
ever  obtained  for  their  discovery. 

May  5,  1884,  the  postoffice  was  robbed  of 
>^350  during  the  night.  The  safe  was  blown 
open.  The  burglars  were  frigliteued  away  by 
the  passing  of  a  young  man  in  tlie  vicinity 
before  they  obtained  all  tliat  tliey  liad  intended 
to.     Tiie  thieves  were  never  caught. 

ATTORNEYS    OF    NEWPORT. 

.Daniel  M.  Jones,  a  native  of  this  county, 
attended  AVabash  College,  not  quite  finishing 
the  course,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1852 
or  ~'o3,  a  member  of  the  Legislature  about 
1861,  as  a  Republican,  was  an  active  partisan, 
a  natural  orator,  and  a  shrewd  lawyer,  and 
died  in  the  fall  of  1865,  leaving  a  widow  and 
three  children.  She  is  a  sister  of  Stephen  S. 
Collett,  and  resides  in  Newport.  The  son, 
Frank,'  is  studying  medicine.  Mr.  Jones' 
father,  Lewis  Jones,  was  a  prominent  citizen 
of  Eugene  Township. 

Henry  D.  Washburn,  one  of  the  most 
prominent  men  of  Vermillion  County,  prac- 
ticed law  liere  awhile  before  the  war.  See 
history  of  Clinton,  on  a  previous  page,  for  a 
full  sketch. 

L.  C.  Allen,  born  near  Highland,  this 
county,  studied  law  under  the  preceptorship 
of  M.  G.  Rhoads,  Esq.,  of  Newport,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar;  was  justice  of  the  peace 
1868-'72,  when  he  occasionally  had  a  little 
case.  He  was  a  man  of  firm  principles,  but 
sometimes  a  little  rough.     At  one  time,  when 


the  attorneys  in  a  suit  before  him  got  to 
wrangling  and  using  profane  language,  ho 
"stood"  it  as  long  as  he  tliought  he  ought  to, 
when  he  blurted  out,  "  I'll  be  G — d  d — d  if 
you  don't  quit  swearing  I'll  fine  you!"  Mr. 
Allen  left  Newport  about  ten  years  ago,  and 
is  now  deputy  clerk  at  Covington,  Indiana. 
Nathan    Harvey  was  born    and    raised  in 

I  Parke  County,  this  State,  and  educated  at  the 

I  Bloomingdale  school,  a  Quaker  institution, 
under  the  teaching  of  Barnabas  Hobbs,  for- 

[  merly  State  Superintendent  of  Public  In- 
struction.    He  was  a  young  man  of  fair  mind 

I  and  scholarship.  On  coming  to  Newport,  he 
taught  school  in  the  seminary  during  the  war, 
a  couple  of  years,  and  then  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  John  C.  Johnson.  In  the  practice  of 
law  he  became  a  partner  of  William  Eggles- 
ton,  but  did  not  practice  more  than  two  or 
three  years  when  he  died,  during  a  session  of 
court.  His  widow,  with  three  children,  lives 
near  Newport.  Mr.  Harvey  was  an  honorable 
man  and  would  have  become  a  solid  prac- 
titioner had  he  lived. 

Robert  A.  Parrett,  a  native  of  this  State, 
was  young  when  his  parents  settled  with  him 
in  Newport.  Ilis  father  was  a  traveling 
Methodist  minister.  Robert  was  brought  up 
here.  Commencing  a  course  at  the  Asbury 
University,  he  had  reached  a  point  in  the 
freshman  or  sophomore  year  when,  on  account 
of  delicate  health,  he  had  to  desist.  He  then 
read  law  in  the  office  of  Judge  Jump,  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  and  practiced  his  profes- 
sion for  a  time.  In  the  fall  of  1875  he  was 
admitted  as  a  partner  of  C  E.  it  M.  G. 
Rhoads,  in  which  relation  lie  remained  until 
January,  1880.  Since  then  he  has  been  en- 
gaged in  farming,  near  Newport.  He  was  a 
good  office  lawyer,  a  good  bookkeeper  and 
attentive  to  business;  but,  on  account  of 
delicate  health,  his  father  and  friends  advised 
him    to   quit   the   practice  of  law   and  adopt 


VERMILLION    TOWNSHIP. 


some  mode  of  life  requiring  more  physical 
and  less  mental  activity. 

Professor  B.  E.  Rhoads  was  born  in  Penn- 
sylvania, May  1,  1834.  In  1836  the  family 
came  to  Richmond,  Indiana,  in  a  one-horse 
wagon ;  next  they  came  to  Hancock  County, 
near  Indianapolis;  in  1837,  to  Parke  County; 
then  to  Waveland,  Montgomery  County, 
where  the  subject  attended  Waveland  Acade- 
my (Presbyterian).  Entering  Wabash  College 
in  the  junior  year,  he  graduated  there  in 
1859.  Next,  he  came  to  Clmton,  this  county, 
and  taught  in  the  Farmers'  College  part  of  a 
year.  Then  he  studied  law  In  the  office  of 
Judge  Maxwell,  at  Rockville,  Parke  County, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar,  came  to  Newport  in 
1861,  and  commenced  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession. Was  in  partnership  with  his  brother 
M.  G.,  1865-'79.  In  1865-'66,  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Legislature.  In  1878  he 
moved  to  Terre  Haute,  where  he  has  since 
been  a  resident;  but  that  year  he  crossed  the 
ocean  with  his  family,  and  spent  thirteen 
months  in  England  and  on  the  continent  of 
Europe. 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1881  he  was  ap- 
pointed judge  of  the  Superior  Court  of  Vigo 
Connty,  serving  until  November,  1882.  For 
live  j-ears  he  was  one  of  tlie  trustees  of  the 
State  University  at  Bloomington,  where  he 
was  also  professor  of  law  for  a  time.  In 
Terre  Haute  he  owns  a  nice  property.  In  his 
religion  he  is  a  Presbyterian,  being  for  a  time 
an  elder  in  the  Motfatt  Street  Church,  in  that 
city. 

In  1876  Professor  Rhoads  married  Miss 
Ida,  daughter  of  Robert  D.  Moffatt,  of  Perrys- 
ville.  Their  children  are  Sarah,  born  in 
1877,  and  Daniel  Moffatt,  born  in  1880. 

John  D.  Cushman  was  born  and  reared  in 
Perrysville,  this  county.  His  father,  Thomas 
Cushman,  being  elected  county  auditor  in 
the  fall  of  1872,  moved  to  Newport  with  his 


family,  and  here  John  D.  studied  law,  was 
admitted  to  the  bar,  and  began  practice;  was 
in  partnership  with  Joshua  Jump  for  a  time; 
was  in  the  office  of  Messrs.  Rhoads,  where  he 
proved  himself  a  good  oflice  hand,  a  fine 
penman,  intelligent  business  man,  etc.  He 
was  also  a  good  public  speaker,  but  he  did 
not  practice  at  the  bar  a  great  deal.  In  the 
fall  of  1875  he  went  into  the  Southern  States 
and  traveled  for  six  months.  Returning,  he 
resumed  law  practice,  which  he  followed, 
sometimes  by  himself  and  sometimes  in  part- 
nership, until  his  death  six  or  seven  years 
ago.  lie  was  a  young  man  of  great  prom- 
ise. 

Thomas  C.  W.  Sale  was  a  lawyer  here  many 
years  ago,  and  before  the  last  war  went  to 
Paris,  Illinois,  where  he  received  an  appoint- 
ment as  Indian  agent,  and  he  -was  in  the  far 
West  for  a  long  period  in  the  fulfillment  of- 
the  duties  of  that  office.  He  returned  to 
Paris,  where  he  is  now  living. 

Samuel  G.  Malone,  who  also  practiced  law 
here  before  the  war  period,  removed  to 
Decatur,  Illinois,  where  he  accumulated  a 
fortime  of  $75,000  or  $100,000,  but  lost  it 
all.  He  is  now  a  farmer  in  Helt  Township, 
this  county. 

AVilliara  Eggleston  was  born  in  this  county, 
in  1833,  and  educated  here,  attending  the 
common  schools  and  the  county  seminary  at 
Newport,  after  he  was  a  grown  man.  He 
was  naturally  indiistrious  and  persevering. 
Taking  to  the  study  of  law,  in  due  time  he 
qualified  himself  for  practice  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  about  1859.  Of  course  he  worked 
up  considerable  practice,  by  a  hard  struggle, 
making  many  errors,  and  in  the  course  of 
fifteen  years'  practice  acquired  a  handsome 
competence.  He  next  entered  upon  a  mer- 
cantile business  with  his  brother,  and  they 
failed,  losing  all  they  had;  during  this  mer- 
cantile   experience,    however,    William    pro- 


ceeded   with  his   law    practice.     lie   was    a 
successful  attorney. 

"While  here  he  wrote  and  published  three 
works:  1.,  Treatise  on  County  Commission- 
ers; 2.,  a  legal  work  on  Damages;  and  3.,  a 
play  entitled    "The   Broken-hearted    Wife," 


(  being    a  story  of  woman's    love   and  man's 

{  unfaithfulness,  and    consisting  of  facts  that 

t  occurred  a  few  years  ago. 

\  Mr.    Eggleston    moved    to    Terre    llante 

I  about  1877. 

i  Y.  E.  Witmer,  probably  about  fifty  years 

I  ago  came  from  Ohio  to  Newport,  and  prac- 

5  ticed  here  five  or  six  years,  and    moved  to 

I  some  point  toward  Logansport  about  six  or 

I  seven  years  ago,  where  he  has  since  died.  He 

!  was  a  man  of  the  "spread-eagle"   style,  not 

(  deeply  versed,  but  executive,  working  up  law- 

j  suits  whether  they  should  be  worked  up  or  not. 

!  "William  L.  Little,  a  graduate  of  Asbury 

i  University,    became   a    Methodist    minister, 

i  preached  here  a  year  or  two ;  then  followed 

I  farming    about    seven    miles    southwest    of 

I  Newport,  in  which  he  succeeded  well;  next 

»  he  practiced  law  at  Newport,  settled  a  few 

i  estates,   etc.,  and  then    became  a  merchant, 

(  and  finally    moved   to  Hutchinson,    Kansas, 

{  about  1882.     Mr.  Little  had  a  fair  intellect, 

i  and  a  good  degree  of  information  on  general 

j  subjects,  and  was  a  prominent  citizen  of  the 

{  county.     About  1862-'72  he  acted  as  county 

i  examiner,  and  then  for  six  or  eight  years,  or 

j  more,  he  was  county  superintendent  of  schools. 

)  James  Blanchard,  a  native  of  this  county, 

I  received  a  good  classical  education  and  was  a 

(  good    penman,  on    which    account    he    was 

)  employed    much  in    the    stores,  and  county 

I  offices,  as  an  accountant,  copyist,  etc.     Pick- 

1  ing  up  a  little  law  in  the  meantime,  he  was 

I  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  in  the  course  of  his 

i  practice  he  had  several  partnerships.     He  was 

i  a  good  assistant  in  preparing  papers,  conduct- 

J  ing  correr^pondence,  making  collections,  etc. 


About  three  or  four  years  ago  he  moved  to 
Terre  Haute  to  assist  his  brother  Ben,  and 
from  there  he  went  to  South  Hutchinson, 
Kansas,  where  he  is  now  engaged  in  real- 
estate  business. 

Ben  Blanchard,  though  nominally  a  lawyer, 
never  conducted  a  suit.  He  is  now  in  Terre 
Haute,  in  the  real-estate  and  abstract  business. 

Joseph  B.  Cheadle.  present  Congressman, 
elect  from  the  Ninth  District,  was  born  in 
this  county,  read  law  in  the  office  of  Judge 
Maxwell  at  Eockville,  admitted  to  the  bar  here 
about  1868,  became  deputy  collector  of  inter- 
nal revenue,  was  a  candidate  for  nomination 
for  a  number  of  offices,  gradually  drifted  out 
of  the  law  into  editorial  work,  had  charge  of 
the  Hoosier  State  nine  months  in  1870,  then 
the  Ilockville  Rejnihlican  and  Rockviile 
Tribune,  and  is  now  editor  of  the  Frankfort 
Banner,  Clinton  County.  Frank,  courteous 
and  polite,  he  is  popular;  clever  and  ambitious, 
he  is  a  good  business  man;  is  a  good  story- 
teller, and  a  genial  companion. 

Joshua  Jump,  born  in  Ohio  in  1843,  stud- 
ied law  with  R.  N.  Bishop,  at  Paris,  Illinois, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  came  to  New- 
port in  1869,  where  his  partnerships  were  in 
succession  with  "William    Eggleston,  Robert 

B.  Sears,  James  Blanchard,  John  D.  Cush- 
man  and  from  March,  1879,  to  March,  1885, 

C.  Vf.  "Ward.  He  was  circuit  judge  from 
March,  1885,  to  November,  1886.  In  June, 
1887,  he  removed  to  Terre  Haute.  He  is  a 
Democrat,  and  has  participated  in  politics  to 
some  extent,  being  a  delegate  to  a  number  of 
conventions  and  member  of  the  State  Central 
Committee. 

Adam  Littlepagc,  from  "West  Virginia, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  here  February  0' 
1883,  formed  a  partnership  with  John  A. 
"Wiltermood  for  two  or  three  years,  married 
a  daughter  of  Stephen  S.  Collett,  and  returned 
to  "West  Virginia. 


VERMILLION    TOWNS  EI  P. 


213 


John  A.  Wilterinoocl,  Postmaster  at  New- 
port, was  appointed  to  this  position  Septein- 
her  5,  1885,  succeeding  John  Kichardson. 
lie  was  liorii  in  Vermillion  Township,  a  son 
of  Joseph  W.  AViltermood,  and  brought  up 
at  fanning,  most  of  his  early  life  being  spent 
ill  Eugene  Township.  He  attended  the  State 
Normal  at  Indianapolis  in  1878-'79,  taught 
school  three  years,  studied  law  in  the  office 
of  Judge  Jump,  admitted  to  practice  Febru- 
ary 6,  1883,  associated  professionally  with 
II.  II.  Conley  two  years,  and  with  Adam 
Littlepage  two  or  three  years. 

The  present  bar  at  NeM-port  comprises  M. 
G.  Rhoads.  B.  S.  Aikman  (Rhoads  &  Aikman) 
C.  AV.  Ward,  O.  B.  Gibson  (Ward  &  Gibson), 
II.  H.  Conley  and  J.  C.  Sawyer.  Sketches  of 
most  of  tliese  will  be  found  in  the  regular 
biographical  department  of  this  volume. 

B.  S.  Aikman  is  a  young  man  born  in  this 
county,  a  son  of  Barton  Aikman,  an  early 
settler,  graduated  at  the  State  Normal  School 
at  Terre  Haute,  read  law  in  the  office  of  M. 
G.  Rhoads,  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the  fall  of 
1886,  and  has  been  a  partner  of  Mr.  Rhoads 
since  January  1,  1887. 

In  the  winter  of  lS74:-'75  Mest^rs.  Jump 
and  M.  G.  Rhoads  were  attorneys  for  a  fugi- 
tive from  Illinois,  charged  with  stealing 
horses,  and  succeeded  in  releasing  hiin  from 
the  custody  of  an  officer.  This  raised  con- 
siderable excitement  among  the  citizens  of 
Newport,  and  indignation  meetings  were 
held  here,  and  also  in  other  parts  of  the 
county.  The  officer  holding  the  fugitive  had 
not  the  proper  authority. 

PHYSICIANS. 

Of  the  past,  we  can  mention  only  these: 
Dr.  J.  R.  Willetts  practiced  here  previous  to 
the  war  period,  and  moved  away.  He  was 
time  in  partnersltip  witli  Dr.  Griffin, 
E.  T.   Collett,   son  of 


f<ir 

V\hn  is  deceased.      Dr 


Josephus  Collett,  Sr.,  was  a  graduate  of  the 
Louisville  Medical  College,  practiced  here  and 
in  Eugene  Township,  and  in  1878  committed 
suicide  in  Kansas,  at  the  age  of  fifty-eight 
years.  Drs.  Clark  and  P.  H.  Leavitt  prac- 
ticed here  a  number  of  years,  a  portion  of  the 
time  in  partnership.  The  former  moved  to 
Danville,  Illinois,  in  1875,  where  he  is  now 
living,  and  the  other  died  in  Newport.  Dr. 
E.  Thompson  moved  to  Illinois  and  died  there. 
He  left  Newport  in  the  fall  of  1874. 

The  physicians  now  practicing  in  Newport 
are  Drs.  M.  L.  Hall,  Lewis  Shepard  and 
James  Wallace. 

Yermillion  County  is  comparatively  a 
poor  place  for  physicians  to  find  much  to  do. 
As  before  stated,  the  country  here  is  remark- 
able for  a  healthy  and  long-lived  population. 
They  have  never  been  visited  by  epidemics, 
and  even  that  singular  disease,  milk-sickness, 
which  used  to  prevail  here,  is  now  entirely 
absent,  the  last  case  occurring  ten  or  twelve 
years  ago. 

EDUCATION. 

Newport  has  .always  had  a  good  school. 
According  to  the  provisions  of  tlie  State"  law, 
a  county  seminary  was  established  here  in 
pioneer  times,  and  flourished  until  the  later 
free-school  system  converted  it  into  a  o-raded 
school  about  1852.  The  building  was  of 
brick.  To  it  additions  have  been  made,  and 
it  is  still  occupied.  The  location  is  on  the 
bluff,  overlooking  the  broad  and  romantic 
valley  of  the  ^Little  Vermillion  River.  The 
new  portion,  comprising  two  rooms  was 
added  by  the  town  of  Newport,  at  a  cost  ot 
about  §1,000,  and,  the  muncipality  having 
bought  the  township's  interest  in  the  in- 
stitution, all  partnership  between  the  two 
civil  divisions  was  dissolved  last  year,  1886. 
The  building  now  has  four  rooms,  and  corre- 
spondingly a  full  board  of  teachers  comprises 


a  principal  and  three  assistants.  Tlie  depart- 
ments are  the  high  school,  grammar,  inter- 
mediate and  primary.  The  enrollment  last 
year  was  156.  The  principal  for  the  year 
1887  -'88  is  Edward  Aikman.  The  school 
has  two  literally  societies, — the  Philadel- 
pliians  and  the  Sapplionians. 

SOCIETIES. 

Ncioport  Lodge,  No.  209,  F.  ib  A.M.,  was 
chartered  May  25,  1857;  and  the  first  officers 
were  James  A.  Bell,  Worshipful  Master; 
Eldridge  M.  Groves,  Senior  Warden;  James 
Tarrance,  Junior  Warden;  Andrew  J.  Adams, 
Treasurer;  Joseph  B.  Cheadle,  Secretary; 
Seth  Knight,  Senior  Deacon;  William  Black- 
stone,  Junior  Deacon;  J.  L.  Thomas  and  T. 
J.  Arrasmith,  Stewards;  R.  H.  Nixon,  Tyler. 
The  munber  of  meni1)ers  was  twenty-three, 
who  met  in  the  same  hall  tliat  is  still  used. 
The  present  membership  is  thirty-one,  and 
the  officers,  R.  C.  Sears,  Worsliipful  Master; 
R.  II.  Nixon,  Senior  Warden ;  E.  D.  Wheeler, 
Junior  Warden;  Abel  Sexton,  Senior  Deacon; 
J.  II.  Kerdolff,  Junior  Deacon;  A.  R.  Hop- 
kins, Secretary;  Charles  Potts,  Treasurer; 
Elias  Pritchard  and  Gr.  W.  Clark,  Stewards; 
and  II.  S.  Cady,  Tyler.  Financially,  the  lodge 
is  strong. 

Verrnillion  Lodge,  No  59 i,  L  0.  0.  F., 
was  organized  in  the  room  over  the  furniture 
store  of  David  Hopkins,  by  Past  Grand 
Hiram  Shepard,  of  Dana  Lodge,  under  a 
charter  granted  May  18, 1882,  on  the  petition 
of  Robert  E.  Stephens,  Lewis  Shepard, 
Thomas  Cushman,  F.  Y.  Wade,  Julius 
Groves  and  J.  M.  Taylor.  Tlie  following 
members  were  elected  officers  and  duly  in- 
stalled: Lewis  Shepard,  Noble  Grand;  Eobert 
E.  Stephens,  Vice-Grand;  Thomas  Cushman, 
Secretary;  J.  M.  Taylor.  Treasurer.  At  the 
time  of  this  organization  there  were  thirteen 
members.     There  are  now  thirty-seven  mem- 


bers, and  the  present  officers  are,  M.  G. 
Rhoades,  Noble  Grand;  H.  A.  Conley,  Vice- 
Grand;  Matthew  Ly tie.  Recording  Secretary; 
Thomas  Cushman,  Permanent  Secretary;  W. 
P.  Henderson,  Treasurer.  The  society  is  now 
in  a  very  prosperous  condition.  The  furni- 
ture, equipments  and  regalia  cost  about  $600, 
and  the  room  is  an  unusually  nice  one, 
38  x  50  feet  in  dimensions,  exclusive  of  the 
vestibules. 

Hope  Lodge,  No.  268,  Daughters  of  Be- 
hekah,  was  chartered  November  18,  1886, 
and  the  first  officers  elected  January  22,  1887, 
with  ten  members.  Thomas  Cushman, 
Noble  Grand;  Mrs.  D.  S.  Hopkins,  Vice- 
Grand;  Mrs.  Dessie  Johnson,  Secretary;  Mrs. 
Mary  Henson,  Treasurer.  The  membership 
is  now  (June,  1887)  thirteen,  who  are 
zealous,  with  a  good  exchequer.  They  com- 
prise the  best  talent  in  the  conununity. 

Shiloh  Post,  No.  Ji.9,  Q.  A.  B.,  was  organ- 
ized March  22,  1882,  with  R.  J.  Hasty,  Post 
Commander;  J.  II.  Kerdolff,  Senior  Vice- 
Commander;  J.  A.  Darby,  Junior  Vice- 
Commander;  R.  H.  Nixon,  Surgeon;  Z. 
Thornton,  Chaplain;  A.  C.  Brokaw,  Officer  of 
theDay;T.  A.  McKnight,  Officerof  the  Guard  : 
who  were  duly  installed  by  Mustering  Officer 
R.  B.  Sears.  The  appointed  officers  were  J. 
W.  Harlan,  Adjutant;  J.  C.  Bailey,  Quarter- 
Tuaster  Sergeant;  William  C.  Myers,  Ser- 
geant-Major.  The  officers  comprised  the 
whole  membership.  The  post  has  not  been 
meeting  lately,  but  the  present  officers  are, 
Edward  Brown,  Post  Commander;  R.  II. 
White,  Junior  Vice-Commander;  John  A. 
Darby,  Officer  of  the  Day;  John  Richard- 
son, Quartermaster;  William  Bennett,  Sur- 
geon; II.  II.  Conlej',  Chaplain;  C.  S.  Davis, 
Adjutant;  Vf.  P.  Henson,  Sergeant-JMajor; 
J.  C.  Dillow,  Quarterinaster-Sei-geant.  There 
are  about  thirty  members  in  good  standing. 
The    time   of  meeting  is  every  second    and 


VERMILLION    TOWNSHIP. 


fourth  Friday  evening  of  the  montli,  in  Place's 
Hall. 

A  company  of  Sons  of  Veterans  was  or- 
ganized March  20,  1884,  with  Frank  Hasty 
for  Captain.  Commencing  with  ten  mem- 
bers, they  reached  sixteen,  but  they  soon  lost 
their  zeal,  holding  their  last  meeting  Decem- 
ber 19,  1884.  They  contemplate  reorganiz- 
ing. Their  last  Captain  was  William  F. 
Thornton. 

The  A.  0.  U.  W.  organized  a  lodge  at 
Newport  March  4,  1879,  with  a  membership 
of  sixteen,  and  Dr.  M.  L.  Hall  as  Past  Mas- 
ter AVorkman;  E.  B.  Sears,  Master  Work- 
man ;  "W.  P.  Henson,  Grand  Foreman ;  Joseph 
Dillow,  Overseer;  C.  S.  Davis,  Kecorder; 
George  W.  Odell,  Financier;  L.J.  Place,  Ee- 
ceiver;  L.  D.  Dillow,  Gnard;  Henry  Dil- 
low, Inside  .Warden;  Lou  Coil,  Outside 
Warden.  The  charter  was  surrendered  Feb- 
ruary 24,  1883.  At  one  time  they  had  as 
many  as  twenty-live  or  thirty  members. 

The  Neviport  Light  Guards  were  organ- 
ized under  the  military  law  of  the  State,  with 
over  forty  members,  and  J.  A.  Souders,  Cap- 
tain. They  obtained  from  the  State  an  equip- 
ment of  fifty  guns  and  tlie  necessary 
accoutrements.  But  in  a  year  or  two  they 
got  to  quarreling  over  the  captaincy,  some 
favoring  J.  A.  Souders,  Init  a  majority  E. 
H.  Nixon,  and  consequently  let  their  inter- 
est  in    the  drill  die. 

The  Newport  Cornet  Band  was  organized 
a  number  ot  years  ago,  went  down,  and  reor- 
ganized, or  a  new  organization  effected.  John 
A.  Darby  and  J.  W.  Hartman  are  the  only 
present  members  who  were  members  of  the 
iiriginal  organization.  The  present  members 
are,  John  A.  Darby  and  Quincy  Myers,  E 
flat;  Ernest  Darby  and  Albert  Wheeler,  B 
flat;  J.  W.  Hartman,  solo  alto;  William 
Sharp,  second  alto;  W.  C.  Arrasmith  and 
Joseph  Hopkins,  B  flat  tenor;  L.  M.  Wheeler, 


B  flat  baritone;  Fred  Duzan,  E  flat  tuba; 
William  Brown,  snare  drum;  Henry  Garrett, 
base  drum.  This  accommodating  band  "  dis- 
courses sweet  music  "  every  Sunday  afternoon 
at  the  court-house.  The  players  are  skillful, 
and  have  often  rendered  satisfactory  service 
on  public  occasions. 


TEMPERANCE. 


Newport  has  had  the  usual  fights  over  the 
temperance  question,  and  the  usual  temper- 
ance societies.  Skipping  over  the  long  pe- 
riod l)efore  the  war,  we  notice  that  since  the 
war  about  the  first  public  movement  was  the 
organization  of  a  lodge  of  Good  Templars,  in 
1868,  with  the  following  officers:  Eev.  J.  E. 
Wright  (Methodist  traveling  minister  here  at 
the  time),  Betsy  Griflin,  Joseph  Hopkins, 
Benjamin  Carter,  Ivy  A.  Astor,  Sally  Can- 
ady,  John  Wigley,  Eebecca  Huft"  and  Joseph 
B.  Cheadle.  The  lodge  has  long  since  ceased 
to  exist. 

The  next  movement  was  the  tidal  wave  of 
the  "  woman's  crusade  "  in  1874,  which  struck 
Newport  with  some  violence  and  persistency. 
Meetings  were  held  at  the  churches,  speeches 
made,  and  a  committee  appointed  to  wait 
upon  the^  two  saloonists  of  the  place,  who 
soon  closed  their  dram  shops  and  signed  a 
pledge  not  to  open  again  in  Newport.  A 
firm  of  druggists,  however,  comprising 
William  M.  and  William  L.  Triplett  (father 
and  son),  refused  to  sign  the  same  pledge, 
ofiering  one  of  their  own  drafting,  which 
allowed  them  to  sell  liquor  for  "  medical, 
mechanical,  chemical  and  sacramental  pur- 
poses." They  were  publicly  charged,  in  a  set 
of  formal  resolutions,  with  selling  liquor  by 
wholesale  for  drinking  purposes,  but  they  de- 
nied having  done  so  for  a  long  time.  The 
controversy  over  their  case  M-as  long  and  bit- 
ter, but  they  held  their  ground.     Since  then 


Wi 


the  senior  member  of  the  firm  has  died,  and 
the  junior  has  moved  away. 

In  December  following  an  enraged  woman 
from  the  country  came  into  town  and  smashed 
in  the  windows  of  a  saloon  where  her  hus- 
band was  spending  too  much  of  his  time, 
made  a  general  "  scatterment"  among  thein- 
ma'tes  and  soon  persuaded  her  loafing  husband 
to  take  a  straight  line  for  home. 

In  1877  the  Murphy,  or  blue-ribbon  move- 
ment struck  Newport  like  a  cyclone.  At  tlie 
very  first  meeting  153  signed  the  pledge,  and 
in  a  few  days  afterward  probably  as  many 
more.  But  the  red-ribbon  movement,  inau- 
gurated by  Tyler  Mason  in  1879,  proved  to 
have  more  vitality.  Of  this,  Thomas  Cush- 
maii,  William  Gibson  and  Robert  B.  Sears 
were  in  succession  presidents. 

A  "Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union 
was  organized  in  Newport,  in  which  the  lead- 
ers were  Mrs.  Zachariah  Thornton,  Mrs.  Ram- 
sey, Mrs.  Ervin  Lamb,  Mrs.  Sears  and  others. 
At  one  time  they  had  forty  or  filty  members 
or  more,  but  their  meetings  have  been  discon- 
tinued. In  connection  with  the  Perrysville 
union,  they  for  a  time  edited  a  temperance 
column  in  the  Hoosier  State. 

Order  of  Eclampsus  Vitus! — Thi  sis  the 
high-sounding  title,  apparently  Greek  or 
Latin,  of  an  imaginary  secret  society,  taking 
its  rise  at  Newport  and  other  points  in  this 
county  probably  about  fifteen  years  ago, 
whose  entertainment  consists  in  blindfolding 
the  candidate  for  initiation  and  playing  a 
variety  of  make-believe  tricks  upon  him. 


The  Presbyterians  organized  a  church  here 
many  years  ago,  ran  down  and  reorganized  in 
the  spring  of  1875,  by  Rev.  Mitchell,  of 
Clinton,  with  only  seven  members.  The 
ruling  elders  were  M.  G.  Rhoads  and  I.  B. 
Fusselman,  now  of  Danville,   Illinois.     Mr. 


Rhoads  and  his  wife  are  the  only  members 
now,  and  there  is  no  regular  preacliing.  The 
church  building,  a  frame  about  40x50  feet, 
on  Market  street  a  little  ea?t  of  the  public 
square,  was  erected  probably  about  forty 
years  ago,  soon  after  the  first  organizatiosi 
was  effected,  and  is  now  occupied  by  the 
United  Brethren.  There  has  never  been  a 
resident  pastor  at  Newport.  Among  the 
earlier  pastors  were  Rev.  J.  Hawks,  of  Ptr- 
rysville,  some  thirty  years  ago,  who  died 
about  ten  years  afterward;  Rev.  Henry  Ba- 
con, now  of  Toledo,  Ohio,  then  of  Covington, 
Indiana;  after  a  vacancy.  Rev.  Mitchell 
preached  once  a  month  for  a  part  of  a  year, 
1875-'76. 

The  Methodists  organized  a  class  at  New- 
port in  primitive  days.  In  time  they  built  a 
church.  When  this  became  old,  and  the  con- 
gregation too  large  for  it,  it  was  sold  and 
some  time  afterward  torn  down.  Tlie  pres- 
ent large  edifice  was  erected  about  1851,  ex- 
cept that  eighteen  feet  have  since  been  added. 
The  present  membership  is  175,  including  a 
few  probationers.  The  class-leaders  are  Rev. 
John  A.  Farrett,  a  local  preacher,  and  Abel 
Sexton.  Exhorter,  John  Henson.  Stewards — 
II.  H.  Conley,  C.  S.  Davis,  David  Hopkins, 
James  Hasty  and  Joshua  N.  Davis.  Sunday- 
school  all  the  year,  with  an  average  attend- 
ance of  125,  superintended  by  Abel  Sexton 
for  the  last  twenty  years.  Rev.  Ricliaid  S. 
Martin,  pastor,  occupying  the  very  fine  par- 
sonage on  East  Market  street,  built  in  1882. 
The  greatest  revivals,  or  periods  of  special 
interest,  were  under  the  ministrations  of 
Revs.  Richard  Robinson,  about  1860,  W.  A. 
Smith  and  J.  H.  Hollingsworth. 

The  United  Brethren  Church  at  Newport 
was  organized  in  1870,  by  Rev.  Samuel  Gar- 
rigus,  who  was  then  a  resident  of  Bellmore, 
Parke  County,  but  is  now  at  Crawfordsville, 
tliis  State.     The  society  at  first  comprised  but 


twelve  or  fourteen  members,  but  it  has  in- 
creased to  ninety,  principally  under  the  labors 
of  the  present  pastor,  Rev.  B.  F.  Dungan, 
within  the  last  few  months.  The  first  class- 
leader  was  C.  M.  P.arkes;  the  present  class- 
leader  is  Eettie  R.  Smith;  assistant 
class-leader,  Mrs.  Belle  Thornton.  These 
ladies  have  a  very  large  field  of  spiritual 
work,  compared  with  class-leaders  generally. 
A  lively  Sunday-school  of  about  seventy  pu- 
pils is  maintained  throughout  the  year,  super- 
intended by  Mrs.  Thornton.  The  steward  of 
the  church  at  this  point  is  Z.  P.  Thornton. 
The  society  at  present  worships  in  the  Pres- 
byterian church,  on  Market  street,  one  block 
east  of  the  public  square,  but  they  contem- 
plate building  a  house  of  worship  this  year. 
A  pleasant  house  is  rented  for  a  parsonage  in 
the  west  part  of  the  village. 

Eev.  B.  F.  Dungan,  minister  in  charge  of 
the  United  Brethren  churches  of  the  Newport 
Circuit,  Upper  "Wabash  Conference,  was  born 


in  Fountain  County,  Indiana,  in  1863.  His 
parents,  Benjamin  T.  and  Hannah  (Camp- 
bell, nee  Shoup)  Dungan,  are  both  living  in 
Parke  County.  Both  the  parents  are  natives 
of  Ohio;  father  of  Scotch,  German  and  Irish 
ancestry,  and  the  mother  of  German.  Mr. 
Dungan  was  brought  up  on  a  farm,  and  has 
always  been  an  industrious,  hard-working 
laborer,  both  with  mind  and  body.  Was  or- 
dained a  local  preacher  in  the  church  of  his 
choice  June  28,  1883,  and  since  September, 
1885,  ho  has  been  a  member  of  the  annual 
conference.  Having  a  strong  physical  foun- 
dation and  a  high  ambition,  he  is  a  ''  man  of 
destiny  "  in  its  noblest  sense.  June  13, 1883, 
he  married  Miss  Mary  Taulby,  daughter  of 
C.  Columbus  and  Eraeline  Taulby,  and  a  na- 
tive of  Boone  County,  Indiana.  Both  her 
parents  are  deceased.  Since  September,  1886, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dungan  have  been  residents  of 
Newport. 


SETTLEMENT. 


N  this  township,  more 
than  any  other  in  the 
county,  where  the  In- 
dian villages,  the  In- 
dian battlefields,  the 
first  trading  posts  and 
the  first  settlements.  While  the 
first  settler  in  the  county  was 
John  Vannest,  in  Clinton  Town- 
in  1816,  Eugene  Township 
was  more  rapidly  settled  at  the 
beginning  than  was  Clinton.  It 
was  in  Eugene  Township  that  the 
Groenendykes,  Thompsons,  Por- 
ters, Armours,  Colletts,  Hepburns, 
Colemans,  Malones,  Naylor, 
Slielbys,  etc.,  settled,  all  on  the  Big  Vermill- 
ion Kiver.  Most  of  these  have  numerous 
and  prominent  descendants.  Although  the 
first  mill  in  the  county  is  claimed  for  Clinton 
Township, — built  by  John  Beard  in  1819  or 
'20, — probably  the  first  large  and  reliable 
mill  in  the  county  was  built  by  John  Groenen- 
dyke,  about  the  same  time  or  shortly  after,  on 


the  Big  Yerniillion,  at  the  point  in  the 
nortliern  portion  of  the  village  of  Eugene 
still  occupied  by  the  largest  and  best  mill  in 
the  county. 

The  following  list  of  early  settlers  is  not 
designed  to  be  a  complete  catalogue;  it  is 
only  a  chronological  classification  of  some  of 
the  most  impoitant  arrivals,  from  the  data 
available. 

1816. — Noah  Hubbard,  with  a  wife  and  a 
large  number  of  children.  After  residing 
here  many  years  he  became  a  Mormon  and 
went  to  Missouri,  to  join  liis  people,  then  to 
Nauvoo,  Illinois,  remaining  with  them  until 
they  were  driven  away  from  there,  about 
1847,  when  he  returned  to  this  county  and 
began  preaching  the  peculiar  doctrine.  Ee- 
joining  the  Mormon  colony  at  Council  Bluft's, 
Iowa,  he  died  there.  His  wife,  Catharine, 
then  returned  to  this  section  of  the  country, 
and  finally  died  near  this  county,  in  Illinois. 
Their  daughter,  Pamelia,  married  a  man 
named  Curtis. 

1818. — Isaac  Coleman  settled   three  miles 


iSSSHSSS^ 


EUGENE    TOWNSHIP. 


south  of  Eugene,  on  the  little  prairie  since 
known  by  his  name.  Judge  J.  M.  Coleman 
came  to  the  township  a  subsequent  year,  from 
Virginia,  settling  on  section  16,  17  north,  9 
west,  and  was  long  intimately  associated  with 
the  Colletts.  He  had  helped  [to  lay  out  the 
city  of  Indianapolis,  and  also  the  town  of 
Terre  Haute,  where  he  also  built  the  old 
coTirt-house.  In  this  county  he  was  one  of 
the  first  grand  jurors  and  associate  judges. 
He  afterward  moved  to  Iowa  City,  where  he 
built  the  State  house,  died  and  was  buried. 

This  year  came  Major  James  Blair,  who 
settled  on  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  16, 
17  north,  9  west;  and  at  his  cabin  on  this 
place  was  held  the  first  court  in  the  county. 
Mr.  Blair  had  been  a  sharp-shooter  on  Lake 
Erie,  under  Commodore  Perry,  in  the  war 
of  1812,  when  he  was  detailed  to  shoot  at  the 
Indians  in  the  rigging  of  the  British  war 
vessels;  but  at  the  very  first  fire  of  Perry's 
artillery  the  Indians  were  so  frightened  that 
they  hastily  "  scuttled  "  down  into  'the  hold, 
and  there  were  no  Indians  for  Mr.  Blair  to 
do  his  duty  upon.  As  his  vessel  sailed  past 
the  British  men-of-war,  he  could  see  the 
glittering  tin  canisters  down  through  the 
muzzles  of  their  guns.  For  his  faithful  ser- 
vices, Mr.  Blair  received  a  medal  from  the 
Government.  On  one  occasion,  after  he 
became  a  resident  of  this  county,  he  was  a 
candidate  for  the  Legislature,  he  attended  a 
shooting-match,  participated,  and  aimed  so 
well  that  every  naan  present  voted  for  him  at 
the  ensuing  election!  On  still  another  occa- 
sion he  played  an  amusing  trick  upon  the 
simple-minded  pioneers  and  Indians,  in  the 
settlement  of  a  controversy  between  them. 
See  section  on  Indians. 

Blair  married  a  daughter  of  Judge  Coleman, 
resided  for  a  time  on  Coleman's  Prairie,  and 
then  moved  up  the  river  and  founded  Perrys- 
ville,  which  place  he  named  in  honor  of  his 


brave  commander.  Commodore  O.  II.  Perry, 
remaining  there  until  his  death. 

Both  Blair  ,and  Coleman  had  an  intimate 
acquaintance  with  the  Indians,  and  lived  in 
friendship  with  them  for  a  number  of  years. 
It  frequently  fell  to  theii-  lot  to  act  as  peace- 
makers between  the  Indians  and  what  were 
termed  the  "border  ruffians,"  who  were  much 
the  worse  class  of  the  two.  These  two  pio- 
neers always  spoke  in  the  highest  terms  of 
Se-Seep,  the  last  chief  who  lived  in  the 
vicinity,  who  was  said  to  be  110  years  old 
when  he  was  foully  murdered  by  a  renegade 
Indian  of  his  own  tribe.  Like  the  fading 
autumn  leaves,  the  aborigines  of  the  forest 
died  away.  The  guns  and  dogs  of  the  white 
man  frightened  away  the  game  from  their 
hunting  grounds,  or  destroyed  it,  and  the 
virtue  of  a  dire  necessity  called  upon  them  to 
emigrate,  to  make  room  for  the  ax  and  plow, 
the  cabin  and  the  school-house,  of  the  incom- 
ing white  man. 

1819. — John  Groenendyke  came  from  near 
Ovid,  Cayuga  County,  New  York,  first  to 
Terre  Haute  in  1818,  and  the  next  year  to 
this  county,  settling  on  the  Big  Vermillion 
where  Eugene  now  stands.  He  was  the  father 
of  James — who  built  the  "  Big  Vermillion," 
the  first  large  grist-mill  in  the  county  already 
referred  to — and  Samuel,  and  the  grandfather 
of  Hon.  John  Groenendyke  and  his  cousin 
Samuel,  and  also  the  grandfather  of  the  pres- 
ent Colletts.  The  name  was  originally  Van 
Groenendycke,  which  the  express  agent  at  Eu- 
gene, Samuel,  has  abbreviated  still  further  to 
Grondyke — a  word  of  two  syllables,  the  first 
syllable  being  pronounced  groan.  The  first 
family  of  this  line  came  to  America  from 
Holland  with  the  Knickerbockers  in  1617, 
settling  in  New  Amsterdam  (New  York). 

1821. — James  Armour  settled  here  soon 
after  Mr.  Groenendyke,  and  assisted  in  build- 
ing the  mill;  he  moved  to  Illinois  over  twenty 


HISTORY    OF     VEIIMILLION    COUNTY. 


years  ago.  Alexander  Arrasraitli,  born  in 
Kentucky,  in  1795,  emigrated  to  Sullivan 
County,  Indiana,  in  1818,  and  in  1821  (or 
1824  according  to  one  authority)  to  this 
county.  lie  died  at  his  residence  two  and  a 
half  miles  south  of  Eugene,  January  15, 
1875,  having  been  a  member  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  church  for  forty  years.  He  was 
the  father  of  Richard  Arrasmith,  born  in 
Sullivan  County  in  1818,  and  of  Thomas  Ar- 
rasmith, a  wagon-maker  at  Newport. 

1822.— William  Thompson,  father  of  James, 
John  and  Andrew,  and  of  Mrs.  Jane  Shelby, 
from  Pennsylvania,  settling  near  the  big  spring 
a  mile  south  of  Eugene,  since  known  by  his 
name.  Their  descendants  have  been  economi- 
cal, industrious  and  fortunate,  accumulating 
a  large  amount  ot  property.  This  year  also 
came  Benjamin  Shaw,  from  Vigo  County, 
but  originally  from  Kentucky,  and  settled 
near  Eugene,  and  afterward  on  the  Little 
Vermillion,  about  live  miles  west  of  New- 
port, where  he  died  nearly  half  a  century 
afterward.  The  widow,  nee  Elizabeth  Elli- 
ott, who  was  born  in  Shelby  County,  Ken- 
tucky, October  21,  1802,  survived  until 
November  19,  1884,  when  she  died  in  Terre 
Haute,  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church. 
After  the  death  of  her  husband  she  moved  to 
Eugene  and  lived  there  until  1879.  They 
were  the  parents  of  ten  children,  three  of 
whom  survived  their  mother,  namely,  Mrs. 
Wilson  Naylor,  Mrs.  John  Groeneudyke  and 
Robert  E.  Shaw,  who  was  born  here  in  1829; 
they  all  reside  in  Terre  Haute.  Andrew  Tip- 
ton, born  in  Kentucky  in  1800,  came  here  in 
1822,  and  remained  until  his  death,  and  J. 
W.  Tipton,  from  Ohio,  settled  on  the  Wabash 
River.  His  daughter  Polly  married  Mr. 
Johnson,  and  died  April  2,  1876,  in  the 
eighty-second  year  of  her  age,  a  member  of 
the  Cumberland  Presbyterian  church. 

1823. — Lewis  Jones  located  here  probably 


about  1823,  and  died  many  years  ago.  J.  A. 
J  ones,  born  in  1821,  was  brought  here  in 
1823. 

1824. — Jones  Lindsey,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1818,  came  here  this  year.  The  next  year 
there  arrived  Oliver  Lindsey,  born  in  the 
same  State  in  1807.  Both  are  still  living  in 
this  county.  Judge  Rezin  Shelby,  who  be- 
came very  wealthy,  died  many  years  ago. 
His  wife,  nee  Jane  Thompson,  who  came  twn 
years  previously,  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  in 
1798,  and  died  but  a  few  years  ago.  Their 
son.  Major  David  Shelby,  died  in  the  last 
war. 

1825. — The  parents  of  James  Shewanl, 
who  was  born  this  year.  Ezekiel  Sheward 
died  fifteen  or  eighteen  years  ago. 

1826.— William  Fultz,  Sr.,  born  in  Penn- 
sjdvania  in  1805,  with  his  wife  Nancy,  came 
to  Eugene  Township  either  this  year  or  in 
1828,  locating  on  Sand  Prairie.  They  had 
thirteen  children,  and  are  not  now  living. 
The  parents  of  Joseph  Holtz,  who  was  born 
in  Ohio  in  1822,  came  to  the  coxmty  this 
year.  John  Holtz,  born  in  the  same  State 
the  same  year,  settled  here  in  1834. 

1827. — Samuel  W.  Malone,  born  in  Ohio 
in  1810,  came  to  Helt  Township,  this  county, 
in  1824,  and  to  Eugene  in  1827,  where  he  is 
still  living,  running  a  hotel.  W.  M.  New- 
man, born  in  Virginia  in  1811,  still  living 
here.  Mariin  Patrick  came  some  time  prior 
to  1827.  Hiram  Patrick,  born  here  in  1829, 
is  still  here,  and  William  Patrick,  born  in 
this  county  in  1831,  lived  here  many  years 
and  went  to  Missouri.  Thomas  Patrick  is 
yet  another  old  resident.  This  year  or  pre- 
viously came  the  father  of  John  Ross,  who 
was  born  in  Ohio  in  1829,  and  brought  here 
the  same  year. 

1828. — Ignatius  Sollars,  who  died  in  June, 
1833.  Nancy,  wife  of  Truman  Sollars,  died 
September  15,  1869,  aged  fifty-seven  and  a 


EUGENE    TOWNSHIP. 


half  years.  Mrs.  Jane  Case,  widow  of  Philo 
Case,  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1809,  and 
died  here  long  ago.  Matthew  Cole,  born  in 
Ohio  in  1824,  was  brought  to  this  county  in 
1828,  as  was  also  Jesse  Smith,  from  Tennes- 
see, the  year  of  his  birth.  The  latter  died 
long  ago.  This  year  came  also  W.  L.  Nay- 
lor,  and  the  next  year  Lewis  T.  Naylor,  who 
is  living  here.  Both  were  born  in  Ohio,  W. 
L.  in  1821,  and  Lewis  T.  in  1826.  Benja- 
min Naylor,  another  old  resident,  was  born 
also  in  1826.  Jacob  lies,  who  died  many 
years  ago,  was  the  father  of  James  B.,  born 
in  1829,  and  Jacob  H.,  born  in  1833,  both  in 
this  county. 

1829.  —  John  Hepburn,  Sr.,  who  was 
born  in  Virginia  in  1800,  died  here  about 
1880.  John  Hepburn  Jr.,  was  born  in  this 
county  in  1833.  William  Hepburn  was 
born  in  Ohio  in  1823,  and  was  brought  here 
in  1829.  (The  above  name  is  pronounced  he- 
burn.)  Enoch  W.  Lane,  born  in  Ohio  in 
1798,  died  over  thirty  years  ago. 

1830. — John  Sims,  born  in  Virginia  in 
1808,  lived  a  mile  and  a  half  south  of  Eugene 
a  number  of  years  ago.  "Crate"  Sims,  his 
son,  was  born  in  Virginia  the  same  year. 
Charles  S.  Little,  from  Virginia,  located  near 
Eugene  in  1830,  aad  died  in  1852,  at  the  age 
of  sixty-three  years.  His  wife,  whose  maiden 
name  was  Kachel  Moore,  died,  seven  miles 
southwest  of  Newport,  in  1881,  aged  eighty- 
one  years.     (See  sketcli  of  Eufus  P.  Little.) 

Eev.  Enoch  Kinsbury  came  from  Massa- 
chusetts to  Eugene  about  the  year  1830,  and 
organized  the  Presbyterian  church  which  still 
survives  at  that  place.  His  wife  Fanny  G. 
taught  school  there  for  a  time.  Their  eldest 
son,  James  G.  Kingsbury,  one  of  the  editors 
and  publishers  of  the  Indiana  Farmer  at 
Indianapolis,  was  born  at  the  residence  of 
Dr.  Asa  E.  Palmer  two  miles  north  of 
Eugene,  in  1832.     The  same  year  the  family 


removed  to  Danville.  Illinois,  where  Mr. 
Kingsbury  organized  a  church  and  preached 
for  many  years.  He  also  acted  as  a  home 
missionary,  preaching  in  neighboring  counties 
both  in  Indiana  and  Illinois,  till  the  close  of 
his  life  in  1868. 

1831. — Harrison  Alderson,  who  died  in 
early  day.  His  wife  Elizabeth,  born  in  Vir- 
ginia in  1822,  has  ^also  been  long  deceased. 

1832.— Philo  and  Milo  Hosford,  twins, 
born  in  New  York  in  1811.  Milo  died  in 
January,  1880,  a  man  having  always  been 
noted  for  equauimity,humility  and  trustworth- 
iness. Was  long  in  the  employ  of  Samuel 
Grondyke.  Joseph  Wigley,  this  year  or 
previously;  now  dead.  William  was  born  in 
this  county  this  year.  Either  this  year  or 
next  came  Joseph  and  Sarah  Moore,  from 
Ohio;  the  latter  is  still  residing  here.  She 
was  born  in  Maryland  in  1803. 

1833. — Isaac  A.  Brown,  Sr.,  born  in  Tennes- 
see in  1816,  settled  "Brown  Town,"  and  is  still 
living.  Has  weighed  in  his  life-time  over  300 
pounds.  W.  F.  Shelato,  a  resident,  was  born 
in  this  county  in  1833. 

1834. — John  Eheuby,  either  this  year  or 
before,  from  Illinois,  where  he  had  settled  in 
1826.  William  , Eheuby  was  born  in  this 
county  in  1834.  J.  W.  Boyd,  who  was  born 
in  Pennsylvania  in  1828,  died  a  number  of 
years  ago. 

1837.— The  parents  of  Edward  B.  and 
Joseph  Johnson;  father  died  many  years  ago. 
Edward  B.  was  born  in  Indiana  in  1830,  and 
Joseph  in  this  county,  in  1834.  Goldman 
M.  Hart,  born  in  Tennessee  in  1809,  died  in 
1886;  widow  survives.  James  C.Tutt,born  in 
Virginia  in  1816,  now  living  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  county. 

1839. — Barney  Vandevander,  born  in  Illi- 
nois in  1827,  is  a  resident  of  Eugene. 

Other  pioneers,  whose  years  of  arrival  are 
not   given,    are:    Zeno    Worth   and   Shubael 


niSTORT    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


il 


Gardner,  from  North  ^Carolina,  who  settled 
Walnut  Grove:  Mr.  Worth  selected  lands 
which  have  been  held  by  his  family  to  the 
fourth  generation.  Alexander  Eichardson 
and  wife  Mahala  at  Eugene,  he  died  in  In- 
dianapolis in  1864  (or  '74),  and  she  March  3, 
1880,  at  the  age  of  seventy  years.  She  was 
born  in  Knox  County,  Kentucky,  and  was  but 
eight  years  of  age  when  her  parents  moved  to 
this  State,  settling  at  Bloomington.  Lewis 
HoUingsworth  was  born  in  this  county  in 
1835.  On  Coleman's  Prairie  settled  families 
by  the  name  of  Wilson,  Dicken,  Hopkins,  etc 
John  K.  Porter,  A.  M.,  circuit  judge  for 
many  years,  and  an  advanced  farmer  between 
Eugene  and  Newport,  was  born  in  Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts,  February  22,  1796,  of  an 
"old  English"  family;  graduated  at  Union 
College,  Schenectady,  New  York,  in  1815, 
taking  the  first  honors  of  his  class;  studied 
law,  and  in  1818  became  a  pa-tner  of  his  pre- 
ceptor; about  1820  he  came  to  Paoli,  Orange 
County,  Indiana,  wliere  he  was  county  clerk, 
postmaster  and  circuit  judge.  Wliile  there 
he  married  Mary  Worth.  Keceiving  from 
the  Legislature  the  appointment  as  President 
Judge  of  Western  Indiana,  he  moved  to  this 
county,  settling  in  Eugene  Township.  His 
circuit  extended  from  the  Ohio  River  to 
Lake  Michigan.  His  term  expired  in  1837. 
Here  he  was  elected  judge  of  tlie  Court  of 
Common  Pleas  for  the  counties  of  Parke  and 
Vermillion,  which  office  he  held  until  his 
death,  about  1850.  He  was  a  prominent 
statesman  in  early  day,  in  laying  the  founda- 
tion of  Indiana  Jurisprudence.  Was  a  close 
reader  of  Eastern  agricultural  papers,  and 
also  of  the  ancient  classics,  and  foreign  quar- 
terly reviews  and  magazines.  His  conversa- 
tional powers  were  accordingly  very  great, 
and  his  letters  and  contribiitions  to  the  press 
were  gems  of  eloquence.  He  was  in  cor- 
resjiondence,  more  or  less,  with  such  men  as 


General  Harrison,  Henry  Clay,  Daniel  Web- 
ster, etc.,  besides  many  Georgia  "  colonels." 
Prominent  men  of  Indiana  were  often  his 
guests.  He  was  the  leading  spirit  in  all  pub- 
lic mass  meetings  in  his  neighborhood  as- 
sembled for  deliberation  on  measures  of  public 
welfare.  AVas  president  of  the  Logansport 
convention,  which  gave  initial  direction  to 
the  construction  of  the  Wabash  Valley  Eail- 
road. 

As  an  agriculturist  he  was  scientific  and  in 
advance  of  all  his  neighbors, — so  far  indeed 
as  often  to  excite  their  ridicule.  He  led  in 
the  rearing  of  fine-wooled  sheep,  and  in  the 
cultivation  of  Switzer  lucerne,  ruta-bagas, 
sugar  beets,  moris  multicaulis,  Baden  coi-n 
and  hemp.  Although  these  rare  things  never 
were  remunerative  in  cash,  they  paid  well  in 
pleasure. 

Judge  Porter's  children  were  John  AV.,  de- 
ceased, Isaac,  Dewey  and  Abba.  Jolin  W. 
married  Henrietta,  daughter  of  Andrew 
Tipton,  a  neighbor,  and  their  family  con- 
sisted of  two  sons  and  four  daughters.  Tlie 
widow  is  still  living,  on  the  old  homestead. 
Isaac  is  a  successful  business  man  of  Dan- 
ville, Illinois.  Dewey  is  a  farmer  on  the  old 
homestead.  Abba  married  Dr.  Davidson,  of 
California,  who  afterward  returned  to  this 
coimty  and  died  on  his  farm  near  the  old 
homestead. 

MISCELLANEOUS  ITEMS. 

;^ugene  Township,  as  will  be  seen  from 
several  pages  of  this  work,  is  noted  for  an- 
tiquities. Besides  those  related  in  the  intro- 
ductory chapters  of  this  history,  we  specify 
two  or  three  more  in  this  connection,  for  want 
of  a  better  classification. 

In  1869  Prof  John  Collett  discovered  in  a 
mound  near  Eugene  a  small  coin  upon  wliicli 
was    an  untranslatable    inscription,  in  char- 


■-■-■■-^■■giCT 


'■■■■■■nMaWMgia'aS 


EUGENE    TOWNSHIP. 


acters  closely  resembling  Arabic.  The  mound 
was  covered  with  full-grown  forest  trees. 

Early  settlers  near  Eugene  found  an  ax 
growing  in  the  heart  of  an  oak  witli  125 
rings  of  growth  outside  of  it,  thus  indicating 
that  the  implement  was  left  there  as  early  as 
1712,  probably  by  a  French  missionary. 
While  it  is  generally  understood,  and  is  gen- 
erally true,  that  a  ring  of  wood  growth  indi- 
cates a  year's  time,  the  question  has  recently 
been  mooted  by  botanists  whether  it  is  always 
exactly  true,  as  some  of  them  seem  to  have 
evidence  that  there  is  variation  both  ways, — ■ 
that  it^,  that  some  unfavorable  seasons  pro- 
duce no  distinct  ring,  while  other  and  more 
favorable  years  sometimes  produce  two  rings. 
Different  kinds  of  trees,  different  stages  of 
development  and  different  situations  also  pro- 
duce variatit)ns. 

In  zoology,  the  following  incident  illus- 
trates a  rare  trait  of  aninral  nature:  One 
evening  about  sundown,  in  April,  18G8,  as 
<'Eel"  Vickers,  who  lived  about  four  miles 
northwest  of  Eugene,  was  returning  home 
from  a  house-raising,  he  was  suddenly  alarmed 
by  the  scream  of  a  lynx,  which  he  soon  dis- 
covered was  in  pursuit  of  him.  Being  un- 
armed, he  dared  not  give  battle,  and  began 
to  run  homeward  with  all  his  might.  Of 
course  the  beast  could  easily  enough  have 
overtaken  Vickers  at  a  bound  or  two,  when- 
ever it  desired,  but  such  is  feline  nature  that 
it  occasionally  rested  a  moment  and  screamed 
most  territically.  When  Vickers  approached 
his  house  the  animal  jumped  around  in  trout 
of  him,  to  intercept  his  passage  to  the  house; 
but  at  this  critical  moment  the  dogs  arrived 
and  chased  it  away.  Its  previoiis  yelling  had 
alarmed  them  and  brought  them  out  just  in 
time,  but  with  not  a  second  to  lose  ! 

November  7,  1874,  George  Barbour,  a 
cooper  from  Browntowu,  went  to  Eugene, 
with  five  or  six  other  hands,  and  he,  with  two 


or  three  others,  became  very  drunk.  On 
their  way  home  Barbour  was  murdered,  in 
this  township,  and  his  body  so  concealed  that 
it  was  not  found  until  January  18  following, 
when  a  man  named  Smith  was  passing  along 
the  road  and  chanced  to  notice  a  dog  at  some 
distance, devouring  a  suspicious-looking  mass! 
The  victim  was  a  man  about  twenty-four  years 
of  age.  In  his  pockets  were  found  several 
photographs,  two  or  three  letters,  and  a  re- 
ceijjt  from  the  Coopers'  Union,  of  Terre 
Haute,  for  quarterly  dues  as  a  member  of 
that  organization. 

EUGENE. 

This  village  was  laid  out  by  S.  S.  Collett, 

in  1827,  about  the  "Big  Vermillion"  mill  of 

James  Groenendyke,  on  a  most  eligible  site. 

Samuel  W.  Malone,  the  present  hotel-keeper, 


who  located  here  in  1827,  is  the  oldest  liv 


mg 


resident,  and  is  still  an  active  man.  James 
F.  Naylor,  fatiier  of  William  L.,  came  the 
next  year. 

As  previously  remarked,  Eugene  is  another 
example  of  those  niimerous  towns  that  were 
killed  by  the  railroad  passing  just  at  killing 
distance;  but  it  is  a  beautiful  place  for  a 
quiet  residence.  The  present  population  is 
estimated  at  about  500.  Two  or  three  con- 
spiciious  features  strike  the  stranger  who 
visits  the  place.  One  is,  a  most  magnificent 
row  of  sugar-maple  shade  trees  for  a  distance 
of  two  squares  on  the  west  side  of  the  main 
business  street.  Each  tree,  with  a  perfectly 
symmetrical  head,  covers  an  area  of  forty  feet 
in  diameter.  In  the  western  part  of  the 
village  is  the  most  beautiful,  perfect,  large 
white  elm  the  writer  ever  saw. 

The  ground  upon  which  Eugene  is  situated 
is  just  sandy  enough  to  be  good  for  garden- 
ing, and  at  the  same  time  prevent  being 
muddy  in  rainy  seasons.  Wells  are  sunk 
only  eighteen  or  twenty  feet  to  find  the  purest 


r 


284 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNT  t. 


water,  in  a  bed  of  gravel.  Several  large 
springs  are  in  the  vicinity.  The  river  here, 
especially  below  the  mill-dam,  aft'ords  the 
best  fishing  of  all  points  probably  within  a 
radius  of  iifty  miles  or  more.  Fish  weighing 
sixty  pounds  or  more  are  sometimes  caught, 
and  German  carp,  one  of  the  planted  tish, 
weighing  eight  pounds,  are  occasionally  cap- 
tured. 

The  country  here  is  all  underlaid  with 
coal.  There  is  one  vein  of  nine  feet,  with 
only  a  seam  of  ten  or  twelve  inches  di- 
viding it. 

Among  the  modern  enterprises  of  Eugene 
is  the  organization  of  the  Joint  Stock  Fair 
Association,  who  held  their  iirst  fair  last  fall, 
beginning  September  28,  1886.  James  Ma- 
lone,  President;  H.  D.  Sprague,  Vice-Presi- 
dent; John  S.  Grondyke,  Secretary;  M. 
G.  Ilosford,  Assistant  Secretary;  II.  O. 
Peters,  Treasurer;  J.  E.  Whij^ple,  Assistant 
Treasurer;  J.  E.  Bennett,  Superintendent; 
G.  L.  Watson,  Assistant  Superintendent. 
Directors — -J.  II.  lies,  Samuel  Grondyke,  N. 
Vl.  Tutt,  Eli  ]\IcI)aniel,  Dr.  E.  A.  Flaugher, 
Fred  Iliberly,  William  Collett,  Henry  Dicka- 
5on,  Milton  Wi-ight,  John  Lane  and  James 
Arrasmith, — a  formidable  list  of  the  best 
names  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county. 
Their  exhibition  last  fiill  was  greatly  cur- 
tailed by  rainy  weather. 

On  the  bank  of  the  river  here  was  erected 
Ijy  James  Groenendyke,  some  time  previous 
to  1824,  a  water,  saw  and  grist-mill,  which, 
with  its  successors,  has  enjoyed  the  greatest 
notoriety  of  all  in  the  county.  While  Mr. 
Coleman  owned  it  many  years  ago,  the  dam 
was  washed  away,  and  the  present  mill, 
erected  in  1885,  is  the  third  building  on  the 
site,  two  others  having  been  burned  down. 
It  is  a  large  roller  mill,  owned  and  managed 
l>y  Samuel  Bowers,  recently  from  Danville, 
Illinois. 


There  is  no  newspaper  at  Eugene.  The 
Eugene  News  Letter  was  started  by  Dr.  B. 
M.  Waterman  at  Eugene  in  1837,  the  first 
newspaper  in  Vermillion  County.  It  lived 
but  six  months.  Eobert  B.  Dickason,  now  of 
Perrysi'ille,  was  a  compositor  in  the  office. 
Thus  Eugene  Township  has  been  the  seat  ot 
the  first  and  of  the  last  newspapers  of  tl- 
county. 


or  Eugene  Station,  is  the  name  of  the  depot 
at  the  railroad  crossing  a  mile  and  a  quarter 
southeast  of  Eugene.  An  ambitious  little 
village  is  springing  up  about  the  station.  A 
fine  grist-mill,  several  stores,  a  newspaper, 
etc.,  are  in  full  blast.  The  place  was  at  first 
called  Osonimon,  after  an  Indian  chief  of  that 
name. 

The  "Cayuga  Mills"  were  built  in  1885 
by  the  Cayuga  Milling  Company,  consisting 
of  Samuel  K.  Todd,  Monroe  G.  Ilosford  and 
Eli  H.  McDanieL  It  is  a  frame  building, 
36  X  42  feet,  four  stories  high,  and  has  the 
full  roller  process,  with  a  capacity  of  100 
barrels  a  daj'.  The  engine  is  the  Ide  auto- 
matic, sixty-four-horsepower.  All  the  modern 
improved  processes  for  purifying  the  wheat 
and  manufacturing  first-class  flour  are  placed 
in  the  mill,  including  the  recently  invented 
Case's  automatic  wheat  weigher.  Mr.  Todd 
is  the  experienced  miller  who  runs  the  works. 
The  mill  was  built  in  a  wheat-field,  and  was 
the  first  at  the  station. 

May  14,  1887,  is  the  date  of  the  first  issue 
of  the  Cayuga  Journal,  by  James  E.  Whipple. 
It  is  a  six-column  folio,  "independent  in  all 
things  and  neutral  in  nothing."  The  pro- 
prietor and  editor  was  born  at  Vinton,  Iowa, 
September  8,  1857,  the  son  of  Lucien  \\. 
Whipple,  who  has  been  a  resident  of  Eugene 
from  1840  to  the  present,  except  a  few  years 
in    loM-a.     Mr.  Whipple  was  brought  up  in 


EUGENE    TOVtNSUIP. 


Eugene,  where  lie  was  bookkeeper  for  Mr_ 
Peters  a  few  years,  and  was  also  insurance 
agent.  He  has  been  justice  of  the  peace,  and 
is  now  deputy  prosecuting  attorney,  and 
secretary  of  the  Cayuga  Building  and  Loan 
Association.  He  married  Ellen  Thompson, 
daughter  of  John  Thompson,  deceased.  They 
have  one  child,  named  Blaine. 

Among  the  physicians  of  Eugene  we  may 
mention  Dr.  K.  M.  Waterman,  who  came 
here  previous  to  1837  and  lived  here  until  his 
death,  aboiit  1867  or  '68,  except  a  short  time 
at  Lodi,  Indiana,  whence  he  entered  the 
army.  Pie  was  a  "  regular  "  physician,  from 
lihode  Island,  and  started  the  iirst  newspaper 
in  Vermillion  County,  as  elsewhere  noticed. 
Dr.  James  McMeen  practiced  here  many 
years,  and  in  1886  removed  to  Danville, 
Illinois.  Dr.  "William  C.  Eichelberger  is 
another  physician  of  Eugene. 

Previous  to  1871  the  village  of  Eugene 
had  but  three  and  a  half  months'  school  per 
annum,  the  only  fund  for  maintaining  it 
l>eing  that  which  was  drawn  from  the  State, 
and  the  school-house  was  an  incompetent 
frame.  In  1872-'73,  Anthony  Fable,  the 
trustee,  levied  the  first  tax  for  the  support  of 
schools,  and  also  for  the  erection  of  a  brick 
school-house  worthy  of  the  place.  He  met 
with  sonic  opposition,  a  few  individuals  think- 
ing he  transcended  his  authority.  They 
obtained  an  injunction  restraining  the  collec- 
tion of  the  tax,  but,  through  the  intervention 
(if  Messrs.  Jump  &  Eggleston,  attorneys  at 
Newport,  the  injunction  was  dissolved,  and 
tlie  work  went  on.  The  people  also  were 
generally  convinced  that  if  a  new  school-house 
were  not  built  then  it  would  be  many  years 
before  one  would  be  built.  Accordingly  the 
structure  was  completed  in  1873,  at  a  cost  of 
$f],000.  It  has  four  rooms;  the  school  is 
graded,  and  kept  six  months  in  the  year;  and 
everything    now    seems    to    be     p: 


smoothly.  James  Malone  is  the  present 
trustee.  Mr.  Fable  was  trustee  1869-'81, 
and  for  a  time  sustained  school  nine  months 
to  the  year. 

SOCIETIES. 

A  Masonic  lodge  was  organized  at  Eugene 
in  1847,  with  forty-six  or  forty-seven  mem- 
bers. Among  the  first  officers  were  C.  M. 
Comages,  Worshipful  Master;  Harvey  Skel- 
ton.  Senior  Warden;  Dr.  E.  M.  Waterman, 
Junior  Deacon;  George  Sears,  Secretary; 
Anthony  Fable,  Treasurer;  Mr.  Elsley,  Tyler. 
Mr.  Fable  is  the  only  one  of  the  original 
official  board  who  is  now  living.  The  mem- 
bership in  the  course  of  time  reached  sixty  in 
number,  comprising  men  from  almost  all 
parts  of  the  county.  The  lodge,  however, 
ran  down  about  thirty  years  ago,  as  other 
lodges  were  organized  at  neighboring  points 
and  drew  away  the  membership.  Newport, 
Lodi  and  Perrysville  obtained  their  nuclei 
from  the  Eugene  lodge.  Harvey  Skelton 
was  the  last  master. 

Setting  Sun  Lodge,  No.  583,  I.  0.  0.  F., 
was  organized  April  27, 1881,  with  seventeen 
members,  and  the  following  officers:  Will- 
iam II.  Hood,  Noble  Grand;  E.  B.  Johnson, 
Vice  Grand;  H.  O.  Peters,  Treasurer;  D.  W. 
Bell,  Secretary.  The  present  membership  is 
twenty-seven,  and  the  officers  are:  D.  L.  Pe- 
ters, Noble  Grand;  James  Thomas,  Vice- 
Grand;  J.  T.  Iliggins,  Secretary;  D.  W. 
Bell,  Treasurer. 

Eugene  Post,  No.  2'B,  G.  A.  R.,  was  or- 
ganized in  1876,  with  about  twenty-two 
members,  afterward  increased  to  thirty-five, 
but  now  there  are  only  ten.  The  first  officers 
were:  William  C.  Eichelberger,  Post  Com- 
mander; E.  B.  Johnson,  Senior  Vice-Com- 
mander; Thomas  Thompson,  Junior  Vice- 
Commander;  William  Johnson,  Adjutant; 
L.  R.  Whipple,  Officer  of  the  Day;  John  C. 


BISTORT    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


Si 


Pierce,  Cliaplain,  and    Yan  Bureii  Armour, 

.     Present  officers:     R.  M.  Stnrms,  Post 

Commander;  E.  B.  Johnson,  Vice-Com- 
mander; L.  R.  Whipple,  Adjutant;  William 
J.  Ladd,  Officer  of  the  Day;  William  Morris, 
Officer  of  the  Guard ;  Homer  Lunger,  Chap- 
lain; Thomas  Patrick,  Quartermaster;  David 
Cummins,  Surgeon. 

The  Sons  of  Veterans  once  organized  here 
and  held  a  few  meetings. 

E%i<jene  Council,  No.  J/.,  Sovereigns  of  In- 
dustry, was  organized  in  August,  1874,  but 
surrendered  its  charter  a  few  months  after- 
ward. It  had  some  thirty-five  inembers. 
John  Grondyke  was  President,  Joseph  Mc- 
Clellan,  Vice-President,  and  Jesse  Wallace, 
Secretary.  The  work  of  the  society  was 
mainly  of  an  intellectual  and  social  nature. 

Eugene  Lodge,  No.  351,  I.  0.  G.  T.,  was 
organized  January  24,  1873,  and  ran  until 
about  1884,  since  which  time  meetings  have 
been  suspended.  At  one  time  it  had  as 
many  as  seventy  members.  W.  II.  Hood 
was  the  last  elected  cliief,  and  II.  H.  Ilosford, 
lodge  deputy.  Tiie  Good  Templars  had  or- 
ganized once  or  twice  previously,  and  "ran 
down." 

The  "red-ribbon"  movement  was  intro- 
duced here  by  Tyler  Mason,  and  the  "blue- 
ribbon"  organization  by  George  McDonald. 
Samuel  Chambers,  known  as  "Silvertop,"  a 
tamous  temperance  organizer,  reorganized  the 
blue-ribbon  society,  and  James  Dunn,  an 
old-time  rouser,  reorganized  it  again.  In 
February,  1886,  a  total  abstinence  society, 
compose'd  mainly  of  reformed  drunkards, 
was  organized,  with  Captain  W.  S.  Jewell  as 
President;  L.  R.  Whipple,  Vice-President; 
J.  E.  Whipple,  Secretary;  Ben  Lang,  Treas- 
urer, and  David  Iliggins,  Sergeant-at-Arms. 
From  some  cause,  but  no  reason,  the  society 
was  dubbed  the  "Reformed  Roosters." 

The  "woman's  crusade"  never  struck  Eu- 


gene, but  a  Woman's  Christian  Temperance 
Union  was  established  here,  of  which  Mrs. 
AVhitlock  was  president.  The  organization 
was  effected  by  Mrs.  Dr.  Spotswood  and 
Mrs.  Johnson,  of  Perrysville,  but  it  was 
suffered  to  go  down. 

There  is  no  living  temperance  organization 
now  in  Eugene. 

THE    CHURCUKS. 

The  Eugene  Preshyterian  Church  was  first 
organized  in  1826,  when  the  first  meetings 
were  held  at  the  house  of  William  Thomp- 
son, a  log  cabin  a  little  west  of  the  depot,  on 
the  Big  Vermillion.  The  name  at  first  was 
the  "River  and  County  Vermillion  Ciiurch," 
and  comprised,  April  29,  1826,  Asa  Palmer, 
William  Thompson,  William  Wilson,  Ann 
Wilson,  William  Armour,  Ruhama  Armour, 
Eliza  Rodman,  Hannah  Laughlin,  Margaret 
Caldwell,  Mary  West,  Mavy  Thompson,  Lucy 
Thompson  (who  afterward  became  the  wife 
of  Samuel  Grondyke,  Sr.),  and  Susan 
Wilson. 

The  first  minister  was  Rev.  James  Hum- 
mer, and  other  ministers  who  have  since 
served  have  been  Revs.  Baklridge,  Kings- 
berry,  Cozad,  Conklin,  C.  K.  Thompson, 
Venable,  Crosby,  Henry  ]\[.  Bacon  and  W. 
Y.  Allen,  of  Rockville.  During  Rev.  Ba- 
con's time,  1856-'59,  the  church  grew  to  tlie 
number  of  forty  communicants,  but  from 
that  time  to  1866  they  were  withoTit  a  regu- 
lar supply.  In  1867  Rev.  Allen  began 
preaching  for  tliem  once  a  month,  and  the 
church  has  sustained  services  until  the  pres- 
ent date.  The  present  pastor  is  Rev.  T.  D. 
Fyfte,  of  Roseville,  who  preaches  here  every 
four  weeks.  The  ruling  elders  have  been 
Asa  Palmer,  William  T.  Kelly,  David  Wills, 
James  Steele,  Robert  Kelly,  A.  J.  Richard- 
son, R.  II.  Ellis  and    Anthony  Fable.     Mr. 


EUOENE    TOWNSHIP. 


Fable  is  the  only  incumbent  of  tliat  office  at 
present. 

Tlie  present  ineuibersliip  is  about  tifty. 
Sunday-school  is  maintained  all  the  year, 
with  George  L.  Watson  as  superintendent. 

The  second  place  of  meeting  was  a  brick 
dwelling,  and  the  third  is  the  present  neat 
frame  church,  36  x  60  feet,  erected  in  1859, 
in  partnership  with  the  Methodists,  at  a  cost 
of  $3,000,  and  economically  built.  It  is 
located  centrally  in  the  village  of  Eugene. 

The  Ifount  Olivet  Cumherland  Preshy- 
tcrian  Church  is  three  and  a  lialf  miles 
southwest  of  Eugene. 

Of  the  Ilefhodist   Episcopal    Church    at 


Eugene  we  cannot  give  so  complete  a  history, 
on  account  of  its  more  changeful  nature,  the 
old  records  not  being  kept  and  the  old  mem- 
bers dead  or  moved  away.  Of  course  the 
Methodists  were  early  organized  at  this  point, 
as  they  generally  are  on  the  frontier.  The 
members  number  about  fifty:  twenty-seven 
joined  last  winter.  At  this  writing  (June, 
1887),  there  are  no  class-leaders:  the  steward 
is  E.  McClellan.  The  society  worships  in 
the  church  which  it  built  in  union  with  the 
Presbyterians,  just  described. 

At  Cayuga  the  Methodists  are  about 
to  build  a  church,  although  they  are  not  yet 
organized  at  that  point. 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


HIGHLAND  TOWNSHIP,    i  m 


^'^s^g/''  '^'^"^''^"'^^'"'^^^^'^  -^^'S^'^ 


jIIE  time  of  arrival  or 
Ijirtli  in  this  comity  of 
tlie  pioneers  is  indicated 
by  the  years  at  the  liead 
of  the  respective  para- 
graplis. 
1822.  — G.  S.  Hansicker, 
born  in  Virginia  in  1792,  died 
iboiit  ten  or  twelve  years  ago. 
son,  H.  C,  was  born  in 
this  county  in  1832.  George 
Ilicks,  a  soldier  of  the  "  Revo- 
lutionary war"  (one  says),  was 
a  pioneer  here;  but  possibly 
lis  is  a  mistake  for  George 
W.  Ilicks,  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1795, 
and  died  in  1878.  His  wife,  nee  Mary  Cur- 
tis, was  born  in  1803  and  died  in  1868. 
Jacob  Ilain,  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1799,  is 
dead;  his  wife  is  still  living. 

1823. — David  Goif.  born   in    Connecticut 


in  1799,  remained  a  resident  here  until  his 
death,  September  7,  1881.  His  brother  Al- 
mond died  here  about  twenty  years  ago,  and 
his  brother  Brainard  moved  to  La  Porto 
County,  this  State,  where  he  died.  His  son 
Philander,  born  in  1834,  in  this  township,  is 
still  a  resident.  Lemon  Chenowith,  who  is 
still  living  near  Perrysville. 

1824. — John  Chenowith,  settling  on  the 
Waba-h,  died  in  1857.  Lie  was  the  father 
of  Lemon,  just  referred  to,  and  also  of  Hiram, 
an  older  son.  Thomas  Chenowith  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of 
1850,  and  Isaac  Chenowith  was  State  Senator 
lS44-'45.  Isaac  was  born  in  Kentucky,  in 
1794,  arrived  here  in  March,  1825,  and  died 
in  April,  1856.  William  Chenowith,  born 
in  Ohio  in  1823,  was  brought  here  in  1832, 
and  is  still  a  resident  here.  Solomon  M. 
Jones,  born  in  East  Tennessee,  April  3,1812, 
died  March  15,  1887,  leaving  a  family  of  ten 


atOHLAND    TOWNSHIP. 


children.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  Black 
ilawk  war.  John  N.  Jones,  Sr.,  was  horn 
Septemher  10,  1809,  came  here  in  18 — ,  was 
a  partner  of  J.  F.  Smith  in  milling  and  mer- 
chandising for  many  years,  and  died  June  25, 
1874.  YV^illiam  Skinner,  from  Ohio,  came 
this  year  or  previously,  and  died  a  few  years 
afterward.  His  son  Norman  was  born  in 
Ohio  in  1816,  and  died  about  six  years  ago, 
and  his  son  Henry  was  born  in  this  county  in 
1825,  and  is  still  a  resident.  Thomas  "Wright, 
who  is  said  to  have  brought  the  first  hogs 
into  Yermillion  County.  One  of  his  oxen 
dying,  he  cailtivated  his  first  crop  of  corn 
with  a  single  ox.  Milton  Wright,  born  here 
in  1832,  is  living  in  this  township,  and 
Stephen  Wright  is  dead.  Both  these  were 
sons  of  Thomas. 

1825. — John  Fnltz,  above  Perrysville,  died 
many  years  ago.  His  sons  wei-e  John,  An- 
drew and  William  V.,  all  deceased.  Allen 
Rodgers,  from  New  HamjDshire,  died  in  Iowa 
or  Wisconsin  many  years  ago.  J.  M.  Eodg- 
ers,  his  son,  born  in  New  Hampshire  in  1815, 
died  in  the  spring  of  1887. 

1826. — James  Blair,  who  had  settled  before 
this  in  Eugene  Township,  under  which  head 
see  a  sketch  of  him.  He  died  at  Perrysville, 
May  11,  1861,  aged  seventy-nine  years,  and 
Sarah  C,  his  wife,  October  16,  1872,  at  the 
age  of  seventy-three  years.  Robert  I).  Mof- 
fatt,  born  in  New  Jersey  in  1812,  for  many 
years  a  merchant  at  Perrysville,  at  which 
place  he  still  resides,  retired  since  1874. 
David  Beauchamp,  in  range  10,  had  a  large 
family,  and  died  about  1870-'75.  John  W. 
Beauchamp,  born  in  Ohio  in  1821;  Andrew, 
his  brother,  born  in  1828,  in  this  county,  is 
living  in  Illinois.  Hiram  Shaw,  born  in  Ohio 
in  1805;  E.  G.  Shaw,  born  in  this  county  in 
1830,  an  old  resident. 

1827. — Benjamin  Whittenmyer,  born  in 
Pennsylvania  in    1799,  died   in  1879.     His 


son  Henry  is  a  resident.  Parents  of  Harvey 
Hunt,  who  was  born  in  this  State  in  1820 
and  is  a  citizen  here  still.  William  Flesh- 
man,  deceased:  his  son  Amos,  still  livino- 
here,  was  born  in  Indiana  in  1822. 

1828. — Jonas  Metzger,  a  soldier  of  the 
war  of  1812,  from  Ohio,  died  February  9, 
1872,  aged  seventy-eight  years.  He  settled 
first  in  Eugene  Township,  and  in  Highland 
Township  in  1833.  Constantine  Hughs, 
from  Virginia,  deceased;  his  son  Ehud,  born 
in  that  State  in  1817,  is  still  living  here,  as 
is  also  Calvin,  born  in  the  same  State  in 
1826.  Israel,  William  and  John  Hughes 
were  pioneers  on  Coal  Branch. 

1829. — AVilliam  Nicholas,  born  in  Virginia 
in  1809,  still  living  liere.  Moses,  Daniel 
and  Charles  Bowman,  from  Virginia.  Daniel 
remained  here  until  his  death,  and  Charles 
died  in  the  West.  J.  S.  Stutler,  born  in 
Ohio  in  1820,  now  deceased.  Ezekiel  San- 
ders, born  in  Virginia  in  1827,  died  July  10, 
1875.  He  first  settled  in  Eugene  or  Ver- 
million Township,  it  is  said. 

1830.— Richard  Sliute,  father  of  Daniel, 
John,  Epraim,  etc.  Elisha  N.  Reynolds,  born 
in  Maryland  in  1804,  died  some  years  ago. 
G.  H.  Reynolds,  born  in  1835,  is  a  resident 
here.  John  Tate,  born  in  Ohio  in  1807,  still 
living  here.  Thomas  J.  Mitchell,  born  in 
Ohio  in  1808,  living  in  Perrysville.  James 
A.  Prather,  born  in  Xentucky  in  1814,  died 
here  within  the  last  two  years.  Joseph 
Briner,  now  living  in  Perrysville. 

1831. — Herbert  Ferguson,  born  in  Virginia 
September  15,  1799,  died  January  26,  1877; 
Elizabeth  B.,  his  wife,  was  born  January  17, 
1813,  and  died  May  27,  1884.  William  T., 
born  in  1832,  is  their  son.  Ephraim  Betzer, 
from  Ohio,  came  previous  to  1831.  Jacob 
Betzer,  born  in  Ohio  in  1805,  died  four  or 
five  years  ago.     Aaron  Betzer  went  West. 

1832. — Captain  Andrew  Dennis,  a  boatman, 


born  in  New  Jersey  in  1801,  died  in  Danville 
a  few  years  ago.  John  Hoobler,  a  United 
Brethren  minister,  born  in  Pennsylvania  in 
1801,  died  in  Illinois.  William  Trosper, 
born  in  Kentncky  in  1808,  died  in  this  town- 
ship December  9,  1886.  Nehemiah  Cossey, 
from  Maryland,  first  to  Parke  County  and  in 
1832  to  this  county;  died  long  ago.  His  son 
Peter,  born  in  that  State  in  1812,  is  also 
deceased.  Fielding  Pabourn,  born  in  Ken- 
tucky in  1815,  died  here  a  few  years  ago. 
"William  H.  Carithers  from  Ohio,  long  since 
deceased,  was  the  father  of  Jonathan,  Frank 
and  Henry,  all  of  whom  are  living.  William 
Callihan,  a  potter  by  trade,  from  Ohio,  moved 
on  to  Danville;  was  father  of  Emanuel  and 
Simeon.  M.  B.  Carter,  present  county 
recorder,  was  born  in  this  county  in  1832. 

1833.— J.  F.,  Will  P.,  Thomas  H.,  G.  H. 
and  David  Smith,  from  Virginia,  born  1812 
-'20.  G.  H.  died  in  1879;  the  rest  are  still 
living  here.  Thomas  Gouty,  this  year  or 
previously,  died  Jane  10,  1863,  aged  sixty- 
one  years.  Elias,  his  son,  was  born  here  in 
1833.  Henry  Gouty  may  have  settled  in 
this  township  a  year  or  two  later;  he  died  in 
1864,  and  his  wife  Rebecca  died  in  1874,  at 
the  age  of  seven ty-tive  years.  David  Gouty 
is  their  son.  John  S.  Kirkpatrick,  a  miller, 
born  in  Kentucky  in  1812,  lived  at  Gessie 
awhile,  and  moved  to  Danville,  Illinois,  where 
he  died.  Norman  Cade,  died  soon  after 
arrival.  His  son  David  has  left  the  county, 
and  Henry  still  lives  here.  Jacob  Givens, 
born  in  Virginia  in  1815,  died  here.  James 
Hanson,  father  of  Smith  Hanson. 

1834. — Jacob  Rudy,  born  in  Switzerland 
in  1818,  died  M'ithin  a  few  years.  Martin 
Rudy,  his  father,  died  some  years  ago.  James 
Rndy  is  still  a  resident.  Peter  Switzer, 
deceased.  His  son  Wesley,  boi'n  in  Ohio  in 
1821,  is  living. 

1835.— Thomas  Moore,  who  died  in  1843; 


was  the  father  of  Joseph  and  Washington. 
T.  H.  Harrison,  born  in  Virginia  in  1810, 
still  living  in  this  township. 

1836.— John  R.  and  George  H.  McNeill, 
from  Maryland,  the  former  born  in  1811  and 
the  latter  in  1818.  Lewis  and  John  Butler, 
from  Ohio,  the  former  born  in  1813  and  the 
latter  in  1816;  Lewis  is  deceased  and  John  is 
living  in  Vermillion  Township.  Elijah 
Roseberry,  who  died  May  25,  1857,  aged 
fifty-one  and  a  half  years,  and  Catharine,  his 
wife,  who  died  August  5,  1879,  at  the  age  of 
sixty-nine  and  a  half  years.  Thomas  Cush- 
man,  born  in  New  York  in  1814,  now  a 
resident  of  Newport.     Has  been  auditor. 

1837. — James  J.  Lewis,  born  in  Maryland 
in  1805;  still  living  here.  His  son  J.  A., 
born  in  this  State  in  1835,  died  several  yeais 
ago;  Joshua,  another  son,  lives  at  Cayuga; 
and  Meredith  resides  in  this  township.  Robert 
J.  Gessie,  born  in  Cumberland  County,  Penn- 
sylvania, in  1809,  is  still  a  resident  here  (see 
sketch).  Elhanau  Stevens,  born  in  Maryland 
in  1816,  is  a  resident.  Price  Cliezem,  long 
since  deceased.  Charles  Chezem,  born  in 
Indiana  in  1827  has  been  long  a  resident. 

1838.— Walter  B.  Moffatt  born  in  this 
State  October  4,  1822,  died  August  14,  1882. 
Horatio  Talbert,  long  since  deceased ;  his  son 
Henry,  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1816,  died  a 
few  years  ago.  Samuel  Harris,  born  in 
Virginia  in  1819,  moved  to  another  section 
of  the  country. 

1839. — John  Dunlap,  deceased,  born  in 
Ireland  in  1809.  Samuel  Swingley  and 
Samuel  Watt,  from  Ohio. 

The  following  names  we  have,  without  the 
date  of  settlement  being  given : 

John  N.  Jones,  long  associated  with  J.  F. 
Smith  in  the  milling  and  mercantile  busi- 
ness; Joseph  Cheadle,  father  of  Joseph  B., 
present  member  of  Congress,  was  born  May 
9,  1789,  in    one  of  the  Eastern  States,  and 


HIGHLAND    TOWNSHIP. 


died  in  this  township  June  19, 1863;  William 
B.  Palmer,  who  died  eight  or  ten  years  ago; 
William  Ilutsonpiller,  carpenter  at  Perrys- 
ville  who  died  many  years  ago;  Daniel 
Mossbei-ger,  who  also  died  many  years  ago; 
Joseph  and  Elizabeth  Howard,  deceased; 
John  McFall;  Archibald  Billing,  who  died 
April    16,    1870,    at    the    age    of    lifty-two 


years;  his  father  died  here,  previous  to  1833. 
Mr.  Thomas  II.  Smith  remarks  that  there 
are  but  three  persons  now  keeping  house  in 
Highland  Township  who  were  in  tliat  rela- 
tion in  1833,  when  he  came  here,  namely, 
Mrs.  Chestie  Ilain,  Adaline  V.  Jones  and 
Mrs.  Glover. 


!• 


1 


ERRYSVILLE  was  laid 
out  in  1826,  by  James 
Blair,  on  a  beautiful 
elevation  on  the  bank  of 
the  "Wabash  Eiver,  and 
named  by  him  in  hon- 
'"'^  or  of  his  commander 
on  Lake  Erie  during  the  war  of 
1812,  Commodore  O.  H.  Perry. 
For  a  long  time  it  was  the  most 
populous  town  in  the  county,  and 
was  an  entrepot  for  a  large  section 
of  country  to  the  north,  west  ajid 
south  of  it.  In  commercial  im- 
portance it  was  for  a  number  of 
years  far  ahead  even  of  Danville, 
Illinois,  a  supremacy  which  was  held  until 
the  present  system  of  railroads  was  projected. 
Since  then  it  has  been  a  dead  town,  so  dead 
that  its  very  quietness  is  striking.  Even  the 
voice  of  children  on  summer  evenings,  so 
common  in  villages  elsewhere  is  scarcely  to 
be  heard  at  their  rollicking  plays,  and  the 
passing  days  are  "  one  eternal  Sabbath." 
Grass  and  weeds  have  overgrown  the  streets, 


and  the  lovely  shade-trees  continue  to  do 
their  sweetest  duty. 

Among  the  early  business  men  here  per- 
haps J.  F.  Smith,  T.  II.  Smith,  J.  N.  Jones 
and  Robert  D.  Moli'att  have  been  the  most 
conspicuous.  The  old  warehouses  and  grist- 
mill still  used  to  some  extent  on  the  bank  of 
the  river,  were  built  and  run  for  many  years 
by  Smith  &  Jones,  and  are  yet  owned  by  the 
senior  partner,  J.  F.  Smith,  Mr.  Jones  having 
died.  The  latter  also  built  another  grist-mill 
at  the  wharf,  ■which  was  burnt  down.  March 
31,  1884,  occurred  perhaps  the  gi-eatest  fire 
that  ever  visited  Perrysville,  which  entirely 
consumed  the  three  principal  business  houses, 
fine  brick  structures,  two  stories  high  besides 
basement,  the  property  of  the  Smith  Brothers. 
The  origin  of  the  fire  was  from  the  roof  of  an 
adjoining  building.  By  this  tire  the  Masonic 
hall,  with  its  records  and  paraphernalia,  was 
destroyed. 

The  Perrysville  Woolen  Mill  was  erected 
in  the  western  part  of  town  a  ycai-  or  two 
after  the  war,  by  Riggs,  Head  &  Co.,  who 
furnished  the  machinery  mainly  from  Coving- 


H 


PEBRTSVILLE. 


ton,  Indiana,  where  tliey  had  previously  been 
running  a  similar  factory.  The  Perrysville 
institution  was  run  until  1881,  with  only 
partial  success.  During  the  latter  year,  after 
the  mill  had  been  standing  idle  a  few  montlis, 
Jj.  O.  Carpenter  purchased  the  building  and 
power,  and  converted  it  into  a  flonring-mill, 
of  two  run  of  buhrs  and  a  capacity  of  about 
seventy  or  eighty  barrels  of  flour  per  day  of 
twenty-four  hours. 

H.  S.  Comingore  &  Son's  "  Perrysville 
Stove  AVorks,"  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
village,  is  a  modern,  neat  establishment,  brick, 
erected  in  June,  1884.  It  comprises  two  Ls, 
the  foundry  being  25  x  110  feet  in  dimensions 
and  the  flnishing  room  25  x  84.  This  firm 
started  in  business  in  Perrysville  in  1858,  in 
a  small  frame  building  a  little  to  the  north- 
west of  tb.eir  present  place;  it  has  recently 
been  torn  down  and  removed. 

A  young,  ambitions  little  institution  is  the 
Perrysville  Creamery,  on  the  bank  of  the 
river.  Capacity  of  the  works,  about  2,000 
pounds  of  butter  per  week.  E.  A.  Lacey, 
secretary  of  the  company,  is  the  superinten- 
dent. J.  F.  Compton  is  president  and 
treasurer. 

Perrysville  has  been  an  incorporated  town. 
The  first  municipal  election  was  held  January 
15,  1881,  when  the  following  were  elected 
trustees:  First  Ward,  William  Collins;  Second 
Ward,  Jolm  R.  McNeill;  Third  Ward,  Samuel 
Shaner.  W.  M.  Benefiel  was  elected  Clerk; 
Rezin  Metzger,  Assessor;  Lewis  A.  Morgan, 
Treasurer;  and  Peter  S.  Moudy,  Marshal. 
Mr.  Shaner  was  elected  President.  J.  F. 
Smith  was  the  next  president  of  the  board. 
Mr.  Morgan  resigned  his  ofiice  as  treasurer 
and  Mr.  Benefiel  was  appointed  in  his  place, 
still  retaining  the  clerkship.  The  third  presi- 
dent was  Lewis  Morgan,  when  John  T.  Lowe 
was  elected  clerk  and  treasurer. 

In  the  fall  of  1884  the  question  whether 


the  corporate  capacity  of  the  place  should  be 
continued  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the 
citizens,  and  was  decided  in  the  negative  by 
a  small  majority.  Under  the  corporate  gov- 
ernment the  streets  were  macadamized,  the 
poll  tax  for  the  village  being  kept  within  its 
limits,  and  an  additional  tax  raised.  Also  a 
calaboose  was  built.  A  town  board  of  educa- 
tion managed  the  school  affairs. 

That  fine,  large  brick  school-house  in  the 
southern  part  of  town  was  erected  in  1862, 
when  Thomas  Cushman  was  trustee.  In  the 
basement  are  three  rooms,  on  the  first  floor 
four,  besides  tlie  hall,  and  on  the  second  floor 
four.  The  belfry  tower  contains  also  a  room 
thirty  feet  square.  The  school  is  graded,  and 
is  taught  by  six  or  seven  teachers.  Enroll- 
ment, about  170;  average  attendance,  about 
130  or  140.  G.  W.  Dealand,  who  has  been 
the  popular  principal  for  the  last  four  years, 
was  elected  county  superintendent  of  scliools 
on  the  first  Monday  of  June,  1887. 


As  before  stated,  the  first  newspaperprinted 
in  Vermillion  County  was  the  News-Letter^ 
at  Eugene,  in  1837,  which  continued  but  six 
months.  Mr.  K.  B.  Dickason,  of  this  i)lace, 
woi-ked  on  the  paper.  The  office  was  pur- 
chased by  J.  H.  Jones  and  moved  to  Perrys- 
ville the  same  year,  where  he  published  the 
Perrysville  Banner.  About  two  years  after- 
ward Clapp  &  Eoney  had  the  paper,  when  it 
was  called  the  Vermillion  Register.  Nexl 
it  was  the  \^evrys,vi\\e  Rej}uhlican,  with  Aus 
tin  Bishop  as  editor  and  proprietor.  Then 
Mr.  Dickason  published  here  the  Perrysville 
Eagle,  1852-'55,  which  he  sold  to  Mr. 
Ro'oinson,  and  he  to  Benjamin  Snodgrass, 
who  finally  let  it  die;  and  that  was  the  last 
of  the  newspaper  business  in  Perrysville, 
although  several  attempts  to  establish  other 
journals  have  been  made.    These  papers  were 


394 


BISTORT    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


generally  independent  in  politics.  The  Reg- 
ister or  Banner  was  Democratic.  The  press 
used  was  the  one  which  was  first  brought  into 
Indiana  in  1804,  to  Yincennes,  whereon  the 
Western  Sun  was  printed. 

From  the  number  of  the  Perrysville  Ban- 
ner for  February  2,  1839,  the  Iloosier  State 
in  1875  copied  the  following  items,  all  of 
which  will  gather  increasing  interest  as  years 
roll  by: 

J.  K.  Jones  was  editor  and  proprietor. 
This  is  the  twenty-fourth  number  of  its  issne. 
It  contains  five  columns  to  the  page,  and  was 
published  at  §2  per  year  if  paid  in  advance; 
otherwise  §3.  The  number  contains  a  large 
amount  of  Congressional  and  Legislative 
news  of  this  State,  and  but  very  little  origi- 
nal or  local  matter. 

Hiram  Barnes,  of  Perrysville,  advertises 
for  a  "  professional  "  man  to  take  charge  of 
an  ox  team.  Edmund  James,  a  justice  of  the 
peace  of  Helt  Township,  publishes  an  attach- 
ment notice  on  the  atiidavit  of  Silas  Rhoades, 
against  the  chattels  of  Simon  and  Martin 
Gilbert.  The  name  of  Permelia  Smith  ap- 
pears as  administratrix  of  the  estate  of  Dan- 
iel Smith.  George  W.  Palmer,  J.  P.,  notifies 
the  readers  that  Ephraim  Driscol,  of  Highland 
Township,  had  taken  up  an  estray  steer  four 
years  old,  which  was  appraised  at  $12  by 
James  Welch  and  Tom  Lowers.  James 
Thompson,  school  commissioner  of  the 
county,  gives  fair  warning  that  he  will  sell 
fifteen  tracts  of  land  for  taxes  if  not  paid 
before  the  day  of  sale.  S.  &  B.  Turman  no- 
tify the  people  where  they  can  procure  cheap 
dry  goods,  etc.  "William  "Whipps  gives  no- 
tice of  his  appointment  as  administrator  of  the 
estate  of  Thomas  J.  Heed,  lately  deceased.  Per- 
rin  Kent  also  gives  notice  to  the  efi"ect  that  he 
has  taken  out  letters  of  administration  on  the 
estate  of  John  Taylor,  late  of  Warren  County, 
deceased.     The  widow  and   heirs   of  Jacob 


Parke  give  due  notice  that  they  will  make 
application  to  the  next  court  to  have  com- 
missioners appointed  to  assign  and  set  ofl"  the 
widow's  dower  in  the  real  estate  of  said  dece- 
dent. Dr.  Waterman  gives  notice  that  the 
partnership  heretofore  existing  between  him- 
self and  Dr.  Small  is  dissolved.  Crawford 
&  Jackson,  proprietors  of  an  oil  mill,  adver- 
tise that  they  will  give  the  highest  price  for 
flax  and  hemp  seed,  or  castor  beans.  George 
W.  Palmer  offers  a  one-horse  wagon  and 
harness  for  sale  cheap  for  cash.  J.  W. 
Downing,  J.  P.,  gives  notice  that  an  iron- 
gray  mare,  taken  up  by  James  Rush,  was 
appraised  by  William  P.  Dole  and  A.  M.  II. 
Robinson  at  §45  before  him  on  the  24th  day 
of  November,  1838.  William  Bales,  sherift', 
advertises  the  real  estate  of  John  Fosdick  for 
sale  at  public  auction,  to  satisfy  a  judgment 
in  favor  of  Silas  Kellough,  William  Dunning 
and  Isaiah  Dill.  Joshua  Skidmore,  of  Clin- 
ton, gives  notice  as  follows:  ""Whereas,  my 
wife  Mary  has  left  my  bed  and  board  without 
just  cause  or  provocation,  I  do  hereby  warn 
all  persons,  body  politic  or  coi'porate  and  of 
whatsoever  name  or  title,  not  to  credit  or 
harbor  her  on  my  account,  as  I  am  deter- 
mined not  to  pay  any  debts  of  her  contract- 
ing after  this  date,  January  1,  1839."  The 
names  of  Durham  Hood  and  Margaret  Craft 
appear  as  administrators  of  the  estate  of  John 
Craft,  late  of  Eugene.  Roseberry  &  Jewett, 
dry  goods  merchants  of  Perrysville,  occupy 
about  one-third  of  a  column  in  enumerating 
their  large  arrival  of  new  goods.  William 
J.  Nichols  and  James  H.  Cory,  of  Eugene, 
inform  the  people  where  to  get  their  saddles 
and  cheap  harness.  Dr.  T.  S.  Davidson  ten- 
ders his  professional  services  to  the  citizens 
of  Perrysville  and  adjoining  country.  Hall 
&  Gessie  announce  the  reception  of  new 
goods  in  a  two-inch  card.  Jones  &  Smith 
call  attention   in    a  four-inch  card  to   their 


PERRTSVILLE. 


stock  of  fall  and  winter  goods.  Nathan  Reed 
and  J.  H.  McNiitt  request  that  those  in- 
debted to  them  for  professional  services  come 
forward  and  square  up  by  cash  or  note  imme- 
diately. Jacob  Riley  informs  the  readei's 
that  he  has  found  a  silk  handkerchief,  sup- 
posed to  be  worth  |1.2o,  which  theownercan 
have  by  paying  for  the  advertisement.  G. 
W.  Palmer,  J.  P.,  gives  notice  that  John 
Fultz  has  taken  up  two  estray  heifers,  which 
were  appraised  at  §6  each  by  Samuel  Lacy 
and  James  Crawford,  before  him,  December 
15,  1838. 

John  S.  Kirkpatrick  flin»s  the  following 
card  to  the  breeze:  "  Now  Look  Out.  The 
undersigned,  having  sold  his  entire  stock  of 
groceries,  a  circumstance  follows  which  can- 
not possibly  be  avoided, — that  his  accounts 
must  be  closed;  those  knowing  themselves  to 
be  indebted  will  please  make  arrangements  to 
square  the  '  yards  '  by  note  or  '  plank  up  the 
simon '  immediately."  Miller  &  Seal  warn 
their  delinquent  custon:ers  to  look  out  for  a 
thunder  gust,  and  say,  "  Money  we  must 
have — peaceably  if  we  can  and  forcibly  if  we 
must."  George  W.  Palmer,  J.  P.,  advertises 
two  estray  cows  taken  up  by  Horatio  Talbert, 
of  Highland  Township,  and  appraised  at  $7 
and  §9  by  Henry  Green  and  Thomas  Moore, 
January  5,  1839. 


Dr.  Dinwiddle,  said  to  be  a  surgeon  of  the 
regular  army,  was  the  first  physician  located 
at  Perrysville.  He  left  some  time  in  the 
'40s. 

Dr.  Thornton  S.  Davidson  came  about 
1839,  and  died  here  aboiit  1851-'o2. 

Dr.  Reynolds  was  probably  the  next,  who 
left  about  1850. 

Dr.  R.  M.  Waterman,  after  practicing  here 
awhile,  moved  to  Eugene,  where  he  started 
the  Neios-Letter,  and  then  to  Lodi,  Fountain 

20 


County,  where  the  postoiffice  was  named  after 
him,  "Waterman ;  served  in  the  army,  as  Cap- 
tain of  Company  A,  Thirty-first  (?)  Indiana 
Yolnnteer  Infantry,  and  contracted  a  disease 
from  which  he  soon  afterward  died. 

Dr.  A.  1).  Small,  not  a  graduate,  was  in 
partnership  with  Waterman  and  others, 
became  feeble  with  age,  and  finally  died  in 
Milwaukee. 

Dr.  John  Stuart  Baxter,  from  Virginia, 
was  a  good  surgeon,  in  partnership  with  Dr. 
Spotswood  for  a  time,  and  died  in  Perrysville, 
in  1853. 

Dr.  Dexter  F.  Leland,  from  some  of  the 
Eastern  States,  arrived  here  about  1850,  was 
a  partner  of  Dr.  Spotswood,  a  physician  of 
gentlemanly  manners,  and  died  in  three  or 
four  years. 

Dr.  Lewis  Clark  came  in  1854,  was  an 
energetic  man,  practiced  here  three  or  four 
years,  and  died  in  Kansas. 

Dr.  Lewis  Frazee,  eclectic,  was  born  in 
New  Jersey  in  1815,  came  to  Perrysville  in 
1863,  and  died  here  December  20,  1881. 
His  first  wife  and  all  the  nine  children  by  her 
died  before  him.  Their  son  George  M.  began 
practice  here  in  1870,  and  died  in  1878. 

Dr.    J.  M.  Wilkerson  arrived  here  about 
1851  or  '52,  and  left  a  few  years  afterward. 
Dr.  L.  M.  Meering  came  about  the  same 
time,  remaining  only  a  year. 

Dr.  John  Kemp,  botanic,  was  here  a  few 
years  a  long  time  ago. 

Dr.  J.  M.  Ballard,  from  Waveland,  prac- 
ticed here  from  1857  until  his  death. 

Dr.  Joseph  H.  Olds  came  before  the  war, 
and  entered  the  army,  whence  he  did  not 
return  to  this  county.  He  was  a  physician 
of  considerable  attainments. 

Dr.  Crooks,  a  young  man  in  p-trtnership 
with  Dr.  Clark  for  a  period,  moved  to 
Lebanon,  where  he  died. 

Dr.  B.  I.  Poland,  eclectic,  from  State  Line 


(a  village),  came  to  tliis  place  a  lew  years  ago' 
and  two  or  three  years  afterward  moved  to 
Dixon,  Illinois.  He  was  rather  an  oculist 
and  aurist.     "Was  a  gentleman. 

The  present  physicians  of  Perrysville  are 
Drs.  E.  T.  Spotswood,  James  T.  Henderson, 
James  Webb,  J.  W.  Smith  and  D.  B.  John- 
son. Dr.  Johnson  has  been  here  since  1870. 
Dr.  Webb,  eclectic,  was  brought  up  in  Foun- 
tain County.  Dr.  Smith  is  a  graduate,  has 
been  a  resident  of  Perrysville  a  few  years  as 
a  practitioner,  bnt  is  now  traveling.  For  a 
biography  of  Dr.  Spotswood,  see  the  index 
for  another  page.  Specimens  of  his  poetry 
are  also  given  elsewhere  in  this  volume. 

SOCIETIES. 

Unity  Lodge,  JSTo.  lU,  F.  c6  A.  If.,  at 
Perrysville,  was  organized  about  1850  or 
before,  and  increased  in  time  to  thirty-four 
members.  The  earliest  record  extant  is 
dated  May,  1853,  which  gives  as  officers  at 
that  time:  A.  Hill,  Worshipful  Master;  J.  S. 
Baxter,  Senior  Warden;  W.  P.  Johnson, 
Junior  Warden;  E.  D.  Moifatt,  Secretary; 
G.  H.  McNeil],  Treasurer;  W.  B.  Moffatt, 
Senior  Deacon;  James  Starr,  Junior  Deacon; 
and  Andrew  Dennis,  Treasurer.  The  other 
members  were  E.  Brydon,  A.  C.  Blue,  John 
Leech,  James  Benefiel,  John  L.  Stoll,  Harvey 
Knapp,  James  Martin  and  Lewis  L.  Gebhart. 
The  charter  was  surrendered  to  Abel  Sexton 
in  May,  1859. 

Unity  Lodge,  No  3U,  F.  &  A.  M.,  was 
chartered  May  29,  1867,  with  the  following 
officers:  W.  B.  Moffiitt,  Worshipful  Master; 
James  Hemphill,  Senior  Warden;  Jacob  S. 
Stephens,  Junior  Warden;  William  Jerrauld, 
Secretary;  Ilobert  E.  Townsley,  Treasurer; 
H.  M.  Townsley,  Senior  Deacon;  John  Wolf, 
Junior  Deacon ;  Thomas  Scott,Ty]er.  The  pres- 
ent membership  is  forty-six,  and  the  officers: 
Daniel  Lyons,  Worshipful  Master;  George  E. 


Hicks,  Senior  Warden;  John  B.  McNeil, 
Junior  Warden;  W.  A.  Keerns,  Secretary; 
W.  A.  Collins,  Treasurer;  John  S.  TileV, 
Senior  Deacon;  Martin  L.  Wright,  Junior 
Deacon;  D.  W.  Patterson  and  M.  J.  Eudy, 
Stewards;  W.  P.  Hargrave,  Chaplain;  and 
Smith  McCormick,  Tyler. 

Unity  ChiX])teT,  No.  50,  0.  E.  8.,  at  Ptr- 
rysville,  was  instituted  March  17,  1882,  by 
Willis  D.  Engle,  District  Deputy,  from 
Indianapolis,  with  fifteen  members;  and  the 
first  officers  were — Elizabeth  Collins,  Wor- 
shipful Master;  James  Howard,  Worshipful 
Prelate;  Mrs.  Sophie  Eudy,  A.  M.;  and 
Mrs.  Helen  B.  Johnson,  Secretary.  Tiie 
present  officers  are — Mrs.  Helen  B.  John- 
son, AVorshipful  Master;  Mr.  M.  J.  Eudy, 
Worshipful  Prelate;  Mrs.  James  Frazec. 
A.  M.;  Miss  Anna  Eobinson,  Secretary; 
Mrs.  Amanda  Henderson,  Treasurer;  Mis3 
Imo  Collins,  Conductres;  and  Mrs.  Dora 
Lyons,  Assistant  Conductresss.  The  present 
membership  is  between  thirty-five  and  forty, 
and  the  chapter  'is  in  a  good  financial  con- 
dition. It  meets  the  first  Friday  evening 
after  each  full  moon,  in  Masonic  Hall. 

Charity  Lodge,  No.  32,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was 
chartered  April  20,  1846,  by  D.  D.  G.  M. 
George  Brown.  The  first  officers  were  Irad 
Abdill,  Noble  Grand;  Charles  Boyles,  Vice 
Grand;  T.  S.  Davidson,  Secretary;  Thomas 
Cushman,  Treasurer;  John  Dunlap,  Warden; 
C.  N.  Gray,  Conductor;  Samuel  Watt,  Guar- 
dian; John  A.  Minshall,  Eecording  Secretary. 
The  present  officers  are — G.  W.  Dealand, 
Noble  Grand;  W.  G.  Chenowlth,  Vice  Grand ; 
C.  W.  Ayres,  Eecording  Secretary;  J.  T. 
Chisler,  Permanent  Secretary;  W.A.Collins, 
Treasurer.  Tliere  are  nineteen  members,  who 
own  the  building  in  which  their  neat  and 
well  equipped  lodge  room  is  contained.  To- 
tal value  of  all  tlieir  property,  $1,318.60. 
During  the  war  the  lodge  was  kept  alive  by 


PERBT8VILLE. 


live  or  six  faithful  members.  Of  the  old 
members,  John  Dnnlap  died  about  two  years 
ago;  Irad  Abdill  and  William  Callihan  are 
living  in  Danville.  Of  the  charter  members, 
Thomas  Cushman,  of  Newport,  is  the  only 
one  living  in  the  county. 

Uiyhland  Encampment,  No.  163,  was 
instituted  December  7,  1885,  by  D.  D.  G.  P. 
David  McBeth,  of  Clinton.  First  officers — 
W.  M.  Beneliel,  Chief  Priest;  J.  T.  Chisler, 
High  Priest;  C.  W.  Ayres,  Senior  Warden; 
Alexander  Yan  Sickle,  Junior  Warden;  D. 
W.  Patterson,  Scribe;  W.  G.  Chenowitli, 
Treasurer.  Present  officers — J.  T.  Lowe, 
Chief  Priest;  William  G.  Chenowith,  High 
Priest;  D.  W.  Patterson,  Senior  Warden;  W. 
T.  Conner,  Junior  Warden;  W.  M.  Benefiel, 
Scribe;  W.  A.  Collins,  Treasurer.  There 
were  nine  members  at  first,  and  there  are  nine 
or  ten  at  present. 

Rehekah  Lodge,  No.  118,  Daughters  (or 
Degree)  of  Eehekah,  was  instituted  July  24, 
1882.  First  officers:  M.  B.  Carter,  Noble 
Grand;  J.  T.  Chisler,  Vice  Grand;  Sallie  E. 
Carter,  Secretary;  C.  W.  Ayres,  Treasurer; 
S.  Watt,  Guardian.  The  other  charter  mem- 
bers were  W.  M.  Benefiel,  W.  II.  Benefiel, 
Thomas  D.  Clarkson,  J.  H.  Benton,  W.  A. 
Collins,  J.  T.  Lowe,  Anna  Benefiel,  L.  Chis- 
ler, M.  Benefiel,  Susan  L.  Clarkson  and  R.  E. 
Watt.  The  present  officers  are:  Imo  Collins, 
Noble  Grand;  Cora  Chisler,  Vice  Grand; 
Mary  Ayres,  Treasurer;  Kittie  Chisler,  Secre- 
tary; W.  M.  Benefiel,  Warden.  Tlje  mem- 
bership has  been  about  thirty  from  the  first 
to  the  present. 

Vermillion  Lodge,  No.  113,  K.  of  P., 
was  organized  December  31,  1884,  by  Dis- 
trict Deputy  Talley,  of  Coal  Creek,  assisted 
by  members  from  various  lodges.  There  were 
sixteen  charter  members,  and  the  first  officers 
were:  Dr.  James  T.  Henderson,  Chancellor 
Commander;    F.  S.  Smith,  Vice-Chancellor; 


L.  A.  Morgan,  Master  of  Finance;  M.  J. 
Eudy,  Master  of  Exchequer;  D.  H.  Cade, 
Keeper  of  Eecords  and  Seals;  W.  A.  Collins, 
Prelate;  G.  R.  Hicks,  Master  at  Arms;  A.  E. 
Marlat,  Inner  Guard;  E.  A.  Lacey,  Outer 
Guard.  There  are  now  twenty-six  members, 
comprising  the  best  men  of  the  community, 
who  are,  in  their  lodge  relations,  in  perfect 
harmony.  They  have  a  lodge  room  of  their 
own,  and  are  in  fair  financial  condition. 

The  present  officers  are:  J.  C.  Wright, 
Past  Commander;  W.  M.  Collins,  Chancellor 
Commander;  Ned  Spotswood,  Vice-Chancel- 
lor; H.  F.  Eoyce,  Prelate;  M.J.  Eudy,  Mas- 
ter of  Finance;  W.  T.  Ferguson,  Master  of 
Exchequer;  J.  T.  Henderson,  Keeper  of  Eec- 
ords and  Seals;  D.  Mossbnrger,  Master  at 
Arms;  J.  M.  Howard,  Inner  Guard;  Smith 
McCormick,  Outer  Guard;  W.  A.  Keerns, 
District  Deputy. 

Richard  E.  Spotswood  Post,  No.  188, 
G.  A.  R.,  was  organized  in  January,  1878, 
with  the  following  officers :  Major  J.  S.  Stevens, 
Post  Commander;  B.  O.  Carpenter,  Senior 
Vice-Commander;  M.  B.  Carter,  Junior  Vice- 
Commander;  Dr.  E.  T.  Spotswood,  Adjutant. 
The  membership  has  diminished  from  thirty- 
two  to  fifteen.  Eegular  meetings,  alternate 
Saturday  evenings.  B.  O.  Carpenter  is  the 
present  Commander,  and  George  Watt,  Senior 
Vice-Commander. 

The  Woman^s  Christian  Temperance  Union 
of  Perrysville  was  organized  in  December, 
1881,  with  Mrs.  Dr.  Spotswood,  President; 
Mrs.  H.  B.  Johnson,  Vice-President;  Mrs. 
Sallie  Carter,  Secretary;  Mrs.  J.  M.  Mills, 
Corresponding  Secretary;  Mrs.  M.  J.  Eudy, 
Treasurer.  Commencing  with  a  membership 
of  only  ten,  they  soon  increased  to  forty;  but 
now  there  are  only  twenty-five.  To  the  pres- 
ent time  they  have  kept  up  gospel  meetings, 
and  have  exerted  a  marked  influence  in  giving 
the  people  a  temperance  education.     For  a 


time  they  edited  a  column  in  the  Hoosier 
State.  The  present  official  board  is  the  same 
as  the  first,  except  that  Mrs.  Lydia  Hepbnrn 
is  Recording  Secretary,  vice  Mrs.  Sallie  Car- 
ter, deceased. 

An  Equal  Suffrage  Club  was  organized  at 
Perrysville  July  21,  1882,  by  the  election  of 
Mrs.  Sarah  S.  Spotswood,  President;  Rev.  J. 
S.  White,  Vice-President;  Lillie  Kirkpatrick, 
Recording  Secretary;  Icabenda  Hain,  Treas- 
urer; Executive  Committee — Anna  McClin- 
tick,  Honorable  J.  F.  Compton,  D.  C.  Smith, 
Mrs.  Lucy  Maynard  and  Mrs.  Sarah  Smith. 
The  club  "immediately  went  down." 

CHURCHES. 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  has  of 
course  an  eventful  history,  extending  back  to 
pioneer  times,  which  is  difficult  to  trace.  At 
present  it  is  a  strong  and  influential  society 
of  133  members,  besides  probationers.  Class- 
leaders,  B.  O.  Carpenter  and  J.  F.  Compton; 
stewards — David  Smith,  Mrs.  Rebecca  K. 
McNeill,  Mrs.  Mary  C.  Moftatt,  Mrs.  Hannah 
B.  Johnson,  Mrs.  Sophia  S.  Rudy,  B.  O. 
Carpenter,  J.  F.  Compton  and  Mrs.  Amanda 
M.  Ferguson.  Rev.  J.  H.  Mills  is  a  local 
preacher.  Sunday-school  all  the  year,  with 
an  average  attendance  of  seventy-five,  super- 
intended by  B.  O.  Carpenter.  In  connection 
with  the  church  here  are  several  auxiliary 
societies, — missionary,  social,  etc.  The  house 
of  worship,  built  of  brick,  was  erected  in 
1843,  and  its  outside  measurements  are 
44x52  feet.  Value,  .^3,000,  though  that 
money  would  not  build  it  now.  Locality, 
southwest-central  part  of  town.  A  good 
parsonage  exists  on  the  adjoining  lot  east. 

Rev.  W.  P.  Hargrave,  the  pastor  since  the 
fall  of  1884,  is  a  son  of  the  late  celebrated 
Rev.  Richard  Hargrave,  so  well  known 
throughout  the  State  of  Indiana  as  the  trum- 
pet-voiced  Gabriel   of  the  same  church,  in 


which  he  was  for  many  years  a  presiding 
elder.  He  had  the  best  voice  for  the  pulpit, 
and  was  probably  the  most  eloquent  of  all  in 
the  United  States.  He  published  a  volume 
of  sermons,  which  passed  through  several 
editions.  He  died  in  1879,  near  Attica,  this 
State,  and  his  wife,  nee  Nancy  Porter,  died  in 
1871.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born 
in  1832,  in  Crawfordsville,  Indiana;  learned 
harness-making;  taught  school;  entered  As- 
bury  University  in  1849,  graduating  in  1854; 
practiced  law  until  1880,  when  he  joined  the 
Northwest  Indiana  Conference  as  a  Methodist 
minister.  In  the  practice  of  law  he  enjoyed 
great  success,  and  during  that  time  he  was  a 
resident  of  Viucennes  and  Evansville.  "While 
at  the  latter  place  he  was  circuit  judge  for 
six  years  and  a  half;  was  also  prosecutor  for 
seven  years.  During  the  last  war  he  volun- 
teered his  services  as  a  soldier;  was  elected 
Captain  of  Company  G,  Ninety-first  Indiana 
Volunteer  Infantry;  was  on  detached  duty 
during  most  of  the  time  of  his  services,  when 
his  official  station  was  generally  equivalent  to 
the  rank  of  brigadier-general ;  and  toward  the 
close  he  was  chief  commissary  of  musters  at 
Knoxville,  Tennessee.  Mr.  Hargrave  was 
married  September  25,  1860,  to  Miss  Martha 
Erskine,  a  native  of  Vanderburgh  County, 
Indiana,  who  died  October  18,  1886,  in 
Perrysville. 

A  Presbyterian  Church  was  once  organized 
at  Perrysville,  and  after  struggling  along 
with  a  precarious  existence  for  a  number  of 
years,  it  became  utterly  dissolved,  when  it 
counted  about  fifteen  or  sixteen  members. 
Their  house  of  worship,  which  they  bought  of 
the  Universalists,  became  unsafe,  and  was 
sold  in  1882,  for  $150,  and  afterward  torn 
away.  The  trustees  were  D.  C.  Smith,  John 
E.  Robinson  and  H.  S.  Collier.  Mr.  Smith 
was  also  ruling  elder.  Pastors  or  supplies 
were   Revs.   John   Hawks,   Mr.    Steele,    R. 


PERRTSriLLE. 


AVells,  William  Buffert,  etc.,  and  the  last  one 
serving  was  Rev.  Tarrauce,  who  was  at  the 
time  (1872-'73)  a  resident  of  Covington, 
Indiana.  There  has  been  no  regnlar  preach- 
ing since  1873,  when  there  were  twenty-one 
members.  There  are  now  probably  about 
half  a  dozen  members. 

The  United  Brethren  CJnirch  at  Perrys- 
ville  was  organized  many  years  ago.  The 
present  membership  is  aboiit  eighty.  Class- 
leader,  John  Patterson;  stewards,  Mrs.  Sarah 
Smith  and  Mrs.  Rose  Hain.  Sunday-school 
is  maintained  throughout  the  year,  with  an 
attendance  of  sixty  to  seventy,  superintended 
by  Rev.  J.  S.  Brown,  who  has  also  been  the 
pastor  of  this  circuit  for  the  last  three  years. 
lie  is  a  native  of  Parke  County,  this  State; 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  years  he  came  to  this 
county  and  worked  on  a  farm  two  miles 
southwest  of  Newport;  entered  a  school  in 
Ohio  in  the  fall  of  1881,  graduating  in  the 
spring  of  1884,  since  which  time  he  has  held 
his  present  relation,  as  a  member  of  the 
Upper  Wabash  Conference.  He  occupies  the 
parsonage  at  Perrysville,  in  an  extremely 
retired  portion  of  the  village,  in  the  north- 
western part,  and  has  three  or  four  appoint- 
ments in  his  circuit. 

The  church  edifice  at  Perrysville,  a  frame, 

34x48    feet,  erected    twenty-five    or    thirty 

years  ago,  is  a  neat  building,  centrally  located. 

At  Perrysville  also    resides    the    presiding 

elder.  Rev.  II.  Ellwell. 

The  Cross-EoadsUnited  Brethren  Church, 
two  miles  west  of  Perrysville,  was  organized 
over  forty  years  ago,  and  a  large  frame  church 
built  also  in  early  day.  The  membership 
there  numbers  about  seventy-five,  of  whom 
the  leader  is  Mrs.  Sarah  Park,  and  stewards, 
Jacob  Brown  and  Richard  Spandau.  Sunday- 
school  throughout  the  year,  with  an  average 
attendance  of  about  eighty,  superintended  by 
John  Park. 


Mound  Chapel,  United  Brethren,  30  x  40 
feet,  erected  ten  or  eleven  years  ago,  is  lo- 
cated three  miles  and  a  half  north  of  Perrys- 
ville. The  class,  now  comprising  about  forty 
members,  was  organized  eleven  or  twelve 
years  ago:  leader,  Mrs.  Jane  Mitchell;  stew- 
ard, Nathan  Jacobs.  Sunday-school  during 
the  summer,  of  about  fifty  pupils  probably, 
superintended  by  the  class-leader,  Mrs. 
Mitchell. 

A  "  Christian''^  church,  with  about  a  half 
dozen  members,  was  organized  at  Perrysville 
five  or  six  years  ago,  by  Elder  Gilbert  Lane 
Harney,  of  Indianapolis,  but  they  kept  up 
services  only  a  few  weeks.  The  leading  mem- 
bers were  C.  S.  Brummett  and  wife,  John 
Emanuel  Sinks,  Sarah  Bailey,  Mrs.  Ilettie 
Lacey,  and  others. 

The  Universalist  Church  at  Perrysville 
was  organized  in  1842,  and  afterward  erected 
a  house  of  worship,  a  frame  about  36  x  50 
feet  in  size,  but,  being  unable  to  pay  for  it, 
they  finally,  in  1850,  sold  it  to  the  Presby- 
terians, and  subsequently  disbanded.  They 
numbered  as  high  as  fifty  or  sixty  members 
at  one  time.  Among  the  ministers  are  promi- 
nently remembered  Revs.  E.  Manford,  the 
celebrated  editor,  a  resident  of  Terre  Haute 
at  the  time,  B.  F.  Foster,  of  Indianapolis, 
George  McClure,  of  Dayton,  Ohio,  but  an 
itinerant,  and  Mr.  Babcock,  of  some  point 
east  of  Indianapolis.  The  minister  organiz- 
incr  the  church  was  Rev.  Marble,  of  Fountain 
County,  who  preached  once  a  month  for  about 
a  year.  The  leading  members  were  Robert 
J.  Gessie  (trustee  and  mortgagee!).  Dr. 
Thornton  S.  Davidson,  Dr.  Porter,  Jlessrs. 
Lawless,  Watt,  etc.  They  had  a  fioiirishing 
Sunday-school. 

GESSIE. 

The  village  of  Gessie,  on  the  railroad  three 
miles    northwest  of  Perrysville  station,  was 


(i 


M 


BISTORT    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


\\ 


laid  out  in  1872  by  Eobert  J.  Gessie  and 
named  for  liini.  (See  sketch  of  Mr.  Gessie 
elsewhere  in  this  volume.)  The  population 
of  the  village  is  now  140. 

The  business  men  of  the  place  are,  J.  C. 
Stutler,  general  store;  L.  A.  McKnight,  gen- 
eral store  and  grain;  D.  M.  Hughes,  drugs 
and  groceries;  John  Cade,  postmaster,  drugs 
and  groceries;  A.  Van  Sickle,  blacksmith; 
Silas  Hughes,  wagon  and  repair  shop  and 
wood-work;  C.  L.  Eandall,  painter  and  job- 
ber; John  Haworth,  station  agent;  David 
Hughes,  William  Saltsgaver  and  David  Metz- 
ger,  stock  dealers;  H.  C.  Smith  &  Co.,  pro- 
prietors of  tile  factory.  This  mill  was  built 
by  Smith,  Strausser  &  Stutler  in  1884,  who 
made  in  one  year  about  §6,000  worth  of  tile. 
In  1885  tlie  tirin  name  became  H.  C.  Smith 
i&Co. 

Dr.  William  Isaiah  Hall,  who  purchased 
the  first  lot  in  Gessie  and  built  the  tirst  house, 
is  still  a  practicing  physician  of  the  place. 
Dr.  James  Barnes,  who  was  for  a  time  in 
partnership  with  Dr.  Hall,  is  also  practicing 
here. 

The  United  Brethren  Church  at  Gessie 
was  oi'ganized  about  1879,  by  Rev.  F.  E. 
Penny,  of  Danville,  Illinois,  wlio  moved  to 
tills  place  the  following  year.  The  trustees 
were  L.  A.  McKnight,  Charles  Hay  and  Har- 
vey Hughes;  and  Isaiah  Thompson  the  class- 
leader.  There  are  now  seventeen  members; 
class-leader,  J.  C.  Stutler;  stewards,  J.  C. 
Stutler  and  Katie  Goudy.  The  Sunday-school 
is  maintained  most  of  the  year,  with  an  at- 
tendance of  forty  pupils;  superintendent, 
John  Haworth.  The  pastors  have  been  Eovs. 
J.  A.  Smith,  of  Gessie,  J.  Knowlea,  of  State 
Line,  Kaufman,  of  Perrysville,  S.  C.  Zook, 
who  lived  below  Newport,  J.  li.  Horner,  who 
lived  here,  and  Van  Allen,  who  lived  a  mile 
south  of  Caynga.  The  church  building  wds 
erected  by  the  Christians,  about  1877,  a  frame 


24x40  feet,  at  a  cost  of  $1,000,  and  in  1879 
they  sold  it  to  the  United  Brethren. 

The  Union  Sunday-school  in  Gessie  is 
maintained  independently  of  denominational 
supervision,  and  its  existence  of  course 
diminishes  the  attendance  at  the  United 
Brethren  Sunday-school.  It  has  been  running 
since  January,  1887,  and  L.  A.  McKnight  is 
superintendent. 

Hoicard  Chaj^el.,  Methodist  Einscojpal 
Chxirch.,  two  miles  north  of  Gessie,  is  a  brick 
bnilding  30  x  50  feet  or  more  in  dimensions, 
built  over  thirty  years  ago.  The  society  has 
been  in  existence  since  pioneer  days.  Tliere 
are  now  about  thirty  members,  with  Joseph 
Nichols  as  class-leader.  Stewards,  James  J. 
Lewis,  Meredith  Lewis,  Henry  Saltsgaver, 
David  Bennett  and  Dr.  W.  I.  Hall.  Mr. 
Saltsgaver  is  also  Sunday-school  superinten- 
dent. Pastor,  Eev.  Warren,  of  State  Line, 
where  the  parsonage  is.  Among  the  minis- 
ters of  tlie  past  the  most  prominent  in  mem- 
ory are  Revs.  Cooley  Hall  (father  of  Dr. 
Hall),  Wilson  Beckner,  Samuel  Beck,  White- 
field  Hall,  etc. 

The  chapel  is  named  after  Joseph  Howard, 
who  donated  the  ground  and  led  the  enter- 
prise of  building  the  church,  and  was  after- 
ward trustee,  etc.  He  resided  there  until 
1866,  and  moved  West,  and  finally  died  in 
Nebraska.  His  wife  has  since  died.  Mr. 
Howard  was  buried  in  Nebraska,  although  his 
monument  is  in  the  graveyard  here.  None 
of  his  people  reside  at  present  in  this  county. 
On  coming  liere  from  Ohio,  about  1825,  he 
settled  on  the  farm  now  occupied  by  John 
Fox;  was  very  poor,  a  cooper  and  farmer  by 
occupation,  but  by  economy  he  at  length 
became  wealthy,  maintaining  all  the  while  an 
unsettled  reputation. 

A  few  years  ago  a  portion  of  the  above 
society  organized  a  small  class  in  Gessie  and 
began    the   erection  of  a  small  church;  bnt, 


^^'■-■-■-^'''■'■'Vl'^^ 


■  ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■"a^aMn'M-^-^gJ 


PERRYSVILLE.  301 


before  it  was  compIeteJ,  it  was  blown  down 
and  tlie  little  band  returned  to  Howard 
Chapel. 

Hojiewell  Baj^tist  C7i2irc/<,iih-ame  bnilding 
abont  two  miles  north  of  Gessie,  is  the  place 
of  meeting  of  a  society  which  was  organized 
many  years  ago  by  the  Rabonrns.  Among 
tlie  prominent  early  members  were  Wesley 
and  Keese  Rabonrn,  Fielden  Rabonrn,  Mr. 
Blankensliip  and  others,  and  of  the  ministers 
the  most  prominently  remembered  are  Revs. 
James  Smith,  John  Orr,  Mr.  Whitlock,  Mr. 
Stipp  and  Samuel  Johnson.  Mr.  Stipp  was 
a  Freemason,  and  some  of  the]  members  of 
the  church,  not  believing  that  freemasonry 
was  consistent  with  Christianity,  seceded, 
under  the  leadership  of  Elder  Johnson,  so 
that  since  that  time  two  small  societies  are 
weakly  sustained  at  the  same  place  of  meet- 
ing, called  respectively  the  "  Stippites  "  and 
the  "  Johnsonites."     Elder  Stipp  is  now  dead. 


Elder  Johnson  came  from  Fountain  County 
in  1871,  purchasing  the  old  Joseph  Howard 
residence.  Ehud  Hughes,  Philander  Goff, 
Samuel  Johnson  and  Ephraira  Sh\ite  are 
official  members. 

In  1877  Byron  Stevens,  a  "Christian" 
residing  near  Lowe  Chapel,  about  three  and  a 
half  miles  southwest  of  Gessie,  with  the 
assistance  of  his  friends  built  the  church  in 
Gessie  which  two  years  afterward  they  sold 
to  the  United  Brethren,  as  before  stated.  He 
was  a  minister,  and  he  and  James  Prather 
were  trustees.  They  organized  a  small 
church  society  at  Gessie,  which  soon  ran 
down.  Elder  Myers  preached  regularly  for 
them  for  a  time. 

Rileysburg,  formerly  called  Riley,  is  a 
flag  station  two  miles  northwest  of  Gessie, 
where  there  are  a  postoflice,  a  store  and  a  tile- 
mill. 


i««««»-^»»»». 


'■"■■■■■'iii^ 


'HE  surviving  old  set- 
tlers have  from  time  to 
time  held  reunions, 
picnics,  etc.,  refreshing 
one  another's  memories 
of  pioneer  experiences. 
At  the  close  of  the  4th  of 
July  celebration  at  Clinton  in 
l^Sl,  an  association,  for  the 
purposes  of  nmtnal  entertain- 
ment and  preservation  of  his- 
tory, was  organized  by  the 
clectiDU  of  the  following  offi- 
cers: James  A.  White,  Sr., 
of  Ilelt  Township,  President; 
Decatur  Downing,  of  Clinton, 
Secretary;  W.  G.  Crabb,  of  Clinton,  Treas- 
urer; A^ico- Presidents,  for  the  respective 
townships — John  Hamilton,  Clinton;  Abel 
Sexton,  Vermillion;  S.  W.  Malone,  Eugeue; 
and  Pi.  J.  Gessie,  Highland;  and  Executive 
Committee — J.  H.  Pogart,  John  Wright  and 
P.P.  Morey,  of  Clinton;  William  Wisliard, 
of  Helt;  and  George    II.  McNeill,  of  Perrys- 


ville.  This  committee  was  given  the  author- 
ity to  call  a  meeting  of  the  society,  but  it  is 
said  that  they  never  even  met,  for  any  pur- 
pose, and  thus  the  association  died. 

It  happens,  however,  that  the  chief  poet 
of  Vermillion  County,  Dr.  E.  T.  Spotswood, 
of  Perrysville,  knows  how  to  celebrate  pioneer 
times,  in  true  Hoosier  dialect,  and  we  here 
insert  two  specimens  from  his  happy  mind. 

The  first  was  published  in  a  newspaper  of 
an  adjoining  county,  over  the  nom  de  j^Iwd^^ 
of  '•  Daniel  Dundell." 

THE  nOOSIER    HOEDOWN,  OK    BACKWOODS    r)A^•CE 
OF  THE  OLDEN  TIME. 

To  the  Edytur:  Sur:  These  lines  is 
most  respeckfullee  dedykatuted  to  all  uv  the 
yung  fellers  who  run  around  here  when  the 
Coal  Prancli  wuz  small  an'  the  water  wuz 
fust  turned  into  the  Wabash, — sich  yung 
chaps  as  John  CoUett,  Tom  Cushman,  O.  P. 
Davis,  Abe  Sexton,  John  W.  Parrett,  R.  J. 
Gessie,  K.  D.  MofFatt,  Lem  Chenoweth, 
Smith  EalJj  an'  all  uv  the  boys  uv  that  crowd 


303 


who  cnin  tii  this  kentry  when  it  wuz  new  an' 
mostly  in  a  state  ov  natur,  an'  likewise  peple; 
also  thereof  before  it  wuz  so  improved  that 
all  natur  is  druv  out  uv  it.  In  the  good  old 
times,  when  workin  wuz  more  respektable 
than  loafin',  when  steal  in  wuzent  called 
spekilaslmn,  when  honesty  wuz  konsidered 
the  best  policy,  when  brass  didn't  count  for 
brains,  an'  cheek  for  moral  principul,  when 
inuney  wuzent  alius  the  measure  uv  the  man, 
when  sham  and  shoddy  wuznt  on  top,  an' 
modest  woi'th  an'  manhood  on  the  under  side 
in  the  fite,  but  when  brains,  pluck,  honesty 
an"  mussel  wud  win  agin  the  world, — to  these 
yuug  chaps  uv  olden  time  1  dedykate  the 
poem,  an'  subscribe  myself  in  the  Coal  Branch 
Hollow,  whar  they  will  alius  find  the  latch- 
string  out,  a  smokin'  hot  corn  pone,  a  bowl 
uv  cold  buttermilk,  a  clean  gord  in  sparklin' 
water,  a  rousin'  hickory  log  fire,  an  a  warm 
wellcum  from  thar  friend, 

Daniel  Dundell. 
Coal  Branch  Hollow, 

A'^orinillion  Co.,  Indianny. 


THE   COAL    BR.\NCH   DANCE. 

Down  upon  the  Coal  Branch,  in  the  Indianny  State, 
Whar  things  go  movin'   slow  along  at  the  good  old- 
fashioned  gait, 
Thar  men  an'  wimmen  good  belong,  an'  gals  that  ar 

the  sweetest, 
An'  boj's  that's  hansum,  tutf  an'  strong,  an'  jes  bilt  up 

the  neatest, — 
Whar  the  people  all  ar'  sociable,  an'  thar  aint  no  falls 

pretenses 
Dividin'   uv   the   nabors   up    with    pride   an'    folly's 

fences, — 
Whar  work  an'  frolic,  band   in  band,  goes  movia'  on 

like  friends; 
An'   when   one  gits  in  trouble  all  to  him  their  help 

extends; 
An'  when  a  feller  gits  behind  an'  lags  along  the  road, 
You'll  find  'em  all  together  jined  to  help  him  lift  his 

load, — 
That  is  to  say,  if  he's  "  all  squar,"   an'  aint  no  ornery 

That  won't  at  workin'  take  his  share,  but  goes  from 
bad  to  wuss,- 


Then  every  nabor  will  turn  out  at  any  kind    uv  work. 
An'  help  the  chap,  an'  not  a  man  among  them  all  will 

shirk. 
They  make  a  frolic  uv   their  work,  an'  call  in  every 

nabor. 
An'  wind  it  all  up  with  a  dance,  to  liten  up  thar  labor. 

Late   in  the   fall  when   craps   is   ripe,   an'  the   grass 

around  is  wiltin'. 
The  gals  they  go  a-slippin'  round  a  gittin'  up  a-ciuiltin'. 
An'  the  boys  all  round  they  understand 
Will  cum  an'  lend  a  helpin'  hand. 
In  shuckin'  corn  or  clearia'  land ; 
Then,  when  the  corn  is  gathered  in, 
An  safely  stowed  up  in  the  bin. 
The  fodder  piled  up  in  the  shock, 
Enough  to  feed  the  winter  stock, — 
The   quilt   is  tuck  from  out  the  frame,  a-lookiu'  new 

and  neat ; 
It's  stitched  an'  tacked  an'  herad  an'  sode  an'  finished 
up  complete. 

Then,  when  the  long  day's  work  is  dun, 
An'  night  curas  with  the  settin'  sun. 
An'  all  havo  had  a  glorious  treat. 
At  supper  time,  uv  things  to  eat, — 
Uv  hog  an'  hominy,  pork  an'  beans, 
Uv  corn  an'  cabbage  an'  sich  greens, — 
Uv  nicnacks  sweet  which  you  will  find 
The  wimmin  have  been  mixin', — 
Besides  'most  every  other  kind 

Uv  first-rate  chicken  fixin', — 
Jes  now,  when  every  one  about 

Is  full  uv  fun  all  over. 
Is  when  the  Coal  Branch  blossoms  out, 
An'  feels  herself  in  clover. 
From  corn-cob  pipes  the  old  ones  smokes, 
An'  chats  and  laffs  an'  cracks  thar  jokes, 
An'  smiles  an'  winks  an'  slyly  pokes 
Thar  fun  at  the  younger  bashful  fokes. 

From  bright  tin  cups  their  cider  sips. 

An'  stands  with  hands  upon  thar  hips, 

A-lookin'  pleased  between  thar  nips, 

To  see  thar  sturdy  boys  an'  gals  so  rapid  growin', 

Expectin  soon  that  each   thar  own  row  will  be  hoein', 

An'  all  the  wliile  with  biznes  eyes  they  are  sum  items 

takin'. 
Which  shortly  in  the  by  an'  by  they'll  use  in  sly  match 

makin'. 
Then,  when  uv  jucy  punkin  pie   they  all   have  eat  a 

lunchen, 
Each  feller  hunts  his  pardner  up  an'  steps  out  on  his 
punchen. 
The  gals  are  standin'  round  in  rows, 
Tricked  out  in  spankin'  calicoes. 
All  waitin'  to  be  chosen. 


Each  feller  in  his  blue-jeans  close 
Is  lookin'  round  him  as  he  goes 
A-huntin',  as  we  may  suppose 
Fur  his  own  Mary  Susan. 

The  fiddler  cums 'an'  with  him  brings 

His  pockets  full  uv  iiddle-striugs, 

An'  in  he  cums  a-saunterin'  soon. 

An'  thrums  the  strings, — the  sly  old  coon, 

An'  gives  the  notes  a  twang  or  two 

Which  sets  a-pattin'  every  shoe, 

A-timin'  to  the  tune. 
An'  now  the  dance  no  longer  lingers. 
The  fiddle's  neck   he   tickles  fast  with  niml 

fingers. 
An'  quick  as  lightniu'  to  an'  fro. 
With  all  his  might  he  swings  the  bow. 

He  draws  it  twice  across  the  strings, 
Which  on  the  floor  the  dancers  brings ; 
He  gives  the  bow  another  draw, 
When  they  all  call  for  the  "  Arkinsaw." 
With  a  loud  voice  he  yells  the  call, 
"  Honers  ter  yar  pardners,  all !" 

An'  then  the  fun  gits  goin'. 
Thar's  steppin'  high  an'  steppin'  low 
As  round  an'  round  the  dancers  go, 
Jes  like  it  wuz  a  circus  show 

Whilst  the  music  cums  a-flowin'. 

Sometimes  they  cut  the  pigin  wing. 
An'  then  they  try  the  Highland  Fling, 
They  jump  an'  slide  an'  skip  an'  hop, 
A-gittin  higher  every  pop. 

It's  a  fact  which  'taint  no  use  deny  in', 

That  soon  from  off  that  floor  the  splinters  gits  a-flyi 
To  the  fiddle's  time  they  music  beat 
With  clatteria',  patterin'  busy  feet, 
As  in  an'  out  they  wind  an'  wheel 
Thro'  old  Virginia's  lively  reel. 
Or,  like  the  flyin'  corn  they  husk. 
They  capper  in  the  Money  Musk, 
Or  Fisher's  Hornpipe  contra  dance 
With  springin'  steps  they  danglin'  glance. 
With  ringin'  laflT  an'  jestin'  jeer,  * 

An'  cheeks  aglow  with  merry  cheer. 

The  gals  they  giggle,  lafT  and  smile 
An'  wud  a  very  saint  beguile. 

Whilst  round  an'  round  a-spinnin'. 
The  boys  ketch  up  the  roarin'  fun. 
Each  feller  thinkin'  he's  the  one, — 

From  ear  to  ear  is  grinnin'. 
When  bang!  thar  goes  a  fiddle  string, 
Which  to  an  eend  this  set  will  bring. 


With  hankichers  all  drippin'  wet. 
The  gals  wipe  off  the  surplus  sweat, 
A-fixin'  fur  another  set 

Which  soon  they'll  have  a-goin'; 
Whilst  the  boys,  all  tuckered  out  of  wind. 

Are  a-settin'  round  a-blowin'. 

If  you  are  fond  uv  nat'ral  ways, — uv  old-time  country 

dancin'. 
Cum  out  upon  the  Coal   Branch  an'  see   our  gals  an' 

boys  a-pranciu' ; 
An'  I'm  sure  that  if  you  do 
That  you  will  larn  a  thing  or  two; 
For  yon  will  see  with  your  own  eyes 
The  human  hart  without  disguise, 
An'  larn  sum  lessons  if  you're  wise. 
Which  thro' life's  journey  you  will  prize; 
That  happiness  an'  sweet  content 
Ai'e  oft  with  simplest  pleasures  blent; 
That  graspin'  greed  an'  pride  will  bring 
To  akin'  harts  the  keenest  sting; 
Whilst  nature's  plain  an'  simple  ways 
Will  light  with  joy  your  sunset  days. 

The  following  was  composed  for,  and  read 
at,  the  Independence  celebration  and  old  set- 
tlers' reunion  held  July  4,  1887,  at  Newport: 

FOURTH  OF  JULY  POEM. 

BV  DR.  E.  T.  SPOTSWOOD,  OF  PERRVSVILLE,  INDIANA. 

Old  friends  an'  neighbors,  howdy  do  1 1  give'youhearty 

greetin'. 
An'  welcome  warm  to  all  uv  you  to  this  Old  Settlers' 

meetin', 
I  think  'tis  good  to  meet  agin,  an'  peepin'  through  our 

glasses. 
Be  tellin'  how  we  used  to  do,  when   we  wuz  lads  an 

lassies. 
An'  since  we  hev  together  come,  in  love  which  never 

tires. 
With  friendship's  torch,  we'll  kindle  up  the  long,  long 

smoulderin'  flres 
Uv  memories  that  hev  long  grown  dim;  an'  faded  like 

a  dream. 
From  the  shaddowy  past  we  will  recall  an'  make  with 

life  to  gleam. 
Old  Time,  that  cruel,  heartless  thief,  whilst  we  hev 

bin  on  duty. 
Each  year  hez  bin  a  robbin'  us   uv  some  bright  line 

uv  beauty; 
Fur  our  faces,  all  so  bloomin'  once,  ar'  now  dried  up 

an'  wrinkled. 
An' our  hair  thet  was  so   bonnie   brown   is  now  with 

gray  besprinkled ; 


Our  eyes  tbet  once  wer'  bright    ez  stars,  hev  now 

grown  dim  an'  hazy; 
An'  the  dimples  thet  wuz  on   our  cheeks   hev   faded 

like  the  daisy. 
Our  limbs  wer'  strong  an'   active  once,  but  now  you 

see  it  is 
Thet  they  ar'  weak   an'   tottery,  an'  stiff  with  rheu- 

matiz; 
But  never  mind,  we  ar'  young  agin,  in  heart,  If  not  in 

body ; 
An'  we'll  jest  hunt  up   a  shady   place  wher'  the  grass 

is  green  an'  soddy. 
An'  set  right  down  to  spinnin'  yarns,   an'   old  stories 

we'll  untwine, 
Uv  how  the  old  things  used   to  be,  in  days  o'  Auld 

Lang  Syne. 
Our  hopes  an'  fears,   our  joys  an'  tears,  an'  old  loves 

we  will  recall. 
An'  jog  each   failing  memory  'till  we   clearly  bring 

back  all. 
An'  from  the  long  forgotten  past,  old  treasures  we  will 

bring 
Uv  memories  sweet  of  the   "  olden  time  "  thet  still 

around  us  cling; 
Frum  the  hazy  mist   uv  vanished  years,  the   hurried 

past  again  appears. 
An'  the  echoes  uv  long  ago  will  break  upon  our  listen- 
ing ears, 
While  visions  uv  our  early  days  like  shadows  throng 

around  us. 
An'  tighten  up  the  loosening  cords  thet  to  the  past  hez 

bound  us, 
An'  then  ouce  more  the  magic  spells,  thet  glided  life's 

young  mornin'. 
Will  gently  steal  on  every  heart,  an    again  bring  back 

the  dawnin'. 
As  memory  brings  frum  by-gone  years  on  fancy's  fly- 
ing wings. 
The  sunny  scenes  uv  the  far-off  time,    frum  whence 

our  rapture  springs. 

We  boys  an'  gals   uv  other  days  our  lives  will   now 

live  over. 
An'  dream  agin  uv  the  happy  time  when  we  wandered 

through  the  clover. 
An'  over  hills,  through  woodlands  green,  down  shady 

glens  we  strayed. 
An'  waded   in  the  babblin'   brook,   an'  in  its  waters 

plaj'ed. 

An'  gathered  flowers  on  the  bank,  an'  in  the  grape- 
vine swing. 

We  tossed  our  sweethearts  high  in  the  air,  an'  made 
the  grove  to  ring 

With  joyous  laughter,  free  from  care,  an'  spent  the 
live  long  day 


305 


'Till  wearied  out,  with  tired  feet,  we  homeward  wound 

our  way ; 
When  our  days  wer'  bright  ez  the  morning  light  an' 

our  futer  hed  no  shadder. 
To  cast  its  darkness  on  our  paths,  an  make  our  hearts 

feel  sadder ; 
When  the  hours  all  blithe  an'  golden  sped  quickly  in 

ther  flight 
An'  our  hearts  wer'  filled  with  bounding  hope  an'  the 

onlook  glowed  with  light; 
When  with   truth   an'  dauntless  courage  our  hearts 

would  overflow. 
An'  hope's  bright  rainbow  spanned  the  sky  an'  bid  us 

forward  go. 

Our  schoolmates  uv  the  long  ago,  who  'neath  the  oak 

tree's  shade 
Around   the  old  log  schoolhouse   hev  often  with  us 

played, 
Ar'   scattered   like   the   autumn   leaves  frum  ocean's 

shore  to  shore. 
Some  hev  to  fame  an'  fortune  grown,  an'  in  life's  battle 

sore 
Some  hev  failed,  while  sirugglin'  on,  but  brave  their 

part  they  bore. 
But  the  many  who  wer  with  us  then,  hev  left  an'  gone 

before. 
Today  we'll  call  all  back  agin,  once  more  be  gals  an' 

boys, 
An'  try  to  feel  as  we  did  then,  when  filled  with  youth- 
ful joys. 
Our  long  forgotten  jokes  an'  scrapes,  we'll  now  tell  on 

each  other, 
Uutil  the  laughing  tears  run  down,  an'  not  a  thing 

we'll  smother. 
With  the  sweet  old  songs  we  used  to  sing 
Once  more  we'll  make  these  old  woods  ring. 
An'   show   these  .young  folks  settia'  'round  thet  the 

music  uv  that  day, 
Wuz  better  than   the  German  waltz,  or  furrin  trills 

that  now  they  sing  an'  play. 
The  music  thet  we  loved  uv  old,  wuz  the  spinnin- 

wheels'  sweet  hummin'; 
The  flax-break's  thud,  as  with  steady  beat  all  day  it 

kep  a  drummin' ; 
The  rattlin'  uv  the  shuttle,  to  the  loom-beam's  meas- 
ured thumpin'. 
But  on  pianies  an'  organs  they  now  grind  music  out 

by  poundin'  an  a  pumpin'. 
You  will  perhaps  quite  easy  see,  without  any  kind  uv 

trouble, 
Thet  the  old  way  did'ent  cost  so  much,  hut  wuz  fur 

more  profitable. 

O!  ther'  hez  bin  a  mighty  change;  but  I  think  'twill 
be  confessed 


306 


msTonr  of  vermillion  county. 


That  it  liezent  bin  in  every  case,  not  alius  for  the  best- 
Don't  you  mind   the  old  log  schoolhouse  wher'  we 

learned  so  many  things, 
As  readzw^r,  vi\-i\.ing,  spelh'w?  and  other  useful  ingaf 
All   this  is  changed,  an'  fur  the   wuss,  fur   In  ape-in 

arter  colleges, 
They  don't  teach  nuthin'  very  much,  except  what  ends 

in  ologies; 
They  skip  clean   over  common  things  an'  don't  seem 

much  inclined 
To  lay  good,  strong  foundations  for  the  trainin'.uv  the 

mind. 
They  try  to  teach  too  many  things,  an'  ther  teachin's 

kinder  scatterin' ; 
An'  that's  the  reason   why  you   see  we  now  hev  so 

much  smatterin'. 
'Tis  true  they  make  a  mighty  show,  an'  uv  everything 

they  prattle ; 
But  'lis  not  exactly  what   they  need,  in  fitein'  life's 

stern  battle. 

An'  so  it  is  in  other  things.    Jist  see  your  politics: 
The  best  men  all  must  stand  aside  fur  the  tuflfest  kind 

uv  bricks. 
In  by-gone  days  the  people  asked.  Is  he  honest?  Is  he 

capable? 
But  now  the  only  question  is,  la  the  candidate  available  ? 
Which  simply  means.  Can  the  fellow  win?  an'  if  so  is 

he  saleable? 
We  old  folks  can,  I  think,  complain  that  among  'the 

ugly  things 
Thet  now  exist,  that  this  great  land  is  run  by  rotten 

rings ; 

An'  moral  worth  an'   brilliant  brains   hev   very  little 
chance 


Agin  the  chap  with   a  bank   account,  who  makes   a 
large  advance. 

But  we  cannot   mend  these  matters, — by   frettin'  ner 

by  howlin'  , 
An'  these  young  folks  say  we  old   folks  keep  an  ever- 

lastin'  growlin' ; 
So  we'll  jist  quit  an'  let  them  try ;  fur  we  hev  had  our 

day. 
We've  fought  our   fight,  we've  made  our  marks,  an' 

we  hev  sed  our  say. 
An'  the  evening  shadows  round  us  close,  an'  we  must 

soon  away 
An'  leave  these  young  folks   on  ther'  guard  to  find  a 

better  way. 
It   is  a  fact  we  ar'  growin'    old,  'an   old  Time,  who 

never  lingers. 
Will  soon  place  on  our  beating  hearts  his  cold  an'  icy 

lingers; 
An'  then  we'll  strike  our  movin'  tents,  an'  soon  we'll 

get  our  orders 
To   quickly  take  our    line    uv    march    beyond  life's 

changeful  borders, 
Where  we'll  tind   another  campin'  ground,  in  a  place 

beyond  the  river; 
Where  all  old  settlers'  meet  agin,   an'  all   shall  camp 

together. 
In  a  camp  where  all   ar'  young   agin,   an'  no  ties  we 

there  shall  sever. 
But  to  our  names,  when  roll   is  called,   we'll  answer 

Aye  forever. 
That  meetin'  will  be  comin'  soon,   an'  if  we  but  live 

accordin', 
T'will  be  the  grandest  meetin'   yet,  away  beyond  the 

Jordin. 


i', 


i 


■  ■■■■■■■■■■»■■■■■■■■■■■'; 


BIOOBAPHICAL    SKETCHES. 


BIOGRAPHICAL  SKETCHES. 


m^ 

m, 


fOIIN  COLLETT  (second),  State  Geolo- 
gist, 1879-'84,  is  a  resident  of  the  old 
homestead  near  Engene,  though  he  spends 
most  of  his  time  at  Indianapolis.  He  was 
born  at  Engene  January  6,  1828,  the  eldest 
Bon  of  Stephen  S.  and  Sarah  (Groenendyke) 
CoUett.  (A  sketch  of  his  parents  is  given 
elsewhere  in  tliis  volume).  He  was  only  fif- 
teen years  old  when  his  father  died,  and  upon 
him  devolved  much  of  the  care  of  his  father's 
estate  of  5,000  acres,  and  also  the  interests 
of  his  younger  brothers  and  sisters,  of  whom 
there  were  seven.  In  the  discharge  of  these 
duties  he  exhibited  extraordinary  ability,  and 
was  also  faithful  in  carrying  out  the  policy 
of  his  father.  The  most  important  feature  of 
this  policy  was  good  education  for  all  his 
children.  The  plans  for  this  were  success- 
fully executed.  Mr.  Collett  pursued  his 
higher  studies  at  Wabash  College,  where  he 
graduated  in  1847  with  the  degree  of  Bachelor 
of  Arts,  and  where  five  years  later  he  received 
the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  In  1S79  that 
institution  conferred  upon  him  the  additional 
distinction  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  For  a 
number  of  years  after  arriving  at  the  age  of 


manhood  his  time  was  devoted  to  farming 
and  miscellaneous  business  connected  with  it; 
and  he  also  frequently  had  charge  of  impor- 
tant estates.  In  these  matters  he  was  re- 
markably shrewd,  prompt  and  honest.  He 
never  permitted  his  own  private  affairs  to 
interfere  witli  the  responsibilities  he  had 
undertaken  for  the  interests  of  others;  and 
amid  all  these  cares  he  also  found  time  for 
scientific  studies,  and  participated  in  i)ul.)lic 
affairs.  His  ability  and  integrity  were  both 
so  conspicuous  that  his  fellow  citizens  recog- 
nized these  qualities  in  him,  and  sought  op- 
portunities to  give  testimonials  to  the  fact  by 
honoring  him  with  office.  Accordingly,  in 
1870,  he  was  elected  to  represent  the  counties 
of  Parke  and  Vermillion  in  the  State  Senate, 
where  he  served  through  two  regular  sessions 
and  one  called  session.  While  a  Senator  he 
originated  the  clause  in  the  Baxter  Bill  which 
has  since  become  a  part  of  the  general  law 
of  the  State,  ranking  public  drunkenness  with 
crime.  Another  of  his  propositions,  which 
has  since  been  generally  accepted,  was,  that 
the  owners  and  not  the  public,  should  be  held 
responsible   for   the   live   stock  running   at 


I 

t 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


!! 


ilL 


large.  He  was  prominent  in  advocating  tlie 
law  providing  for  the  construction  of  gravel 
roads,  under  wliicli  State  gravel  roads  have 
been  made  throughout  Indiana;  but  he  was 
most  forward  in  advocating  compulsory  edu- 
cation, at  a  time  when  very  few  dared  to  favor 
such  a  measure.  Also,  he  rendered  great 
service  to  the  cause  of  education  by  assisting 
Hon.  James  D.  Williams,  then  a  Senator  from 
Knox  County,  and  since  Governor,  to  obtain 
the  passage  of  a  law  requiring  that  the  sur- 
plus bank  funds  be  distributed  among  the 
counties  to  be  loaned  at  interest  for  the  bene- 
fit of  common  schools,  instead  of  leaving  it,  as 
before  that  was  the  case,  only  in  charge  of  the 
State  officers  to  inure  to  their  benefit  ex- 
clusively. Also,  he  saved  from  defeat  the 
bill  providing  for  county  superintendents  of 
schools,  and  he  was  the  first  to  advocate  the 
establishment  of  a  State  home  for  the  feeble- 
minded. Mr.  Collett  was  a  "Whig  in  early 
life,  and  became  a  Republican  upon  the  or- 
ganization of  thatj^arty;  but,  notwithstanding 
his  zeal  in  the  cause  of  Republicanism,  he 
was  the  choice  of  Governor  Williams  in  1879, 
for  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Statistics  and 
Geology,  then  just  established.  In  assuming 
the  position,  he  found  himself  under  the 
necessity  of  devising  the  methods  for  gather- 
ing statistics,  and  although  embarrassed  for 
the  M^ant  of  sufficient  appropriations  of  money, 
he  succeeded  in  collecting  much  valuable  in- 
formation on  a  great  variety  of  important 
subjects.  This  was  compiled  in  two  volumes 
of  over  500  pages  each,  on  a  plan  which  has 
not  since  been  materially  departed  from. 
While  serving  in  this  ofiice,  his  influence  led 
the  State  House  Board  to  institute  a  series 
of  scientific  tests,  which  resulted  in  perma- 
nently establishing  the  superiority  of  Indiana 
building  stone  over  the  other  kinds  that 
before  had  been  in  use;  and  thus  was  devel- 
oped in  his  State  an  industry  which  every  year 


brings  great  wealth  to  the  people.  But  Mr. 
Collett's  greatest  notoriety  is  as  a  scientist, 
especially  in  the  departments  of  Geology  and 
Palfeontology.  When  but  eight  years  old  he 
displayed  a  remarkable  aptitude  in  the  collec- 
tion and  classification  of  geological  specimens. 
As  he  grew  older  his  talents  in  these  respect? 
became  so  marked,  that  scientific  men  in  all 
parts  of  the  United  States  opened  correspond- 
ence with  him,  and  received  great  benefit 
from  his  contributions  to  science.  For  the 
last  ten  or  fifteen  years  no  man  has  been  a 
more  enthusiastic  and  successful  student  of 
the  hidden  treasures  of  the  earth's  crust  in 
this  region;  nor  has  any  one  furnished  more 
valuable  or  welcome  information  to  the  sci- 
entific world.  From  1870  to  1878,  as  As- 
sistant State  Geologist,  he  contributed  nearly 
1,000  condensed  pages  of  matter  concerning 
the  counties  of  Sullivan,  Dubois,  Warren, 
Lawrence,  Knox,  Gibson,  Brown,  Vanderburg, 
Owen,  Montgomery,  Clay,  Putnam,  Harri- 
son and  Crawford.  While  State  Geologist, 
1879-'84:,  he  compiled  four  volumes,  aver- 
aging over  500  pages  each,  on  the  Geology 
and  Palffiontology  of  Indiana,  which  have 
become  standard  books  of  reference  in  all 
parts  of  the  civilized  Avorld.  These  reports 
embrace  a  large  number  of  illustrations  of 
great  value  to  students  of  science  as  Avell  as 
to  miners.  The  report  of  1883-'84  gave  to 
the  public  the  first  geological  map  of  Indiana 
ever  published.  Even  when  ajjpropriation 
from  the  State  funds  fell  short,  Mr.  Collett 
advanced  thousands  of  dollars  from  his  own 
purse  to  keep  his  assistants  in  the  field  and 
his  department  steadily  running;  and  for  this 
the  State  is  still  indebted  to  him.  Since  the 
expiration  of  his  term  as  State  Geologist  he 
has  been  engaged  in  various  literary  and 
business  enterjjrises,  which  allow  him  rest  and 
quiet,  and  to  make  trips  in  difterent  directions 
across  the  continent.     In  all  the  positions  he 


BIOORAPIIICAL    SKETOHEl- 


luis  held  he  has  exhibited  a  remarkable  ca- 
pacity for  excessive  hard  labor  and  endurance, 
both  mental  and  physical,  often  doing  much 
more  than  one  would  suppose  was  possible 
for  any  man  to  do.  In  religion,  Mr.  CoUett 
is  a  believer  in  Christianity,  and  his  predi- 
lections are  in  favor  of  the  Presbyterian 
church.  In  keeping  with  the  instincts  of  the 
family,  he  still  maintains  his  residence  at  the 
old  homestead  near  Eugene,  where  his  chief 
enjoyment  consists  in  agricultural  pursuits 
and  scientiiic  studies.  In  stature,  he  is  six 
feet  two  inches  high,  straight  as  a  plumb- 
line,  and  of  a  military  bearing;  his  eyes  are  a 
piercing  gray;  complexion  fair;  hair  formerly 
auburn,  but  both  that  and  his  beard  are  now 
snow  white  and  of  patriarchal  length ;  mouth 
wide,  and  of  an  aifable  outline;  nose  indi- 
cating a  marked  character;  in  motion,  he  is 
quick  and  determined.  In  the  prime  of  life 
he  could  outwalk  three  ordinary  men,  and 
hence  have  the  advantage  in  rambling  over 
hill  and  dale  in  the  examination  of  the  earth 
and  collection  of  specimens.  In  walking,  he 
does  not,  as  many  do,  keep  his  eyes  just  before 
his  toes,  but  cast  forward  at  a  great  distance, 
indicating  energy  and  high  ambition.  . 


.#.-> 


of  Ver- 


^^[LIAS  PRITCHARD,  auditor 
^M,  million  County,  Indiana,  is  serving  his 
"^^  second  term,  having  been  elected  in  the 
fail  of  1880,  and  again  in  1884,  his  present 
term  expiring  in  1888.  He  is  a  representa- 
tive of  one  of  the  pioneer  families  of  Ver- 
million Countj'.  His  father,  Ezekiel 
Pritcliard,  was  a  native  of  North  Carolina, 
removing  thence  when  a  yonng  man  to  Penn- 
sylvania, and  from  there  to  Ohio,  where  he 
married  Eleanor  Watson,  a  native  of  Penn- 
sylvania. About  1828  they  moved  to  Indi- 
ana    and    settled     in     Clinton     Township, 


Vermillion  County,  where  he  died  July 
12,  1838.  He  entered  120  acres  of  land 
on  section  5,  township  14,  range  9, 
which  he  partially  improved,  building  a 
log  house,  setting  out  an  orchard  and 
erecting  necessary  farm  buildings.  He  was 
a  hard-working,  honest  and  respected  citizen, 
and  had  many  friends  among  the  pioneers. 
He  left  at  his  death  a  widow  and  fourteen 
children,  seven  sons  and  seven  daughters,  all 
of  whom  grew  to  maturity,  and  all  but  one 
of  the  deceased  left  families.  Those  living 
are — John,  of  Joliet,  Illinois;  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Payton  and  Mrs.  Maria  Hill,  of  Clinton 
Township;  Mrs.  Mary  Cottrell,  of  Terre 
Haute;  Johnson,  of  California;  Mrs.  Martha 
Curtis,  of  Edgar  County,  Illinois,  and  Elias. 
Elias  Pritcliard  was  born  in  Clinton  Town- 
ship, (Jctober  12,  1838,  and  has  always  been 
identified  with  his  native  county.  He  was 
reared  a  farmer,  remaining  on  the  farm  until 
twenty-four  years  of  age,  when  he  was  em- 
ployed as  clerk  in  a  dry  goods  store,  and  in 
1870  engaged  in  business  for  himself  at  Bono, 
which  he  continued  until  his  election  in  1880 
to  his  present  position.  He  is  an  efticient 
public  ofticer,  fulfilling  his  duties  conscien- 
tiously and  with  painstaking  care.  Mr 
Pritcliard  married  Miss  Mary  A.  Patrick,  of 
Edgar  County,  Illinois,  daughter  of  Samuel 
and  Maria  (Nichols)  Patrick.  They  have  had 
four  children,  of  whom  only  one,  a  son,  is 
living— Ordie  E.,  born  April  18,  1879. 
Their  eldest,  Ella  M.,  died  at  the  age  of  six- 
teen years,  and  Grace  and  Blanche  aged  re- 
spectively six  and  nine  months.  In  politi 
Mr.  Pritcliard  is  a  Republican,  being  the  only 
one  of  his  family  who  votes  that  ticket.  He 
cast  his  first  Presidential  vote  for  Lincoln  in 
1860,  and  has  voted  for  every  Repul)lican 
nominee  since,  with  the  exception  of  1864, 
when  he  was  absent  from  the  State.  He  is 
one  of  the  prominent  and  substantial  citizens 


HISTORY    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


of  Yermillion  Comity,  public-spirited  and 
influential  in  promoting  all  worthy  enter- 
prises. 


-^>^ 


«P.  POTTS,  farmer  and  stock-raiser, 
section  3,  Vermillion  Townsliip,  is  a 
®  native  of  Vermillion  County,  born 
April  17,  1848,  a  son  of  Eicbard  and  Rebecca 
(Jackson)  Potts.  His  father  was  from  Mon- 
mouth County,  New  Jersey,  and  his  mother 
from  Clermont  County,  Ohio.  They  came  to 
Veritiillion  County  in  1845,  making  this 
their  home  the  remainder  of  their  lives.  The 
father  died  in  1875,  aged  seventy-four  years, 
and  the  mother  in  1885,  at  about  the  same 
age.  The/  had  two  sons — Thomas,  who  is 
now  deceased,  and  our  subject.  C.  P.  Potts 
was  reared  a  farmer,  an  occupation  he  has 
always  followed  successfully,  and  now  has  680 
acres  of  valuable  land.  In  his  stock-raising 
he  makes  a  specialty  of  cattle,  and  in  his 
herd  are  many  valuable  lireeds.  He  is  one 
of  the  enterprising  farmers  of  his  township, 
and,  although  not  yet  forty  years  old,  is  one 
of  the  substantial  and  prominent  citizens  of 
the  county.  He  was  married  in  1876  to  Jo- 
sephine Culley,  a  native  of  Vermillion 
County,  born  in  1852,  a  daughter  of  Jolm 
and  Martha  Culley.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Potts 
have  two  children — Clara  B.  and  Joseph  G. 
Mr.  Potts  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fra- 
ternity. Lodge  No.  209.  In  politics  he  casts 
his  suffrage  with  the  Kejiublican  party. 


fAMES  RUSH,  a  pioneer  of  Helt  Town- 
ship, resides  on  section  24.  He  was  born 
in  Pickaway  County,  Ohio,  IMarch  25, 
1817,  a  son  of  George  Hush,  who  came  to 
Indiana  in   1818,  and  lived  in  Parke  County 


a  year,  and  in  1819  moved  to  Vermillion 
County,  where  he  settled  in  the  woods  among 
Indians  and  wild  animals,  and  in  this  county 
James  was  reared.  One  summer  500  Indians 
were  encamped  near  their  house.  They  were 
generally  peaceable  and  gave  the  settlers  but 
little  trouble.  Mr.  Push  has  always  been  a 
farmer  and  has  done  a  great  deal  to  advance 
the  interests  of  agriculture  in  his  township. 
He  was  married  February  23, 1854,  to  Dorcas 
Andrews,  daughter  of  James  Andrews,  who 
came  to  Vermillion  County  from  Butler 
County,  Ohio,  in  1823,  and  settled  on  the 
farm  where  Mr.  Hush  now  lives,  and  where 
Mrs.  Push  was  born  July  30,  1825.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Push  have  had  five  children;  but 
three  are  living — Fred,  Mark  and  Mary  E. 
Mrs.  Push  is  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian 
church. 


fOHN  P.  McNeill,  of  Perry svi lie,  was 
born  in  AVaterford,  Loudoun  County, 
Virginia,  February  25,  1811,  a  son  of 
John  and  Hannah  (Mayne)  McNeill.  He 
came  to  Vermillion  County,  Indiana,  with  his 
father's  family  in  1836  and  here  he  has  since 
made  his  home,  a  period  of  fifty-one  years. 
He  was  reared  to  the  avocation  of  a  farmer 
which  he  made  his  life  work,  and  in  his 
chosen  work  has  met  with  excellent  success. 
Beginning  life  with  no  capital  but  health  and 
a  determination  to  succeed  he  has  by  his 
persevering  energy  and  habits  of  industry  be- 
come classed  among  the  most  prosperous  of 
the  many  successful  citizens  of  Highland 
Township.  Mr.  McNeill  has  been  twice 
married.  January  1,  1840,  he  married  Miss 
Martha  Rudy,  who  was  born  in  Pennsylvania, 
a  daughter  of  Martin  Rudy,  one  of  the  county's 
early  settlers.  Mrs.  McNeill  died  May  15, 
1848,    leaving    two    children  —  Irene,    born 


BIOOBAPHIOAL    SKETCHES. 


October  23,  1846,  uow  the  wife  of  The- 
ophilus  Holloway,  of  Yigo  County,  Indiana, 
id  Frank,  born  February  6,  1848,  an  artist 
living  in  the  city  of  New  York.  Mr.  Mc- 
Neill was  married  a  second  time  to  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  (liudy)  Barger,  a  sister  of  his 
first  wife,  and  to  this  union  were  born  seven 
children,  four  sons  and  three  daughters — 
Scott,  Albert,  John  B.  and  Charles  G.,  and 
Josephine,  wife  of  F.  A.  Walker;  Anna 
Laura,  wife  of  Thomas  J.  Armsrong,  and 
Jennie  Lind  living  at  home.  In  his  relig- 
ious belief  Mr.  McNeill  inclines  toward 
Unitarianism,  although  he  has  a  greater  re- 
spect for  good  deeds  than  for  creeds.  He  has 
been  a  student  of  religious  literature  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  and  has  found  so  many 
conflcting  theories  that  he  long  ago  jlecided 
to  take  reason  for  his  guide.  His  motto  is: 
"  Do  not  unto  others  that  which  you  would 
not  have  others  do  unto  you."  In  politics  he 
was  in  early  life  a  Whig,  casting  his  first 
■presidential  vote  for  Henry  Clay.  He  now 
affiliates  with  the  Eepublican  party.  Mr. 
McNeill  is  one  of  the  active  and  public 
spirited  citizens  of  Yermillion  County,  and 
is  ever  ready  to  aid  in  the  promotion  of  what- 
ever enterprise  he  believes  is  for  the  best  in- 
terests of  his  fellow  men. 


fOHN  WRIGHT,  a  worthy  representative 
of  one  of  the  earliest  pioneer  families  of 
_  Yermillion  County,  is  a  native  of  New 
York  State,  born  in  Ontario  County,  March 
22,  1818,  a  son  of  George  and  Anna  (Handy) 
Wright,  the  father  born  in  the  State  of  New 
York,  and  the  mother  a  native  of  Massachu- 
setts. In  1819  they  came  to  Indiana  with 
their  family  of  nine  children,  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  being  then  a  babe.  After  one 
year's  residence  in  Terre  Haute,  they,  in  1820, 


came  to  Yermillion  County,  and  in  the  forest 
of  Clinton  Township  established  their  future 
home  on  Lenderman  Creek,  five  miles  south- 
west of  Clinton.  The  county  at  that  time 
was  a  wilderness,  containing  but  few  families, 
being  inhabited  principally  by  Indians  and 
wild  animals.  George  Wright  was  a  poor 
man,  able  only  to  secure  a  tract  of  160  acres, 
and  most  of  his  children  were  too  young  to 
render  any  assistance  in  their  struggle  for  a 
livelihood.  Labor  in  the  pioneer  settlement 
commanded  no  money.  There  were  no  mills 
in  the  country,  and  corn  when  raised  had  to 
be  pounded  into  meal  in  huge  improvised 
mortars.  Gradually  the  opening  in  the 
forest  grew  larger  and  the  circumstances  of 
the  family  improved,  and  the  boys,  each  year 
added  strength  to  the  woi'king  force!  Two 
children  were  added  to  the  family  in  their 
pioneer  home.  Mrs.  Wright  did  not  live  to 
see  the  fruition  of  her  hopes,  dying  in  1827, 
in  her  forty-first  year.  Mr.  Wright  was 
spared  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  years  of  per- 
severing toil,  having  a  comfortable  home. 
He  died  in  1844  at  the  age  of  sixty-si.\  years. 
He  was  a  hard  working  man,  full  of  energy 
and  ambition,  and  was  kind  and  accommoda- 
ting to  all,  and  lie  is  still  favorably  remem- 
bered by  many  of  the  old  pioneers.  Of  his 
eleven  children,  si.x  sons  and  five  daughters, 
all  have  passed  away  but  John,  the  subject  of 
this  sketch,  and  Truman  who  lives  in  Edgar 
County,  Illinois.  John  Wright  associates 
his  earliest  recollections  of  life  with  events  in 
the  pioneer  days  of  Yermillion  County.  His 
educational  advantages  were  limited,  but  con- 
tact with  the  world  has  enabled  him  to  fully 
overcome  the  deficiencies  of  his  youthful 
days.  He  was  reared  to  the  avocation  of  a 
farmer,  and  he  has  made  farming  his  princi- 
pal occupation  through  life,  though  the  past 
si.x  years  he  has  lived  retired  from  active  life, 
I  in  Clinton,  where  he  owns  a  good  residence, 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


and  considerable  city  property,  includin 
about  a  half  interest  in  the  Opera  House 
block.  Mr.  Wright  was  united  in  marriage 
October  6,  1836,  to  .Miss  Margaret  Nickle, 
who  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1816,  and 
was  a  daughter  of  James  Nickle,  one  of  the 
county's  pioneer  men.  Of  the  six  children 
born  to  them  but  three  are  living — Lucius  H., 
of  Clinton  Township,  was  a  soldier  in  the 
Eighteenth  Indiana  Infantry  during  the  war; 
Mrs.  Narcissus  Payn,  of  Clinton  Township, 
and  John  O.,  of  Wichita,  Kansas.  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Wright  were  pioneers  of  Jackson  County, 
Iowa,  locating  there  in  1838.  One  year  later 
they  removed  to  Galena,  Illinois,  where  Mrs. 
Wright  kept  a  boarding  house  two  years,  Mr. 
AVright  being  engaged  in  smelting  and  haul- 
ing lead  ore.  They  then  returned  to  Jackson 
County,  Iowa,  where  Mr.  Wright  followed 
farming  six  years.  Returning  to  Indiana 
with  a  little  capital,  he  purchased  eighty  acres 
of  land  in  Vigo  County,  and  there  resided 
thi-ce  years,  when  he  removed  to  Edgar 
County,  Illinois,  where  his  wife  died.  Mr. 
Wright  was  subsequently  married  to  Miss 
•Mary  Chunn,  who  was  born  in  Clinton  Town- 
ship, Vermillion  County,  in  1827,  a  daughter 
of  John  T.  Chunn,  who  was  a  Major  in  the 
war  of  1812,  in  the  Virginia  Volunteers.  To 
this  union  six  children  were  born,  all  of  whom 
are  residing  in  Clinton  Township  or  city. 
They  are  as  follows — David,  Mrs.  Margaret 
Smith,  a  widow,  Mrs.  Naomi  Hale,  Mrs. 
Maria  Van  Dyne,  Ulysses  G.  and  William  C. 
In  1858  Mr.  Wright  again  returned  to  Ver- 
million County,  since  which  time  he  has  been 
a  resident  of  Clinton  Township,  and  during 
this  time  he  has  witnessed  the  marvelous 
growth  and  development  of  the  county,  in 
which  he  has  done  las  full  share.  On  settling 
in  the  county  he  bought  800  acres  of  land, 
and  by  his  good  management  he  added  to  his 
i-eal  estate  until  he  had  1,400  acres.     He  has 


given  his  children  a  good  start  in  life,  and 
yet  owns  about  700  acres,  and  all  his  proper- 
ty has  been  acquired  by  fair  and  honorable 
means.  Mr.  Wright  is  a  member  of  the 
Masonic  fraternitj'.  In  politics  he  was  in 
early  days  a  V/hig,  an  ardent  supporter  and 
admirer  of  Henry  Clay,  and  since  the  organi- 
zation of  the  Republican  party  lias  voted  that 
ticket. 


■^-*. 


fOHN  McKEILL,  deceased,  formerly  a 
resident  of  Perrysville,  was  born  in  Tus- 
carora  Valley,  Pennsylvania.  After  liv- 
ing for  a  time  in  Loudoun  County,  Virginia, 
and  Frederick  County,  Maryland,  he  came,  in 
November,  1836,  with  his  family  to  Perrys- 
ville. While  residing  in  Maryland  he  was 
regarded  as  one  of  the  foremost  citizens  of 
Frederick  County,  filling  many  honorable 
positions  in  society.  For  many  years  he  was 
justice  of  the  peace,  and  so  clear  was  his 
head  in  legal  matters,  and  so  impartial  his 
judgments,  that  no  appeal  was  ever  taken 
from  his  docket.  He  was  an  intense  anti- 
slavery  man  and  an  active  member  of  the 
Maryland  Colonization  Society,  the  object  of 
which  organization  was  to  colonize  the  colored 
people  in  Liberia,  Africa.  He  was  once  offered 
the  position  of  Probate  Judge  of  Frederick 
County  by  the  Governor  and  Council, — a 
life  appointment, — but  declined  it,  having 
determined  to  move  West.  He  was  well 
posted  in  Governmental  matters.  Was  a 
prominent  and  useful  member  of  the  Method- 
ist Episcopal  church,  well  informed  as  to  her 
policy  and  doctrines.  After  he  came  to 
Perrysville  he  purchased  a  lot  for  a  churcli 
building,  and  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits  in 
the  enterprise  of  erecting  the  church.  He 
was  united  in  marriage  with  Hannah  Mayne, 
and  they  had  a  large  family  of  children  noted 


AlOQBAPmOAL   SRBTCBas, 


817 


for  their  energy  and  industry.  Mr.  McNeiil's 
father,  John  McNeill,  emigrated  from  Scot- 
land previous  to  the  Eevolutionary  war,  in 
whicli  contest  he  Joined  tlie  patriot  forces  and 
remained  with  tliein  to  the  end.  In  one 
engagement  he  was  shot  twice,  and  he  bore  his 
ho!K>raljle  scars  to  the  grave.  During  his  term 
III'  service  he  was  promoted  to  the  position  of 
ehief  baggage-mastei".  He  had  married  Miss 
-Me\'ey,  a  lady  of  Scotch  decent,  who  had 
eliai'ge  of  the  family  while  he  was  in  the 
ai-iiiy. 


^sON.  GEORGE  II.  McNEILLof  Perrys- 
'  I  \  vilie,  Indiana,  son  of  John  and  Hannah 
%;|  (Mayne)  McNeill,  was  born  in  Middle- 
town  Valley,  Frederick  County,  Maryland, 
February  22, 1818.  His  father  was  of  Scotch 
descent,  and  his  mother  of  German  descent. 
His  father  was  a  prominent  and  highly 
res])ected  citizen  of  Frederick  Coirnty,  Mary- 
land, and  while  residing  in  that  county  held 
several  offices  of  profit  and  honor.  Born  upon 
a  farm,  the  subject  of  this  sketch  had  only 
such  opportunities  as  were  oflTered  in  the 
country  schools,  taught  principally  during 
the  winter  seasons,  and  the  use  of  a  well 
selected  general  library,  owned  by  his  father, 
through  which  means  he  acquired  a  fair  edu- 
cation, and  formed  a  taste  for  general  reading, 
whicli  has  followed  him  through  life,  and 
enabled  him  to  become  well  posted  in  many 
branches  of  science  and  literature,  ranking 
him  among  the  able  self-made  men  of  the 
country.  In  the  fall  of  1836  he,  with  his 
fatlier's  family, emigrated  to  the  then  far  west, 
and  located  at  Perrysville,  on  the  Wabash 
River,  in  Vermillion  County,  Indiana,  where 
his  father  died  in  1843,  and  his  mother  in 
1856,  and  where  his  only  living  brother,  John 
R.    McNeill,   now  resides,  his  other  brother. 


Judge  C.  F.  McNeill,  having  recently  died. 
To  his  honored  parents,  who  were  old  style 
Methodists,  and  were  members  of  that  church 
almost  from  its  first  organization,  the  McNeill 
family  are  greatly  indebted  for  whatsoever  is 
good  or  honorable  that  may  pertain  to  them. 
Mr.  McNeill  has  resided  in  Perrysville  ever 
since  he  came  to  this  county  and  was  always 
actively  engage  in  some  business.  When 
young  he  read  medicine  extensively  witii  the 
view  of  entering  into  its  practice,  but  con- 
cluded to  go  into  the  drug  business  and  did 
so  in  1845  which  he  has  continued  up  to  the 
present  time  and  made  it  a  decided  success. 
He  has  always  kept  a  complete  assortment, 
and  of  the  very  best,  and  managed  tiie  busi- 
ness witir_  such  care,  and  so  tlioroughly 
trained  his  assistants,  that  during  his  forty- 
two  years  in  business,  not  a  single  accident 
has  occurred  from  putting  out  wrong  articles. 
In  1845  he  married  Rebecca  Kinno}^  Beers, 
one  of  a  family  remarkable  for  their  natural 
abilities,  and  noted  as  the  best  of  cooks  and 
housekeepers.  The  result  of  tiii.s  marriage 
was  three  sons — Milton  ]\[.,  William  Kinney 
and  George  H.  Milton  M.  McNeill  reside? 
in  tiie  city  of  Danville,  Illinois,  is  farming 
largely,  and  doing  a  successful  hard-wood 
lumber  business.  He  married  Ruliama  Rus- 
sell Bell,  daughter  of  Wm.  M.  Bell.  William 
K.  McNeill  remained  with  his  parents  aiding 
in  the  home  business  and  is  now  trustee  of 
Iligiiland  Township.  George  H.  McNeill, 
Jr.,  died  in  his  infancy.  Mrs.  McNeill  took 
charge  of  the  drug  business  in  1850  and  ran 
it  for  ten  years,  managing  it  with  ability, 
training  her  sons  to  the  business,  learning 
them  habits  of  industry,  and  inculcating 
principles  of  honor  and  morality  as  only  a 
mother  can  do.  Her  home  is  a  model  one 
where  hosts  of  people  have  been  kindly 
entertained.  For  fortj'-two  years  past  she 
has  been  an  active  member  of  the  Methodist 


Episcopal  church  in  Perrysville.  Mr.  McNeill 
has  been  county  surveyor  of  Vermillion  Coun- 
ty, Indiana,  was  for  a  number  of  years,  exam- 
iner of  school  teachers  for  the  coimty,  and 
has  been  a  notary  public  continuously  for 
over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  He,  under  order 
of  court,  has  been  a  commissioner  to  divide 
real  estate  among  the  heirs  of  deceased 
persons  often er  tliau  any  person  that  has  ever 
i-esided  in  the  county.  He  was  also  enrolling 
officer  for  Highland  Township,  and  always 
had  mucli  to  do  with  public  affairs  and  filled 
the  various  positions  with  credit  and  ability. 
In  addition  to  the  drug  business  lie  and  his 
son  William  K.  McNeill  are  engaged  in 
farming  and  stock-raising  on  tlieir  farms  near 
Perrysville.  Mr.  McNeill  is  a  Republican 
and  has  been  an  active  member  of  that  party 
since  its  organization — is  an  unwavering  be- 
liever in  the  truths  of  the  Bible  and  in  ortho- 
dox Christianity,  as  taught  in  the  standard 
authorities  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 
He  was  eminently  loyal  to  the  Government 
during  the  rebellion,  and  never  became  dis- 
pondent  during  its  darkest  days — expressing 
Ills  views  as  he  often  did  "that  the 
Lord  of  Hosts  was  not  dead  and  that  the 
Devil  did  not  reign — therefore  the  Government 
would  finally  triumph  and  the  rebellion  be 
put  down."  Mr.  McNeill  is  outspoken  in 
whatever  views  he  may  hold — is  public 
spirited,  charitable,  liberal  and  kindly  disposed 
but  will  not  suffer  his  rights  trampled  upon. 
At  the  age  of  nearly  seventy  years,  does  as 
much  work  and  pushes  his  business  as 
energetically  as  when  young. 


fAVID  W.  BELL, an  active  and  enterpris- 
ing business  man,  is  a  native  of  Ver- 
million County,  Indiana,  born  at  Eugene, 
Deccmlier  20,   1856,  a  son  of  Tliomas  W. 


Bell,  of  Eugene,  who  was  one  of  the  early 
settlers  here.  David  W.  passed  his  boyhood 
at  Eugene,  receiving  his  education  in  the 
schools  of  this  place.  At  the  age  of  fourteen 
he  went  on  a  farm,  where  he  farmed  for 
three  years.  He  went  to  Terre  Haute  in  tlie 
spring  of  1876  and  was  tliere  engaged  in  tlie 
drug  business  until  1879,  wlien  he  returned 
to  Eugene  where  lie  has  since  been  engaged 
in  the  drug  and  general  mercantile  business. 
He  is  associated  with  William  W.  Hosford, 
and  both  being  live  business  men,  have 
established  a  good  trade  which  is  steadily  in- 
creasing. Mr.  Bell  is  the  present  accommo- 
dating postmaster  at  Eugene,  having  been 
appointed  to  this  office  in  1885,  his  commis- 
sion bearing  tlie  date  of  April  27,  1885,  and 
signed  by  Grover  Cleveland. 

IgENJAMIN  HARRISON,  one  of  the 
Wa%  old  and  honored  pioneers  of  Vermillion 
^'"  County,  dates  his  birth  February  S, 
1805,  in  Rockingham  County,  Virginia.  His 
parents,  William  and  Molly  Harrison,  were 
also  natives  of  Rockingham  County,  his 
father  being  one  of  the  prominent  men  vl' 
the  county.  He  was  also  a  Captain  in  tlie 
war  of  1812.  The  subject  of  this  sketcli 
grew  to  manhood  in  his  native  county,  where 
he  was  reared  to  agricultural  pursuits,  whieli 
he  made  the  principal  avocation  of  his  life. 
His  education  was  limited  to  a  few  months 
attendance  at  the  subscription  schools  of  that 
early  day.  In  1825  he  accompanied  his 
parents  to  Ohio,  they  settling  in  Gallia 
County,  but  the  following  year  he  returned 
to  Virginia,  and  was  married  in  his  native 
county  to  Miss  Jane  A.  Bright,  January  3, 
1827.  They  were  reared  in  the  same  neigh- 
borhood, and  were  playmates  in  early  life. 
Siie  was    born  in    Rockingham   County,  tlie 


iH55MSH5SS 


BIOORAPHICAL   8EBTCBEB. 


date  of  her  birth  being  January  19,  1806. 
Tliirteen  children  were  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Harrison,  of  whom  seven  are  living  at  the 
l)i-esent  time — Mrs.  Abbie  Davidson,  born  in 
Virginia;  Eobert,  also  a  native  of  Virginia; 
Mile;  Calvin;  Charlotte,  living  with  her 
lather;  Franklin  and  Joseph.  The  remain- 
ing children  died  in  early  childhood,  with  the 
exception  of  Alexander,  who  died  in  1876  at 
the  age  of  thirty-seven  years.  Mr.  Harrison 
continued  to  reside  in  Ilockingham  County 
until  October,  1832,  when  he  came  with  his 
family  to  Vermillion  County,  and  made  his 
jiioneer  home  on  Brouillet's  Creek,  where  he 
bought  a  tract  of  320  acres.  After  clearing 
some  fifteen  or  twenty  acres  of  this  land  he 
sold  it,  and  in  1837  he  removed  to  his  pres- 
ent farm  on  section  19,  Clinton  Township, 
where  he  now  owns  about  500  acres  of  land, 
200  acres  being  bottom  land,  and  imexcelled 
in  the  county.  April  2, 1887,  he  was  bereaved 
by  the  death  of  his  wife,  who  had  shared 
with  him  the  joys  and  sorrows  of  life  for 
over  sixty  years.  Mr.  Harrison  was  reared  a 
Democrat,  but  at  the  time  of  the  Rebellion 
he  stood  firmly  by  the  administration  of 
President  Lincoln,  and  since  then  has  been 
one  of  the  active  Republicans  of  Vermillion 
County.  Perhaps  no  man  in  Indiana  has 
filled  successively  the  office  of  magistrate  as 
long  as  the  subject  of  this  sketch — a  period 
of  thirty-eight  years.  In  1842  he  was  elected 
justice  of  the  peace,  holding  that  office  until 
1880,  when,  on  account  of  his  advanced  age, 
he  refused  a  re-election.  During  his  term  of 
office  he  proved  an  efficient  officer,  and  his 
decisions  M'ere  always  wise  and  just.  One 
fact  in  his  official  career  speaks  well  for  his 
wise  judgment,  that  not  two  cases  decided  by 
him  were  appealed  to  the  higher  courts. 
During  his  long  residence  in  the  county  he 
has  gained  the  confidence  and  respect  of  the 
entire  community,  and     made    many    warm 


friends.  Particularly  is  he  loved  and  honored 
by  his  children,  who  have  all  settled  around 
the  old  home. 


fECATUR  DOAVNING,  of  Clinton,  is 
one  of  the  representative  men  of  Ver- 
million County.  He  was  born  in  Clin- 
ton, Indiana,  January  23,  1836,  a  son  of 
Jonathan  Downing,  who  was  born  in  the  State 
of  Maryland  June  12,  1806,  and  a  grandson 
of  William  Downing,  who  settled  near 
Columbus,  Ohio,  moved  to  Clinton,  Indiana, 
in  1818,  and  died  here  March  7,  1822,  aged 
forty-six  years,  his  widow  surviving  until 
March  27,  1842.  Jonathan  Downing  passed 
his  youth  principally  in  Ohio.  In  1820,  two 
years  before  the  death  of  his  father,  he  came 
to  Clinton,  Indiana,  then  strong,  amljitious 
and  of  good  habits,  and  sought  employment 
among  the  pioneer  farmers,  but  shortly  after 
i-eaching  manhood  he  commenced  an  active 
business  career.  In  the  employment  of 
others  as  clerk  he  gained  experience,  and  be- 
came the  business  partner  of  B.  R.  Whit- 
comb,  in  Sullivan  County,  and  later  he 
established  himself  in  the  grocery  trade  at 
Clinton.  Some  years  later  he  was  elected 
magistrate,  and  served  efiiciently  in  that 
capacity,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  his  con- 
stituents. In  1846  he  removed  to  Newport, 
Vermillion  County,  where  for  a  short  time  he 
kept  a  hotel,  and  also  bought  and  shipped 
produce  to  New  Orleans  and  other  points.  In 
1848  he  returned  to  Clinton,  where  he  died 
in  1849.  His  widow,  Mrs.  Eliza  (Hiatt) 
Downing,  still  survives,  and  makes  her  home 
with  her  son  Decatur  Downing,  the  subject 
of  this  sketch.  She  was  born  at  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania,  September  6,  1815,  a  daughter 
of  Robert  Payton,  who  with  his  family  moved 
to  Kentucky  when   Mrs.  Downing  was   quite 


BISTORT    OF    VERMILLION    COVNTT. 


yonng,  and  died  at  Covington  not  long  after- 
ward. Mrs.  Payton  with  her  iive  children, 
of  whom  Mrs.  Downing  was  the  eldest,  in 
1827  moved  to  YeriTiillion  County,  where  all 
died  with  the  exception  of  Mrs.  Downing  and 
Mrs.  Margaret  Mitcliell,  of  Clinton.  The 
mother  was  again  married  to  James  Booher, 
who  died  in  1845.  She  died  in  February, 
1849,  aged  fifty-iive  years.  The  two  children 
born  to  her  second  marriage  are  deceased. 
Mrs.  Downing  was  first  married  December 
20,  1829,  to  Thomas  J.  Hiatt,  who  died 
March  3,  1834.  She  married  Jonathan 
Downing  December  20,  1884.  Jonathan  Mas 
twice  married,  taking  for  his  first  wife  Miss 
E^e  Hammond,  who  died  October  23,  1828. 
She  left  at  her  death  two  children  whose 
names  are  Mrs.  Delilah  Doty,  now  living  in 
Madison  County,  and  Mrs.  Perie  Charlton, 
who  died  at  Tuscola,  Illinois.  Decatur  Down- 
ing, whose  name  heads  this  sketch,  has  been 
all  his  life  identified  with  Vermillion  County, 
and  has  always  taken  an  active  interest  in 
promoting  any  enterprise  which  tends  to- 
ward its  advancement.  His  educational  ad- 
vantages were  limited  to  the  common  schools 
of  the  county,  and  of  these  he  made  good 
use,  and  in  the  broadest  sense  he  may  be 
called  a  self-made  man.  But  thirteen  years 
old  when  his  father  died  lie  was  taken  into 
the  home  of  John  Payton,  his  maternal  uncle, 
with  whom  lie  remained  as  an  employe  in  his 
M-arehouse  and  mercantile  establishment, 
until  twenty-two  years  of  age,  and  during 
this  time  he  laid  the  Ibundation  of  his  suc- 
cessful business  career.  When  twenty-two 
years  old  he  became  a  partner  in  his  uncle's 
business  at  Toronto,  Vermillion  County, 
which  business  relation  existed  until  1873. 
Mr.  Downing  was  married  October  18,  1860, 
to  Miss  Matilda  Eichardson,  who  was  born 
in  Clinton  Township,  Vermillion  County, 
March  7.  1842,  a   daughter  of  William   A. 


Richardson.  She  died  at  Toronto  November 
30,  1873.  Clearing  his  business  relations 
with  his  uncle,  Mr.  Downing  with  his  only 
surviving  child,  Sarah  Eliza,  who  was  born 
August  29,  1861,  again  established  his  resi- 
dence in  Clinton.  He  has  lost  two  children: 
Frank,  who  died  October  9,  1865,  aged  over 
three  years,  and  Blanche,  who  died  July  24, 
1869,  aged  six  months  and  thirteen  days. 
Since  returning  to  Clinton  Mr.  Downing  has 
been  one  of  the  active  business  men  of  the 
place.  In  1875  he  became  senior  member  of 
the  firm  of  Downing  &  Nelson,  dealers  in 
produce  and  agricultural  implements.  In 
1876  the  firm  was  changed  to  Downing  A: 
Hamilton,  erecting  a  large  warehouse  to  ac- 
commodate their  increased  trade.  This  firm 
continued  until  1887,  when  Mr,  Downing  re- 
tired from  the  business.  September  21, 188G, 
he  married  for  his  second  wife  Mrs.  Saiah 
Sophia.  (J  aques)  Ilaselett,  a  daughter  of  John 
and  Mary  (Vannest)  Jaques,  and  a  grand- 
daughter of  John  Vannest,  the  first  settler  of 
Vermillion  County.  She  was  born  near  the 
pioneer  home  of  her  grandfather  in  Clinton 
Township,  March  9,  1844.  She  was  first 
married  toAVilliam  J.  Haselett,  who  was  born 
in  Putnam  County,  Indiana,  July  15,  1843, 
and  to  this  union  were  born  four  children — 
Mallie  B.,  Edith  L.,  William  J.  and  Emma 
G.,  the  third  child,  who  died  aged  two  years. 
Besides  his  fine  residence  and  other  property 
in  Clinton  Mr.  Downing  owns  three  tarms  in 
Clinton  Township  aggregating  570  acres.  In 
politics  he  was  identified  witli  the  Republican 
party  from  its  organization  until  within  the 
past  few  years.  In  1886  he  was  the  candi- 
date on  the  National  Labor  Reiorm  party  and 
endorsed  by  the  Republican  party  for  elec- 
tion to  the  Indiana  General  Assembly  in  his 
district  comprising  Sullivan,  Vigo  and  Ver- 
million counties,  and  although  having  a  plu- 
rality of  1,200  votes  to  overcome  was  defeated 


SiOOHAPBICAL    SKi!TCM'B. 


only  by  thirty  votes,  wliicli  shows  the  esteem 
in  which  he  is  held  among  the  men  whom 
he  has  lived  so  long.  He  has  served  as  com- 
missioner of  Vermillion  County  several  years 
with  honor  to  himself  and  to  the  satisfaction 
of  his  constituents. 


irOMAS  CUSIIMAN,  depntj  treasurer 
of  Vermillion  County,  is  one  of  the 
veteran  officials  of  the  county.  He  is 
a  pioneer  of  the  county,  locating  in  Perrys- 
ville  in  January,  1836,  where  he  resided  until 
1872,  when  he  was  elected  auditor  of  the 
county,  and  moved  to  Newport,  where  he  has 
since  lived.  He  was  born  in  Onondaga 
County,  New  York,  October  15,  1814.  His 
father,  Seth.Cnshman,  was  born  in  the  State 
of  New  York  and  was  a  direct  descendant  of 
Robert  Cushman  who  came  to  America  in  the 
Mayflower  in  1620.  He  was  reared  in  his 
native  State  and  there  married  Nancy  Eun- 
yau,  a  native  of  the  same  State,  of  English 
descent,  her  parents  belonging  to  a  prominent 
family  in  New  England  who  later  settled  in 
New  York.  In  the  spring  of  1818  Seth 
Cushman  moved  with  his  family  to  Sullivan 
County,  Indiana.  Immigrating  West  seventy 
years  ago  was  a  slow  and  tedious  undertaking. 
Several  fan)ilies  accompanied  Mr.  Cushman, 
the  party  going  by  ox  team  to  Olean,  New 
York,  when  they  constructed  a  flat-boat  and 
floated  down  the  Alleghany  and  Ohio  rivers 
to  Evans ville.  Here  they  separated,  each 
family  going  its  own  way.  Mr.  Cushman, 
bought  a  team  at  Evansville  and  went  north 
to  Princeton,  where  he  spent  the  winter.  The 
following  spring  he  went  to  Sullivan  County, 
and  pre-empted  forty  acres  of  land  which  he 
began  to  improve.  His  family  at  that  time 
consisted  of  eight  children,  their  ages  ranging 
from    two    to    twenty  years.     Mr.    Cushman 


did  not  live  long  to  see  his  pioneer  home 
develop  and  the  country  around  it  become 
improved.  From  the  effect  of  exposure  and 
the  malarial  character  of  the  country  he  con- 
tracted disease  which  resulted  in  his  death  in 
the  spring  of  1821.  He  was  reared  a  Quaker, 
and  possessed  that  high  moral  and  religious 
nature,  characteristic  of  that  sect.  Honest 
and  upright  in  all  his  dealings,  he  and  his  wife 
were  worthy  representatives  of  that  brave 
pioneer  element  that  is  fast  jmssing  away. 
After  the  death  of  the  father  the  family 
remained  together  and  the  boys  continued  the 
improvement  of  the  farm  and  also  added  to 
it.  In  1829,  when  fifteen  years  of  acre, 
Thomas  went  to  Vincennes  and  obtained 
employment  in  the  store  of  Tomlinson  & 
Eoss,  where  he  remained  five  years.  He 
then  went  to  Perrysville,  and  engaged  in 
general  merchandising  with  George  Uishop 
and  E.  D.  Moff'att.  In  1841  Mr.  Eishop 
withdrew  and  the  firm  of  Mofl^att  &  Cushman 
continued  until  Mr.  Cushman's  removal  to 
Newport  in  1872.  Mr.  Cushman  was  married 
in  Perrysville,  in  1847,  to  Susan  E.  Firth,  a 
native  of  Kentucky,  where  her  parents  died 
when  she  was  a  child  and  she  and  a  sister 
afterward  had  a  home  with  Elijah  Eoseberry 
and  with  him  came  to  Vermillion  County  in 
1844.  Mrs.  Cushman  died  in  March,  1859, 
leaving  five  children,  only  one  of  whom  is 
living — William  J.,  now  of  Danville,  Illinois. 
In  1862  Mr.  Cushman  married  Mary  A. 
Baxter,  widow  of  Dr.  John  S.  Baxter.  She 
died  in  July,  1883,  leaving  a  daughter, 
Carrie  Glauton,  now  the  wife  of  AYilliam  L. 
Galloway,  of  Wichita,  Kansas.  Mr.  Cush- 
man began  life  poor  and  whatever  success  he 
has  gained  has  been  due  to  his  own  cft'orts. 
In  early  life  he  was  a  Whig,  but  since  its 
organization  has  been  allied  to  the  Ecjiublican 
party.  His  first  presidential  vote  was  cast 
for  General  Harrison  in  1840.     There  never 


HISTORY    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


having  been  a  society  of  FrienJs  formed  in 
Newport,  Mr.  Cuslunan  has  cast  his  lot 
with  the  Methodists. 


fAMES  A.  ELDER,  section  3,  Ilelt  Town- 
ship, is  a  native  of  Brown  Countj,  Ohio, 
Lorn  October  2,  1822,  a  son  of  Samuel 
and  Marj  (McCane)  Elder,  his  father  a  native 
of  Westmoreland  County,  Pennsylvania,  and 
his  motlier  of  Ireland.  His  grandfather, 
Samuel  Elder,  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  and 
came  to  America  soon  after  his  marriage. 
Samuel  Elder,  Jr.,  left  his  native  State  in 
1816,  and  moved  to  Brown  County,  Ohio, 
where  he  lived  until  1832,  when  he  moved 
to  Yermillion  County,  Indiana,  and  settled 
in  Ilelt  Township,  where  his  wife  died  in 
1852.  In  the  summer  of  1869  he  went  to 
New  York  to  visit  friends,  and  died  there 
July  6,  of  that  year.  James  A.  Elder  was 
reared  on  a  farm  in  Vermillion  County,  and 
was  educated  in  the  log  cabin  schools.  He 
has  always  devoted  his  attention  to  farming, 
and  has  been,  as  a  result  of  economy  and 
good  management,  successful,  and  now  owns 
a  ilne  farm  of  423  acres  where  he  resides, 
and  also  143  acres  in  Edgar  County,  Illinois. 
He  makes  a  specialty  of  stock-raising,  and 
has  some  very  line  graded  varieties  of  both 
cattle  and  hogs.  He  takes  pride  in  having 
his  farm  and  stock  equal  to  any  in  the 
county,  and  devotes  his  entire  attention  to 
improving  his  property.  He  takes  an  inter- 
est in  the  material  welfare  of  the  county,  but 
prefers  to  leave  the  duties  devolving  on  an 
officeholder  to  those  who  have  such  asjnra- 
tions,  his  time  being  taken  up  with  his  own 
private  business,  although  he  has  servfed 
three  years  on  the  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners. Mr.  Elder  was  married  April  1, 
1852,  to  Euphamia  Slieely,  daughter  of  George 


Sheely.  She  died  the  following  August,  and 
January  18,  1855,  Mr.  Elder  married  Mary, 
daughter  of  James  Morgan.  To  them  were 
born  two  children  —  George  and  Harriet. 
George  married  Mattie  Tem])le,  and  is  living 
in  Ilelt  Township;  Harriet  is  the  wife  of 
Oscar  Gibson,  of  Newport.  IMrs.  Elder  died 
November  10,  1862.  March  26,  1864,  ISIr. 
Elder  married  Mrs.  Julia  A.  Fisher,  daughter 
of  Eichard  Dicken,  who  died  December  13, 
1875,  leaving  two  children — Clara  A.,  wife 
of  Fisher  McHoberts,  and  Samuel.  February 
1,  1877,  Mr.  Elder  married  Susan  R.,  daugh- 
ter of  Adna  Beach.  He  and  his  wife  are 
members  of  the  Presbyterian  church. 


^^LDRIDGE  HARLAN,  farmer  and  stock- 
°\rfli  raiser,  section  17,  Vermillion  Township, 
^^  is  a  native  of  Vermillion  County,  born 
November  30,  1840,  a  son  of  Cornelius  C. 
and  Martha  (Tate)  Harlan,  natives  of  Tenn- 
essee, of  English  descent.  His  paternal  an- 
cestors came  to  America  in  an  early  day,  four 
brothers  coming  together,  two  of  them  set- 
tling in  Tennessee,  one  in  North  Carolina, 
and  one  in  Kentucky.  After  his  marriage, 
Cornelius  Harlan  came  to  Indiana  and  bought 
200  acres  of  land  in  Vermillion  County,  and 
on  this  farm  our  subject  was  reared  and  early 
learned  the  lessons  that  have  been  of  benefit 
to  him  since  he  commenced  life  for  himself. 
When  he  started  for  himself  he  had  $180, 
and  from  this  beginning  he  has  kept  on  until 
he  is  now  one  of  the  prosperous  farmers  of 
the  township.  His  homestead  contains  170 
acres  of  valuable  land,  and  his  residence  and 
farm  buildings  are  comfortable  and  commodi- 
ous. He  has  made  a  specialty  of  dealing  in 
and  raising  stock,  and  has  made  a  success  of 
this  enterprise.  When  his  father  located  on 
his  farm  it  was  a  tract  of  wild   laml,  and  the 


improvements  have  all  been  made  by  him, 
and  in  all  his  labor  he  has  been  ably  assisted 
by  his  estimable  wife.  Mr.  Harlan  was  mar- 
ried in  1864,  to  Matilda  Merriman,  who  was 
born  in  Vermillion  Connty  in  1838,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Manson  P.  and  Anna  (Campbell)  Mer- 
riman. Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harlan  have  fonr 
fhildren — Lanra,  Calla,  Thomas  C.  and  Josie 
15.  Their  two  eldest  daughters  have  taught 
several  terms  in  this  and  Vigo  counties,  and 
are  both  successful  and  popular  teachers.  Tlie 
eldest  daughter,  Laura,  will  graduate  in  the 
State  Normal  in  1888.  Mr.  Harlan  is  a 
member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity.  Lodge  No. 
209.     In  politics  he  is  a  Democrat. 


►^H 


fOIlN  BRINDLEY,  farmer  and  stock- 
raiser,  section  1),  Vermillion  Township, 
was  born  in  Harrison  County,  Indiana, 
January  4,  1825,  a  son  of  George  and  Sarah 
(Blunk)  Brindley,  natives  of  Kentucky,  of 
German  descent,  the  fether  born  June  20, 
1800,  died  in  1878,  and  the  mother  born 
in  1806,  died  March  3,  1867.  The  parents 
came  with  their  family  to  Vermillion  Coi;nty 
in  1828,  and  lived  here  the  rest  of  their 
lives.  They  had  a  family  of  thirteen  chil- 
dren, six  of  whom  are  living — Margaret,  wife 
of  Eev.  Joshua  Rogers,  of  Decatur;  John; 
Andrew,  of  Perrysville;  Eli,  George,  and 
Susanna,  wife  of  Edward  Brown.  They  were 
members  of  the  United  Brethren  church,  and 
were  held  in  high  esteem  by  all  the  old  set- 
tlers who  shared  with  them  the  hardships 
and  pleasures  of  pioneer  life.  John  Brindley 
was  reared  in  Vermillion  Township,  and  now 
owns  129  acres  of  its  best  land.  AVlien  he 
started  in  life  for  himself  he  was  without 
means  but  by  habits  of  industry  he  has  ac- 
quired a  good  property.  He  was  married 
September    3,    1846,   to  Sarah,  daughter    of 


John  and  Julia  A.(Breimer)  Luellen,  natives 
of  Pennsylvania,  of  Welsh  and  German  de- 
scent. Mr.  and  Mrs.  Brindley  have  had  five 
children,  three  of  whom  are  living — Francis 
L.  married  Emma  J.  Eeeder,  and  has  three 
children — Morris  A.,  Eva  A.  and  Lucy  B., 
Thomas  E.  married  Charity  Ratliff;  Alonzo 
married  Lucy  Merriman,  and  lives  on  the 
liome  farm.  In  politics  Mr.  Brindley  is  a 
Democrat. 

_  m    .    ,^  fT  ^^  ^ 

r^T  jr  KLVILLE  B.  CARTER,  a  prominent 
'.  I, \/.\-  '^■'•izen  of  Newport,  was  born  and 
^|¥i^  reared  in  Highland  Township,  Ver- 
million Connty,  a  son  of  Absalom  and  Sid- 
ney (Chenoweth)  Carter,  who  were  among  the 
pioneers  of  Vermillion  County,  coming  from 
Ohio,  their  native  State,  in  an  early  day.  The 
father  was  a  man  of  much  intelligence,  and 
became  one  of  the  leading  men  in  the  early 
history  of  the  county.  He  taught  school  at 
Perrysville,  this  county,  for  many  years,  and 
also  held  the  position  of  justice  of  the  peace, 
for  some  time.  He  subsequently  removed  to 
Baltimore,  Warren  County,  Indiana,  where 
he  lived  a  considerable  time,  but  finally  re- 
turned to  Perrysville,  where  he  died,  when 
the  subject  of  the  sketch  was  a  boy.  His 
wife  was  a  daughter  of  John  Chenoweth,  an 
early  settler  of  Highland  Township.  She 
died  in  Perrysville  in  1881.  They  were  the 
parents  of  two  children — Sylvanus,  who  was 
a  soldier  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  a  mem- 
ber of  Company  K,  Sixth  Indiana  Cavalry, 
and  died  at  Knoxville,  Tennessee,  in  1863; 
and  Melville  B.,  the  subject  of  this  sketch. 
Melville  B.  Carter  was  also  a  soldier  in  the 
late  war,  enlisting  in  18G1  in  Company  B, 
Eleventh  Indiana  Infantry,  and  was  in  active 
service  over  four  years.  He  was  at  the  bat- 
tle of  Fort   Donelsnn,   and   at   the    battle  of 


I — 


BISTORT    OF    VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


Shiloh  under  General  Lew  Wallace,  and  also 
took  part  in  the  battle  of  Champion  Hills 
and  siege  of  Vicksburg.  He  was  then  trans- 
ferred east,  and  participated  in  the  engage- 
ments at  Winchester  and  Cedar  Creek.  He 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  in  August, 
1865,  having  escaped  without  wounds,  but 
returning  home  with  his  health  somewhat 
impaired.  Mr.  Carter  Avas  united  in  marriage 
to  Miss  Fanny  ]\Ioftalt,  a  daughter  of  AYalter 
B.  Moffatt,  of  Perrjsville.  She  died  in  1869, 
leaving  at  her  death  a  daughter  named 
Grace.  After  the  war  Mr.  Carter  engaged  in 
farming  in  Highland  Township,  which  he 
followed  successfully  until  1886.  In  the  fall 
of  that  year  he  was  elected,  on  the  llepubli- 
can  ticket,  recorder  of  Vermillion  County, 
as  successor  to  C.  S.  Davis,  who  had  tilled 
the  oftice  about  nine  year.s.  Since  assuming 
the  duties  of  the  office  Mr.  Carter  has  given 
entire  satisfaction,  making  an  efficient  and 
popular  county  officer. 


fRANCIS  M.  BISHOP  of  Clinton,  was 
born  in  Sturbridge,  Massachusetts,  De- 
cember 27,  1833,  but  since  boyhood  his 
life  has  been  spent  in  Indiana,  and  since 
1852  at  Clinton.  His  father,  Iliram  Bishop, 
was  born  at  Manchester,  Connecticut,  and 
early  in  life  he  was  left  an  orphan.  He  was 
then  adopted  by  Mr.  Uriah  Childs,  and  while 
in  his  teens  was  thrown  upon  his  own  re- 
sources. He  learned  the  carpenter's  trade 
wliicli  he  followed  until  M'ithin  a  few  years 
of  his  death.  He  was  married  November 
25,  1830,  in  Connecticut,  to  Miss  Sabrina 
Chapman,  and  several  children  were  born  to 
them,  among  whom  was  Edwin  C,  who  was 
killed  at  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek,  Virginia, 
while  bravely  carrying  the  colors  of  his  regi- 
ment,  the    Eigiiteenth  Indiana   Volunteers; 


Mrs.  Sarah  Vanuest,  who  died  at  home  in 
1868,  leaving  one  son  named  Edwin;  and 
Francis  Marion,  the  subject  of  this  sketch. 
Iliram  Bishop  came  with  his  family  to  Clin- 
ton, Vermillion  County,  in  1852,  to  construct 
the  wagon  bridge  across  the  Wabasli,  which 
still  stands  as  a  monument  to  the  mechanical 
skill  of  an  early  day.  He  purchased  prop- 
erty in  Clinton,  and  became  a  permanent 
citizen.  He  was  an  active,  enterprising  man, 
and  did  much  toward  building  up  the  town, 
erecting  a  number  of  residences  and  public 
buildings.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Odd 
Fellows  order.  He  was  a  consistent  Christian, 
and  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church.  He  was  a  man  of  strong  convictions, 
and  great  moral  courage,  and  was  among  the 
few  who  early,  fearlessly  and  openly  espoused 
the  cause  of  abolition,  and  waged  war  upon 
slavery.  He  died  at  his  home  in  Clinton, 
March  12,  1875.  His  widow,  Mrs.  Sabrina 
Bishop,  was  born  at  Asliford,  Connecticut, 
July  1,  1810,  inheriting  a  strong  New  Eng- 
land constitution  which  has  carried  her 
through  the  many  vicissitudes  of  life  for 
seventy-seven  years.  Slie  is  still  actively  en- 
gaged in  business  at  Clinton.  She  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  and 
is  highly  esteemed  by  all  who  know  her. 
Francis  M.  Bishop,  whose  name  heads  this 
sketch,  after  reaching  manhood,  learned  the 
marble  cutter's  trade  at  Terre  Haute,  and 
subsequently  established  marble  works  at 
Clinton, which  he  conducted  until  1868,  since 
which  time  he  has  been  engaged  in  painting 
and  decorating.  He  was  married  in  1858  to 
Miss  Melinda  Anderson,  of  Perrysville,  this 
county,  who  died  in  February,  1871,  leaving 
three  children — Lucius  O.,  now  editor  and 
proprietor  of  the  Sat^brday  Anjus&i  Clinton; 
Edwin  A.,  engaged  in  a  mercantile  establish- 
ment at  Frankfort,  Indiana,  and  Ella.  Mr. 
Bishop  was  again  united  in  marriage  in  Sep- 


ii 


BIOORAPHICAL    SKETCHES. 


teinber,  1875,  taking  for  liis  second  wife  Miss 
Jennie  Iliglifill,  of  Newport,  Vermillion 
County.  Two  children  liave  been  born  to 
bless  this  union,  their  names  being  Floj^,  and 
Ethel.  His  second  wife  died  at  her  home  in 
Clinton,  June  28,  1886. 


fOIIN  II.  LINN,  manager  of  the  "  Flour 
Exchange,"  Dana,  Indiana,  is  a  native  of 
Ohio,  born  in  Hocking  County,  October 
9,  1843,  a  son  of  Adam  Linn,  who  was  born 
in  Guernsey '^County,  Ohio,  his  father,  Josejjh 
Linn,  being  a  pioneer  of  that  county.  John 
11.  was  raised  in  his  native  State  on  a  farm, 
remaining  at  home  until  after  the  breaking 
out  of  the  Rebellion;  when,  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  he  enlisted  in  Company  I,  Seventy- 
tifth  Ohio  Infantry.  He  served  three  years 
and  nearly  three  months,  and  participated  in 
several  active  engagements.  During  the  time 
of  service  he  was  eighteen  months  in  thecit^- 
of  Baltimore,  Maryland,  on  special  detail,  and 
finally  discharged  at  Jacksonville,  Florida. 
After  his  return  from  the  war,  he  taught 
school  ill  Ohio  for  eight  years,  then  came  to 
Montezuma,  Indiana,  where  he  was  employed 
for  six  years  in  the  grain  business  by  Col.  E. 
M.  Benson.  While  in  Montezuma,  he  was 
assessor  of  Eeserve  Township  two  years,  and 
twice  elected  clerk  of  the  Town  Board.  He 
moved  to  Dana  in  1882,  where  he  has  since 
lived.  He  is  a  staunch  Democrat,  and  noted 
for  his  unshrinking  fidelity  to  the  principles 
of  sobriety,  integrity,  industry  and  economy. 
He  is  now  president  of  the  Town  Board  of 
Dana,  and  enjoys  the  honor  of  being  its  prin- 
cipal incorporator.  Mr.  Linn  was  married 
February  25,  1866,  to  Nancy  J.  Crawford. 
Four  children  have  been  born  to  them,  two 
of  whom  are  living — Carrie  A.  and  Ealph  W. 
Their  eldest  daughter,  Alice  M.,  died  aged 


sixteen  years,  and  Flora,  their  youngest 
daughter,  at  the  early  age  of  one  year  and 
one  month.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Linn  are  both 
members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 


ILO  .1.  KUDY,  of  I'errysville,  is  a 
son  of  Jacob  Rudy,  who  was  a  native 
^%^^^  of  Switzerland,  and  came  to  America 
when  a  boy  with  his  father,  Martin  Rudy. 
Jacob  was  the  eldest  of  four  children.  Ho  was 
reared  in  Lycoming  County,  Pennsylvania, 
where  he  learned  the  shoemaker's  trade,  and 
was  married  to  Catherine  Lilly.  In  the  fall  of 
1833  he  moved  to  Indiana,  and  the  following 
year  to  Vermillion  County,  and  settled  in 
Highland  Township,  about  a  mile  south  of 
Perrysvil-le,' where  for  several  years  he  worked 
at  his  trade,  and  the  latter  part  of  his 
life  was  engaged  in  farming.  About  1812 
he  moved  to  Wisconsin,  where  his  wife  died 
soon  after,  and  the  family  then  returned  to 
Vermillion  County,  and  here  the  fatlier  died 
in  the  fall  of  1880.  He  was  married  the 
second  time  after  his  return  to  this  county. 
To  his  first  marriage  were  born  four  children, 
three  sons  and  one  daughter.  Martin,  who 
besides  on  the  homestead,  and  Milo  J.  being 
the  only  surviving  members  of  the  family. 
Catherine  and  John  died  in  childhood.  Mr. 
Rudy  was  an  industrious  man,  and  although 
he  was  poor  when  he  came  to  this  county,  he 
worked  hard  at  his  trade  and  with  the  money 
earned  invested   it   in    real  estate,  which  ad- 


vanced in  value,  and  made  him  wealthy, 
enabling  him  to  leave  his  sons  considerable 
property.  He  possessed  in  a  large  degree 
that  spirit  of  economy  and  energy  cliaracter- 
istic  of  the  German  people,  and  was  a  worthy, 
respected  citizen.  Milo  J.  Rudy  was  born  in 
Vermillion  County,  Indiana,  in  1840.  He 
was  married  in  1869  to  Miss  Sophia  S.  Seas 


HISTORY    OF     VERMILLION    COUNTY. 


who  was  born  in  Y\oyd  County,  Indiana,  a 
daughter  of  Samuel  and  Harriet  Seas.  Sam- 
uel Seas  was  born  January  30, 1807,  in  Cum- 
berland, Alleghany  County,  Maryland,  and  in 
1832  moved  to  Illinois,  and  two  years  later 
to  Vermillion  County,  Indiana,  where  he 
married  Harriet  English,  December  21, 1834. 
Tliey  afterward  moved  to  Floyd  County,  and 
subsecjuently  returned  to  Perrysville,  and  in 
1868  went  to  Covington,  Indiana,  where  Mr. 
Seas  died  in  September,  1875.  Mrs.  Seas  died 
January  31,  1880.  She  was  born  December 
13,  1818.  They  had  a  family  of  six  children, 
Mrs.  Ivudy  being  the  only  one  who  lived  till 
maturity.  Mrs.  Seas  is  a  member  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  church.  Mr.  Seas  is  a 
worthy  member  of  the  Vermillion  Lodge, 
Knights  of  Pythias,  Ko.  113;  also  a  member 
of  the  Unity  Lodge,  F.  and  A.  M.,  No.  314. 


fllOMAS  W.  EELL,  tailor,  Eugene,  is  a 
native  of  Pennsylvania,  born  March 
31,  1825,  his  father,  Thomas  Bell, 
being  a  native  of  Ireland.  The  latter  came 
to  the  United  States  with  his  widowed  mother 
during  the  Eevolutionary  war,  his  brother, 
John  Bell,  having  served  seven  years  in  that 
memorable  struggle.  Thomas  W.,  our  sub- 
ject, learned  the  tailor's  trade  at  his  birth- 
])lace,  and  worked  at  it  in  various  places  in 
Pennsylvania.  He  went  to  Kew  Middletown, 
Ohio,  in  1849,  but  shortly  after  went  to  Dar- 
lington, thence  to  Beaver,  Pennsylvania. 
From  Beaver  he  removed  to  Vernon,  Indiana, 
remaining  there  si.x  months.  He  lived  in 
ditlerent  places  in  Indiana  until  September, 
1850,  since  which  time  he  has  been  a  resident 
of  Eugene.  He  was  married  in  April,  1853, 
to  Miss  Melinda  Bennett,  a  daughter  of  Cray- 
tun  Bennett,  and  tlieir  two  sons,  William  and 
David   \V.,  arc  numbered   among  the  entei-- 


prising  young  business  men  of  Eugene.  Mr. 
Bell  was  a  soldier  in  the  war  of  the  Kebell- 
ion,  serving  eight  months  in  Company  E, 
One  Hundred  and  Forty-ninth  Indiana  In- 
fantry. 


fOHN  H.  BOGART,  M.  D.,  of  Clinton, 
and  the  oldest  resident  physician  of  Ver- 
million County,  is  a  native  of  this  county, 
born  in  Helt  Township  June  27,  1845,  a  son 
of  Henry  and  Sarah  I.  (AYishard)  Bogart, 
both  of  whom  came  to  tlie  coimty  when 
young.  The  father  of  our  subject  died  when 
the  latter  was  six  months  old.  The  mother  is 
now  living  in  Clinton,  where  she  has  resided 
since  1850.  She  is  now  the  widow  of  Benja- 
min F.  Morey,  whom  she  married  about 
1852.  Dr.  Bogart,  our  subject,  is  the  only 
living  child  of  his  father.  He  commenced 
the  study  of  medicine  under  Dr.  I.  B.  Hedges 
in  1866  at  Clinton,  and  in  1867-'68  he  at- 
tended lectures  at  the  Michigan  State  Uni\er- 
sity  at  Ann  Arbor,  graduating  from  that 
institution  in  1869,  and  the  same  year  began 
the  practice  of  medicine  at  Clinton,  where  he 
has  gained  a  large  and  lucrative  practice. 
Dr.  Bogart  M-as  married  May  14,  1872,  to 
Miss  Melissa  A.  Nebeker,  who  was  also  born 
in  Helt  Township,  Vermillion  County,  in 
1852,  a  daughter  of  Aquilla  Kebeker.  Both 
of  her  parents  are  deceased.  They  are  the 
parents  of  two  children — Paul  and  Zona. 
The  doctor  owns  quite  large  interests  in  city 
property,  besides  two  well  improved  farms, 
one  beiiig  the  old  Kebeker  homestead  in  Helt 
Tovvnsliip.  Dr.  Bogart  enlisted  in  the  war 
of  the  Rebellion  in  November,  18G3,  in  Com- 
pany C,  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-third  In- 
diana Infantry,  his  regiment  being  assigned 
to  tlie  Twenty-third  Army  Corps  under  C4en- 
eral  Scholield.     He  subsequently  joined  Sher- 


BIOGRAPHICAL    SKETCHES. 


man's  army  and  was  in  the  campaign  against 
Atlanta.  During  the  last  year  he  was  a  hos- 
pital steward.  In  politics  he  is  a  ivepnbli- 
can,  and  from  1876  nntil  1880  he  held  the 
office  of  treasurer  of  Vermillion  County,  lie 
is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  be- 
longing to  Jerusalem  Lodge,  No.  99,  of 
Tcrre  Haute  Chapter,  No.  11,  and  Comman- 
dery  No.  16. 


fOIlN  O.  IIOGEIIS,  one  of  the  enterpris- 
inw  farmers  of  Kelt  Township,  was  born 
^,^i  in  Vermillion  Township,  January  8, 
1827,  and  has  always  lived  within  three  miles 
of  his  birthplace.  He  was  a  son  of  John 
Rogers,  who  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  in 
1789  accompanied  his  father,  James  Rogers, 
to  the  United  States  and  located  in  Kentucky, 
and  from  there  moved  to  Chillicothe,  Ohio, 
where  James  Rogers  built  one  of  the  first 
houses  in  the  place.  An  uncle  of  our  sub- 
ject, Samuel  Rogers,  was  captured  by  the  In- 
dians daring  the  Indian  war  in  Kentucky, 
but  escaped  and  took  with  him  an  Indian 
gun  and  shot-pouch  and  strap  of